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SURVEY OF PLANTS USED IN BEAUTY CARE AMONG THE FULANIS IN WAMAKKO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF SOKOTO STATE

ABSTRACT
An ethnobotanical study of plants used in beauty care among the Fulani tribes uin Wamakko Local Government Area of Sokoto State was conducted. The information was obtained through interview by the use of questionnaires distributed to the respondents identified by random sampling such as shepherd, farmers and civil servant, all of them from Fulani tribes. These plants were various plant parts of single and multiple plants, majority of the preparation was made using water as a medium, the mode of application are topical but in some cases administered orally. Out of the 100 questionnaires in each district administered, 90 respondents were recorded. The study revealed 27 plant species belonging to 22 families were encountered. The plant Neem tree (Azardirachta indica and Ziziphus jujube) has the highest percentage of occurrence in three (3) villages. Leaves and seeds were found to be the most used part of the plants.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page
Abstract
Table of content

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1       Introduction
1.2       Statement of problem
1.3       Justification
1.4       Objective of the study

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Literature review
2.2 Neem oil
2.3 Mango tree
2.4 Paw-paw tree
2.5 African peach
2.6 Aloe vera
2.7 Bath salt
2.8 Henna
2.9 Banana (Musa spp.)
2.10 Baobab (Adansonia digitata)
2.11 Teeth care
2.12 Bath oil
2.13 Dry skin treatment

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIAL AND METHODS
3.1 Study area
3.2 Methodology

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT
4.1 Result

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION, CONCLUSION, RECOMMENDATION, REFERENCE AND APPENDIX
5.1 Discussion
5.2 Conclusion
5.3 Recommendation
REFERENCE
Appendix


CHAPTER ONE


1.0    INTRODUCTION


The use of plant for beauty care solutions dates back to antiquity and various testimonials inform us on the use of plants in beauty care treatment during the ancient period. Women of the ancient world used the grounded leaves and seeds of plants on their hair, face and over-all body, drank herbal tonics and oil obtained from herbs for different body massages. These treatments were used during that time in countries like Rome, China and Latin America. Indian Ayurveda too has been promoting the use of herbs for skin and beauty care for over 5000 years (Annonymous, 2006).

Plants can be used for beauty in original or compound form. They act against the internal impurities and external toxins of our body, and add additional nutrients to it to make it glow and shine. Plant provides natural flawless treatment to our skin, nourish it leading to its internal development.

In addition, plants play an important role in the life of all mankind including the animals. It is from the plant we derive the food we eat, oxygen for respiration, shelter, cloth and medicine which are the basic requirements for one to survive. The use of plants for traditional medicine has a wide range of accessibility. Different tradition and culture....

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PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF CLEOME VISCOSA

ABSTRACT
Cleome viscosa Linn (Capparaceae) commonly known as “wild or dog mustard” is an annual sticky herb found as a common weed all over the plains of India and through the trophics of the world. The whole plant and its parts (Leaves, pods and roots) are widely used in traditional and folkloric systems of medicine. Cleome viscosa were extracted with and all these extract were screened for the presence of various metabolites (primary and secondary) including proteins, carbohydrates, etc was found in the roots and the alkaloids, glycosides, amino acids, volatile oils, steroids and terpenoids are present in all three parts of C. viscosa, the result showed that.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page
Table of contents
List of tables
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE
1.0       Introduction
1.1       Importance of Phytochemicals
1.2       Statement of the problem
1.3       Justification
1.4       Aim of the study
1.5       Objectives of the study

CHAPTER TWO
2.0       Species and origins
2.1       Breeding
2.2       High in Vitamins and Micronutrients and Values
2.3       High oil Content in seed
2.4       Spider plant as medicine
2.5       Uses in traditional medicine and other reported activities
2.6       Spider plant in crop production

CHAPTER THREE
3.0       Method and materials
3.1       Study area
3.2       Collection of samples
3.3       Preparation of extracts
3.4       Phytochemicals screenings
3.4.1 Test for Alkaloids
3.4.2 Test for Saponins
3.4.3 Test for Flavonoids
3.4.4 Test for Tannins
3.4.5 Test for Amino acids
3.4.6 Test for Phenols
3.4.7 Test for Glycosides
3.4.8 Test for Terpenoids
3.4.9 Test for Volatile oils
3.4.10 Test for Balsams
3.4.11 Test for Anthraquinone
3.4.12 Test for Steroids
3.4.13 Test for Saponin Glycosides
3.4.14 Test for Cardiac Glycosides

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0       Result

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0       Discussion
5.1       Conclusion
5.2       Recommendation
References


CHAPTER ONE


1.0 INTRODUCTION


Definition



The Cleome viscosa Linn is commonly known as Asian spider flower or yellow spider flower. It belongs to Capperaceae family.C.viscosa is a weed distributed throughout the tropics of the world and the plains of india. It is known as Asian spider flower in English, Namijin `yaranguwa in Hausa, Hurhur in India, Hurhuria in Bengali, Nayikkadugan in Tamil (Asolkaret, al. 1992).Traditionally, this plant is used in various disorders such as diarrhoea, fever, inflammation, liver diseases, bronchitis, skin diseases, and malarial fever (Henty and Pritchard, 1975). The juice is useful in piles, lumbago and earache. The analgesic, antipyretic and anti-diarrhoeal activities of the extract have been reported by researchers, it was noted that the fresh leaves of C.viscosa are widely used as medicine for Jaundice.....

