DETERMINATION OF PHYSICO-CHEMICAL AND MICRO NUTRIENT COMPOSITION OF SMOOTHIE FROM PINEAPPLE, WATERMELON AND COCONUT

ABSTRACT
Smoothies with improved sensory characteristics were developed by blending selected, martured and wholesome tropical fruits pulps [Pineapple (Ananas cosmosus), watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and coconut (Cocos nucifera)]. These essential fruits with numerous nutritional attributes were blended at various proportions: 1:1:1 (PWC 1), 1:1:2 (PWC 2), 1:2:1 (PWC 3), 2:1:1 (PWC 4). This study was carried out to determine the physico-chemical, micronutrients composition and sensory properties of Pineapple-Watermelon-Coconut (PWC) using standard method. Results of the physico-chemical analysis showed that the pH of the smoothies analyzed range from 4.78 to 5.36. The total soluble solid of the smoothie were 17.34%, 15.62%, 16.73% and 16.88% for Sample PWC 1, PWC 2, PWC 3 and PWC 4 respectively. The titratable acidity for Sample PWC 1, PWC 2, PWC 3 and PWC 4 were 15.45%, 16.32%, 16.42% and 15.43%, respectively and the total sugar content ranges from 5.20% to 13.70%. Micronutrients (Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium, Vitamin A and Vitamin C) analyzed shows that the calcium contents in the smoothies sample varied from 12.20mg/100g to 13.31mg/100g. The Phosphorus content of the smoothie sample were between 4.30mg/100g and 6.04mg/100g and the magnesium content varied from 1.25mg/100g to 1.36mg/100g. Vit. A content varied from 460.84IU to 506.76IU, also, Vit. C content ranged from 9.18IU to 9.93IU.
The Sensory properties using 9 points Hedonic Scale ranges in terms of taste (7.6 – 9.0), Appearance (7.0 – 8.3), Flavour (8.0 – 8.4), Colour (7.6 – 9.0), Mouthfeel (7.9 – 9.0) and General acceptability (9.0). All samples were liked and accepted by the panelist.

Keyword:       Smoothies, Micronutrients, Physico-chemical, Watermelon, Pineapple, Coconut.

TABLE OF CONTENT
Title page
Table of Content
List of tables
List of figures
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
1.0       Introduction
1.1       Statement of the Problem
1.2       Aim of the Study
1.3       Objectives of the Study
1.4       Justification of the Study
1.5       Significance of the Study

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.0       Introduction
2.1       Smoothies
2.1.1    Benefits of Smoothies
2.2       Fruit Juice
2.3       Pineapple
2.3.1    Nutritional Composition of Pineapple
2.3.2    Health Benefits of Pineapple
2.4       Watermelon
2.4.1    Benefits of Watermelon
2.4.2    Nutrition Composition of Watermelon
2.5       Coconuts
2.5.1    Health Benefits of coconut
2.5.2    Nutritional Composition of Coconut
2.6       Carbonated Drinks

CHAPTER THREE:            MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.0       Materials
3.1       Equipment
3.2       Methods
3.2.1    Preparation of Pineapple Fruit Smoothies
3.2.2    Preparation of Watermelon Smoothies
3.2.3    Preparation of Coconut Smoothies
3.3       Production of Smoothies from Pineapple. Watermelon and Coconut Sample Ratio Formulations
3.4       Physiochemical Analysis
3.4.1    pH
3.4.2    Total Sugar Content (OBRIX)
3.4.3    Titratable Acidity (TTA)
3.4.4    Total Soluble Solid
3.5       Micro Nutrients Composition
3.5.1    Determination of Vitamins:
3.5.1.1 Determination of Vitamin A (Retinol)
3.5.1.2 Determination of Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C)
3.5.2    Determination of Minerals (AOAC, 975.11)
3.5.2.1 Phosphorus Determination (Spectrophotometric method) (AOAC, 975.16)
3.5.2.2 Calcium Determination
3.5.2.3 Determination of Magnesium (Mg) USING BUCK 210VGP AAS (AOAC, 975.23)
3.6       Sensory Evaluation
3.7       Statistical Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR:  RESULT AND DISCUSSION
4.1       Physico-Chemical Analysis of Smoothie
4.2       Micronutrients Composition of Smoothie
4.2.1    Vitamins Determination
4.2.2    Mineral Determination
4.3       Mean Scores for Sensory Evaluation

CHAPTER FIVE:    CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1       Conclusion
5.2       Recommendation
References

