PREVALENCE OF OVERWEIGHT AND OBESITY AMONG MALE AND FEMALE NON-TEACHING STAFF IN FEDERAL POLYTECHNIC EDE, OSUN STATE

ABSTRACT
Prevalence of Overweight and Obesity are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality which has become a vital public health concern worldwide. Among many studies conducted on overweight/obesity prevalence, there is paucity of data on this subject among workers in the Learning environment. This study thus centered on determining the prevalence among Male and Female Non-teaching Staff of Federal Polytechnic Ede, Osun State. A sum of 105 non-teaching staff of The Federal Polytechnic Ede premises participated in the survey. BMI was assessed using a known-weight standardized weighing scale and stadiometer. Data were analyzed using SPSS. Descriptive statistic. Prevalence of overweight and obSesity among respondents was 80% male; 20% female. 7.6% of the respondents don’t do walk for exercise at all in a week, 12.3% do walk for exercise 1 – 2 times a week, 20.9% do walk for exercise 3 – 4 times a week, 3.8% do walk for exercise 5 – 6 times a week while 55.2% of the respondent do walk for exercise more than 7 times a week. 69.5% of the respondent eat Rice daily, 7.6% eat rice once per week, 21% Eat rice more than once per week, 1% eat rice at time per week. 18.1% of the respondent eat chin-chin daily, 26.7% eat chin-chin once per week, 14.3% eat chin-chin more than once per week, 8.6% eat chin-chin at time per week, 8.6% rarely eat chin-chin per week while 23.8% eat chin-chin only during social. Recognition is increasing that overweight and obesity are not only problems of individuals, but also society wide problems of populations. Acting on this recognition will require multifaceted population-based changes in the socio environmental variables that influence energy intake and expenditure. There exist both a pressing need to act on the problem of obesity and a large gap between the type and amount of evidence needed to act and amount of available to meet that need. Live presentations of consequences and complications of overweight and obesity should be conducted monthly among the staff as a reinforcing factor for practicing healthy living. Sports/ recreational programme should be part of work schedule for staff working in the academic environment.

Keyword:       Prevalence, Overweight, Obesity, BMI

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page
Table of Content
List of tables
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE
1.0       Introduction
1.1       Problem Statement
1.2       Aim of the Study
1.3       Specific Objectives of the Study
1.4       Justification of the Study
1.5       Significance of the Study
1.6       Scope of the Study
1.7       Limitations of the Study
1.8       Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO
2.0       Literature Review
2.1       Overweight and Obesity
2.2       Factors in the Development of Overweight and Obesity
2.3       Types of Obesity
2.4       Risks of Being Overweight or Obese
2.5       Assessment of Overweight and Obesity
2.6       Dietary Treatment of Overweight and Obesity
2.7       Principles Dietetic Management
2.8       Dietary Guidelines for Overweight and Obese Individual

CHAPTER THREE
3.0       Methodology
3.1       Area of Study
3.2       Study Design
3.3       Study Population
3.4       Sample Size Determination
3.5       Sampling Procedure
3.6       Data Collection
3.7       Data Analysis
3.8       Anthropometric Measurement
3.9       BMI Determination
3.10     Materials
3.11     Measurements

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0     Results and Discussion
4.1       Socio Demographic Characteristic of the Respondents
4.2       Physical Activities Characteristics of the Respondents
4.3       Nutritional Knowledge Characteristics of the Respondents
4.4       Dietary Pattern Characteristics of the Respondents
4.5       General Discussion

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0       Conclusion
5.1       Recommendations
References

CHAPTER ONE
1.0       INTRODUCTION
Overweight and obesity is the leading preventable cause of death worldwide with increasing prevalence in adults and children and it is view as one of the most serious public health. It increases the likelihood of various disease particularly heart diseases, type II diabetics, obstructive sleep apnea, certain type of cancer and osteoarthritis, obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of excessive food energy intake, lack of physical activity and genetic susceptibility. (WHO, 2016)
Obesity at its simplest results from a chronic positive energy balance i.e. energy intake regularly exceeds energy output and weight is gained. (Paul, 2007).
The obesity education initiative of the National Institute of Health classifies obesity by Body Mass Index and Obesity is by BMIs of 30 or greater. A BMI of 30 is roughly equivalent to being 30 pounds overweight (Judith, 2005).
Obesity is also defined as a condition characterized by excess body fat typically defined in clinical settings as a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or above (Wardlaw, 2007).
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have an adverse effect on health. (WHO, 2000)
It is defined by body mass index (BMI) further evaluated in terms of fat distribution via the waist–hip ratio and total cardiovascular risk factors. (Sweeting, 2007)
Overweight and Obesity increases the risk of many physical and mental conditions. These comorbidities are most commonly shown in metabolic syndrome, a combination of medical disorders which includes: diabetes mellitus type II, high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol, and high triglyceride levels. (Grundy, 2004).
Complications are either directly caused by overweight or obesity or indirectly related through mechanisms sharing a common cause such as a poor diet or a sedentary lifestyle. The strength of the link between obesity and specific conditions varies. One of the strongest is the link with type II diabetes. Excess body fat underlies 64% of cases of diabetes in men and 77% of cases in women. (Seidell, 2005)
Overweight and Obesity is one of the leading preventable causes of death worldwide. A number of reviews have found that mortality risk is lowest at a BMI of 20–25 kg/m2 in nonsmokers and at 24–27 kg/m2 in current smokers, with risk increasing along with changes in either direction. This appears to apply in at least four continents. In contrast, a 2013 review found that grade 1 obesity (BMI 30–35) was not associated with higher mortality than normal weight, and that overweight (BMI 25–30) was associated with "lower" mortality than was normal weight (BMI 18.5–25). Other evidence suggests that the association of BMI and waist circumference with mortality is U- or J-shaped, while the association between waist-to-hip ratio and waist-to-height ratio with mortality is more positive. In Asians the risk of negative health effects begins to increase between 22–25 kg/m2. A BMI above 32 kg/m2 has been associated with a doubled mortality rate among women over a 16-year period. In the United States, obesity is estimated to cause 111,909 to 365,000 deaths per year while 1 million (7.7%) of deaths in Europe are attributed to excess weight. On average, obesity reduces life expectancy by six to seven years, a BMI of 30–35 kg/m2 reduces life expectancy by two to four years, while severe obesity (BMI > 40 kg/m2) reduces life expectancy by ten years. (Whitlock, et al., 2009).
Health consequences fall into two broad categories: those attributable to the effects of increased fat mass (such as osteoarthritis, obstructive sleep apnea, social stigmatization) and those due to the increased number of fat cells (diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease). Increases in body fat alter the body's response to insulin, potentially leading to insulin resistance. Increased fat also creates a proinflammatory state, and a prothrombotic state. (Dentali, et al., 2009)