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EFFECTS OF DRYING METHODS ON NUTRIENT CONTENTS OF Moringa oleifera (Lam.) LEAVES

ABSTRACT
The study was carried out to determine the effect of drying methods on the nutrient contents of Moringa oleifera at the Agric. Chemical Laboratory (Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto) and The Energy Research Field of Sokoto Energy Center, Sokoto. Fresh leaves were collected and cleaned then dried using different drying methods viz. shade drying, solar drying, oven drying and sun drying. The treatments were analyzed for proximate and mineral contents using standard methods. Statistical analysis indicates that moisture was lowest in solar drying (2.67%). Shade drying produces the lowest lipid content (2.33%). High protein content was recorded under shade drying (28.50%). Overall, shade drying was noted to preserve the nutrient contents of Moringa oleifera better. In view of economic importance of Moringa, there is need to educate the local populace on the best method of preserving this vegetable.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE
TABLE OF CONTENT
LIST OF TABLES
ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE
1.0       INTRODUCTION
1.1       Statement of the Research Problem
1.2       Justification
1.3       Aim and Objectives

CHAPTER TWO
2.0       LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Botany of Moringa oleifera
2.2       Uses of Moringa
2.2.1    Nutritional Uses
2.2.2    Traditional Uses
2.2.3    Plant Growth Enhancer
2.2.4    Animal Feed Fortification
2.2.5. Water Purification
2.3 Nutritional values of dried leaves powder

CHAPTER THREE
3.0       MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1       Study Area
3.2       Sample Collection and Preparation
3.3       Drying Methods
3.3.1    Sun Drying
3.3.2    Shade Drying
3.3.3    Solar Drying
3.3.4    Oven Drying
3.4       Chemical Analysis
3.4.1    Proximate Analyses
3.4.2    Determination of Crude Moisture
3.4.3    Determination of Crude Nitrogen
3.4.4    Determination of Crude Protein
3.4.5    Determination of Carbohydrate or NFE
3.4.6    Determination of crude Ash
3.4.7    Determination of Crude Fiber
3.4.8    Determination of crude Lipid
3.5       Mineral Analysis
3.5.1    Calcium and Magnesium Determination
3.5.2    Phosphorus Determination
3.5.3. Sodium and Potassium Estimation

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0 RESULTS
4.1       Proximate Analysis
4.2       Mineral Analysis

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0       DISCUSSION
CONCLUSION
RECOMMENDATION
REFERENCES
APPENDICES

CHAPTER ONE
1.0                                                                  INTRODUCTION
Moringa oliefera Lam. commonly referred to simply as “Moringa” belongs to the kingdom Plantae, Order Brassicales, Family Moringacacae, Genus Moringa and Species Moringa oliefera.

Moringa oliefera is native to the Indian subcontinent and has become naturalized in the tropical and subtropical areas of the world. It is the most widely cultivated species of the Genus Moringa, which is the only genus in the Family Moringacacae. It is an exceptionally nutritious vegetable tree with a variety of potential uses. Moringa oliefera trees are well naturalized in the northern parts of Nigeria where the leaves are popularly known as ‘zogala’ and widely consumed by populace (Pallavi and Dipika, 2010).


The plant is described as a fast-growing plant and drought resistant crop variety. It can survive in less fertile soil (Fahey, 2005, Anwar et al., 2007). The tree itself is rather slender, with drooping.....

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EFFECT OF TWO KINDS OF SOLVENT ON CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF Cymbopogon citratus OIL

ABSTRACT
The experiment was designed to determine the effect of two different solvent (N-hexane and petroleum ether) on chemical composition of lemongrass oil. The oil was extracted from lemongrass using N-hexane and petroleum ether using soxhlet extraction method. The chemical composition of essential oil obtained were analyse using GC-MS machine. The result shows 4.4% of oil were obtained from lemongrass using N-hexane and 4.9% were obtained using petroleum ether. The composition analysed by GC-MS Machine were 16.52% of Trimethyl [4-(2-methyl-4-oxo-2pentyl)] phenoxysilane, 4.15% acetamide, 6.54% hexamethyl, 6.58% silane and 2, 4, 6-cycloheptatrien-1-one with peak area of 8.67% in both solvent. But the chemical constituent present in lemongrass is higher using petroleum ether compared to that of N-hexane.This indicated that petroleum ether is much better in oil extraction and analyizing chemical constituents of lemongrass.