Appendix

CHAPTER ONE
BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
1.0       Introduction
Fruits are parts of flowering plant derived from the fertilization of specific tissues such as one or more ovaries (Mauseth et al., 2003). Fruits are highly perishable, non-staple foods which make up about 39% of the food intake (fresh state or processed form) of people living in developing countries of Africa (Bates et al, 2001). Based on fruits antioxidant capacities, they are used as indicators for healthy nourishment as well as protection factors of the human body against oxidative destruction (Costescu et al, 2006). Fruits have been shown to contain high amount of minerals, moisture, low ash and crude fibre (Wall, 2006) and are sources of sugar, vitamin A, C and B groups, low protein and lipid (Ogbonna et al,2013). Fruit juices are liquid, non-alcoholic products with certain degree of clarity and viscosity obtained through pressing or breaking up of fruits with or without sugar or carbon dioxide addition (Costescu et al, 2006). Fruits and its juices constitute one of the most important foods for man. Their regular consumption maintains health and makes up for the losses in the human diet. (Costescu et al, (2006) recommended the consumption of juices with pulp from foods and medicinal points of view. Fruits being a seasonal crop by nature have prompted many scientists to embark on researches on how to process fruit juices and preserve them for usage during off-season. Nutritional, chemical composition and the effect of storage on various fruits (pineapple, Watermelon, coconut) and their juices have been reported by (Nararudeen 2010., Auta et al.,2011, Muhammad et al., 2013) reported on the shelf life of orange juice. Storage conditions on vitamin C and pH value of cashew apple juice was studied by (Emenike and Ebere, 2015).
Processing activities are of critical importance to expansion and diversification within the fruit and vegetable area and also in household as they increase market opportunities for fresh fruits and vegetable allows household varieties and add value while reducing post-harvest losses. Again, processing improves the feasibility, productivity and effectiveness of fruit and vegetable production by increasing farm incomes, and creating rural employment and earning nationally (FAO, 2009).
Little processing equipment, packaging and natural preservation methods are all that is needed in the preservation of fruits and vegetables for households and rural dwellers to reduce post harvest loss and also meet the demand of “fresh-like” fruits drink of high quality which are nutritious, flavorful and stable for families and communities. These processing will focus on value addition with comparatively little product transformation while increasing product diversity (Ogbonna et al, 2013).
Economic growth and changes in dietary patterns have made both the production and consumption of fruit and vegetables increasingly important. The fruit and vegetable area has an important role in household nutrition, income enhancement, poverty alleviation, food security, and sustainable agriculture, especially in a developing country like Nigeria (Auta et al, 2011). Some studies estimate that about 30–40% of fruit and vegetables are lost, abandoned or underutilized after leaving the farm (Vasavada, 2003). A large number of these fruits and vegetables are however known for their therapeutic/medicinal and nutritive value. Household / consumers are becoming increasingly aware of the health and nutritional value of the food they consume, and there is an increasing tendency to reduce the consumption of chemically treated foods/ fruits / vegetables. An indigenous fruit like water melon, carrot, cucumber and pineapple plays a very vital role in fulfilling the nutritional / nutrient needs of individuals (Nazarudeen, 2010).
In our nation Nigeria, many organizations from both the governmental sectors and non-governmental sectors are actively promoting the processing of fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables are among the most important food of mankind as they are not only nutritive, but also indispensable for the maintenance of health (Wong et. al., 2003). They are valued for their appearance, characteristic flavor and taste. They play important roles in the diets of most people in the tropics, providing essential minerals and vitamins and adding color, flavor and variety of monotonous diet (Ragaert et. al., 2004).

Pineapple (Ananas cosmosus): are a tropical plant with edible multiple fruits from the Bromeliaceae family. Pineapple fruit can be consumed fresh, cooked, juiced and preserved (Bartolome et. al., 1994). The fresh pineapple juice is a popular product derived from the pineapple fruit due to its pleasant taste, aroma, flavor and numerous functional properties. It is produced from breaking the fleshy pulp of the pineapple fruit and extracting the juice for consumption. Pineapple juice contains a variety of minerals especially manganese as well as amino acids, various sugars, vitamins, and polyphenols(Hossain et. al., 2015) and considered as a functional fruit beverage due to health promoting properties.

Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus): is a fruit which belongs to the family of cucumbilaceae. The fruit normally contains 60% flesh and about 90% of the flesh is juicy which 7-10% (w/v) sugar (Asha et.al., 2014). Watermelon juice as a beverage is produced through pressing or breaking up of the fruit and extracting the juices. The juice contained can be consumed with or without sugar or carbon dioxide addition. Watermelon juices are rich sources of lycopene and phenolic antioxidants and are widely consumed around the world for its immune supportive Vitamin C. It constitutes one of the most important fruit beverages for man and maintains good health by making up for losses in the human diet.
According to the US FDA (2001), watermelon juice is typically pasteurized in order to eliminate some bacteria pathogen which can cause a hazardous effect in the health of the consumers.

The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera): is a member of the palm tree family (Arecaceae) and the only known living species of the genus Cocos. The term "coconut" (or the archaic "cocoanut") can refer to the whole coconut palm, the seed, or the fruit, which botanically is a drupe, not a nut. The term is derived from the 16th-century Portuguese and Spanish word coco, meaning "head" or "skull" after the three indentations on the coconut shell that resemble facial features.
Coconuts are known for their versatility of uses, ranging from food to cosmetics. The inner flesh of the mature seed, as well as the coconut milk extracted from it, forms a regular part of the diets of many people in the tropics and subtropics. Coconuts are distinct from other fruits because their endosperm contains a large quantity of clear liquid, called "coconut water" or "coconut juice".
Mature, ripe coconuts can be used as edible seeds, or processed for oil and plant milk from the flesh, charcoal from the hard shell, and coir from the fibrous husk. Dried coconut flesh is called copra, and the oil and milk derived from it are commonly used in cooking – frying in particular – as well as in soaps and cosmetics. The hard shells, fibrous husks and long pinnate leaves can be used as material to make a variety of products for furnishing and decorating. The coconut also has cultural and religious significance in certain societies, particularly in India, where it is used in Hindu rituals..

1.1       Statement of the Problem
Due to an increase in the demand for fruit juice and vegetable beverage with the original characteristics of the fresh fruit beverage free from chemical additives in the potential food market, researchers and industrialists has embarked on the development of new technology that are able to improve the processing of these fruit-based beverages in various ways including the effect of thermal processing on the products in order to improve the sensory, microbiological and shelf stability of these beverages (Costescu et. al., 2006).
Majorly, people prefer drinking of carbonated drinks than natural fruits juices due to the conveniency it offers, cost, packaging and processing method of the drink, despite the fact that it is detrimental to health. That is, it is disaster to health which include diabetes, heart diseases, Cancer, liver damage, premature aging, early puberty etc.
Hence , this study focus on producing a better, heathier, and nutritious smoothies made from the seasonal fruits ( pineapple, watermelon, and coconut)   

1.2       Aim of the Study
The aim of this study is to determine the physico-chemical and micro nutrients composition of smoothie from pineapple, watermelon and coconut

1.3       Objectives of the Study
1.   To produce smoothie from Pineapple, Watermelon and Coconut.
2.   To determine the physicochemical properties of smoothie produced from Pineapple, Watermelon and Coconut. 
2.   To determine the micro nutrients composition of the smoothie produced from Pineapple, Watermelon and Coconut. 
3.   To conduct the sensory properties and general acceptability of the smoothie produced from Pineapple, Watermelon and Coconut. 

1.4       Justification of the Study
According to Costescu et.al. (2006), the need to increase the utilization of fruits and vegetables in beverage production have been on increases demand due to their role in solving nutritional problems through exploitation of nutritional and economic potential of fruits and vegetables.
Akinosun (2010) has successfully produced juice from blends of watermelon and pineapple fruits at the ratio of 90 to 10% respectively. However, there has not been optimized work on mixing another fruit juice sample in the juice blends. Thus, this present work is designed to address the missing gaps of the previous researchers.
Hence, this study focuses on creating awareness to people to increase their intake of natural fruits instead of carbonated drinks.

1.5       Significance of the Study

Consumer’s demands for healthy and nutritious food product with a fresh-like appearance have undergone a continuous rise during the years. The importance of fruit and vegetables in human nutrition is clearly evident. FAO, (2005) reveal that fruits and vegetables juice play a significant role in human nutrition, especially as sources of Vitamins, minerals and dietary fiber. Presently, a variety of fruit juice blends has been produced to form a product with improved nutritional and sensory quality. A continuous consumption of these fruit-based products is highly associated with the reduced risk of chronic and degenerative diseases. In this sense, scientists and technologists have been focused on the development of mixture methodology for quality evaluation of mixed fruit juices ready to serve beverages (Deka et. al., 2001). The consumption of mixed fruit based beverages has significantly increased in the last years, becoming one of the food industry sectors with the highest growth worldwide.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 44 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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