1.1       PROBLEM STATEMENT
Overweight and obesity are the fifty-leading risk for global deaths. WHO global estimates from 2008 indicate that more than 1.4 billion adults, 2 years and older were overweight. Of theses overweight adult, over 200 million men and nearly 300 million women are obese. Overall, more than 10% of the world’s adult population was obese. (Tsigos, 2008)
In Africa, obesity rate in western Africa are estimated to 10%. Rate of obese among women are three times those found in men. In urban West Africa, rates of obesity have more than doubled in the last 15 years. In Nigeria, about 3 million people are obese. (Tsigos, 2008)
A common nutritional is the intake of more food than we need, leading first into overweight and if the imbalance continues into obesity and eventually in adulthood to type2diabetes hypertension, arthrosis and many other complications, loss of quality of life and premature disability and death. Overweight and obesity, lack of physical activity, low fruit and vegetable intake, high cholesterol and blood glucose is a combination of interlinked problems, which competes on the highest ranking position among public health threats with alcohol and tobacco in Northern Dimension Countries (WHO,2007)

1.2       AIM OF THE STUDY
The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of overweight and obesity among Male and Female non-teaching staff of The Federal Polytechnic Ede, Osun State.

13.       SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The specific objectives of this study are:
   1.      To determine the anthropometric parameters if the subjects.
   2.      To determine the effect of gender on obesity prevalence.
   3.      To determine the effect of urbanization on the prevalence.
   4.      To determine various factors that would predispose one to obesity.
   5.      To determine the prevalence of upper body obesity among the subject.
   6.      To determine the nutritional status of the subjects.
   7.      To determine the level of physical activities of the subjects.
   8.      To evaluate the usual dietary pattern of the subjects.

1.4       JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY
Overweight and obesity are major public health concern in recent years and is one of the leading causes of death in the world. The major factors and predisposing factors include; lack of physical activity, genetic susceptibility, dietary habit, life style choices. Therefore, this study aim should be given on overweight and obesity to determine how to effectively manage it in order to prevent the various health challenges arising from overweight and obesity.

1.5       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is important to study the health effect of overweight and obesity so as to know the preventive measures to be taken and significance importance of proper dietary measure in assessing the nutritional status of people and in controlling the rate of overweight and obesity which could lead to mortality and morbidity.

1.6       SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The principle of this study is to find out the nutritional status of Male and Female Non-Teaching Staff of The Federal Polytechnic Ede, Osun State. For the purpose of this study, the following strategies will be carried out:
    1.      Anthropometric measurement of the Non-Teaching Staff in The Federal Polytechnic Ede.
    2.      Dietary Survey

1.7       LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
The limitation that will be face during the course of carrying out the research work at The Federal Polytechnic Ede, Osun State were:
i.                    Most of the staff will be reluctant in filling the questionnaires.
ii.                  Inaccessibility to some of the staff to check their anthropometric measurements.
iii.                Time and financial constraints.

1.8       DEFINITION OF TERMS
Overweight:   It refers to body weight that is greater than what is considered normal or healthy for a certain height. Overweight is generally due to extra body fat. However, overweight may also be due to extra muscle, bone or water.  (Jensen, et al., 2013)
Obesity: It refers to excess accumulation of fat in the adipose tissue. Obesity at its simplest results from a chronic positive energy balance i.e energy intake regularly exceeds energy output and weight is gained. (Mathieu, et al., 2010)
Anthropometry:        It refers to the management of the human individual. The measurements include weight, height, waist and hip circumference. (Stanley, et al., 2010).
Nutrition:       According to USDA (United State Department of Agriculture), Nutrition is the science of food, the nutrients and other substances therein, their action, interaction and balance in relation to health and disease and the processes by which the organism ingests, absorbs, transports, utilizes and excretes food substances.

Nutritional Status:     It is the measure of relative weight based on an individual’s mass and height. It is defined as the individual’s body mass (weight in Kg) divided by the square of their height (m2) – with the value universally being given in units of Kg/m2. (Buzzard, et al., 2007).

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 53 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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