TABLE OF CONTENT

Title page
Table of Contents
List of Tables
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE
1.0       INTRODUCTION
1.1       Justification
1.2       Aims and Objectives
1.3       Objectives

CHAPTER TWO
2.0       LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER THREE
3.0       MATERIALS AND METHODS
3.1       Study Area
3.2       Materials Collection
3.3       Drying and Pulverized of Grass
3.4       Extraction of Oil from Lemongrass Powder
3.5       Quantitative Analysis using Gas Chromatography and Spectroscopy Mass

CHAPTER FOUR
4.1       RESULTS

CHAPTER FIVE
5.1       DISCUSSION
            Conclusion
            Recommendation
            References


CHAPTER ONE


1.0                                                              INTRODUCTION


Lemongrass (Cymbogoncitratus) is a plant from the grass family which contained about 1-2% essential oil in a dry weight base. The essential oil is characterized by a high content of citral constituted with the isomers neral and geranial, which is used as a raw material for the production of iodine, vitamin A and b-carotene (Dhobi et al., 2010).


The essential oil of lemongrass is important in perfumery industry since it blends well with a great variety of essential oil (Carlson et al., 2001). The tea made from lemongrass leaves is used as antispasmodic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory antiphretic, diuretic and sedative (Carlini et al., 1986).

Lemongrass is a perential sedge throwing up dense fascilles of leaves from a short rhizome (Baser et al., 2010). The culm is south, erect up to 8 meter high. Leaves are long glaucous, green, having a strong flavor used as a herb for seasoning and insect repellent (Musa et al., 2013). It’s a plant, looking much like a very tall patch of grass that doesn’t often produce flower (Burt, 2004). At the base of each group of leaves there is a fat stalk, similar to a spring onion bulb. The overall plant is made up of big cluster of these individual stalk used for most cooking purposes, but the rest of the leaves can be used as well (Christina et al., 2010). Not only is the tea very zesty in flavor it can also help settle upset stomachs and ease cough. The oils in lemongrass have a number of homeopathies health uses. Though most home growers do not extract the essential oil, from their plant but mostly used as a flavoring (Wani et al., 2008)....

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ANTINUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION OF Securidaca longepedunculata (VIOLET TREE)

ABSTRACT
The antinutritional composition of leafs and stem bark s. longepedunculata were investigated using standard analytical methods. The leafs and stem bark of S. longepedunculata was air dried and the sample was pulverized for the determination of anti-nutritive contents. The antinutritional continents viz phytate, oxalate, nitrate and cyanide were determined in this investigation. Nitrate content was significantly (p<0 .001="" abundant="" and="" bark="" be="" both="" by="" cyanide="" followed="" found="" in="" leafs="" non-significant="" oxalate="" p="" phytate="" stem="" the="" to="" were="">0.05) in both the leafs and stem bark. In conclusion, the result of the present study shows that both the leafs and stem bark can be consumed without any restriction. However, consumption in large amount with higher level of these anti-nutrients should be avoided.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title page
Abstract
Table of contents

CHAPTER ONE
1.1       Introduction
1.2       Justification
1.3       Aims and Objectives

CHAPTER TWO
2.1       Literature review
2.1.1    Distribution
2.1.2    Description
2.2       Ethnopharmacological Uses
2.3       Constituents
2.4       Antinutritional Factors
2.4.1    Phytate
2.4.2    Oxalate
2.4.3    Cyanide
2.4.4    Nitrate

CHAPTER THREE
3.1       Methodology & Procedure
3.2       Collection of Sample
3.2.1 Preparation of Sample
3.3 Antinutritional Factors Determination
3.3.1 Determination of Phytate
3.3.2 Determination of Oxalate
3.3.3 Determination of Cyanide
3.3.4 Determination of Nitrate

CHAPTER FOUR
4.1 Result

CHAPTER FIVE
5.1 Discussion
5.2 Conclusion
Reference
Appendix


CHAPTER ONE




1.1 INTRODUCTION:

Plants commonly synthesized a range of secondary metabolites as part of their protection against attack by herbivores, insects and pathogen or as a means to survive in adverse growing conditions. If farm or domestic animals or humans consume these plants, these compounds may cause adverse physiological effects. The terms anti nutritional or natural toxicant have been widely employed or describe plant defense metabolites in the food and nutrition literature. The observed biological effects very greatly, depending upon the structures of the individual compound, which can range from high molecular weight proteins to simple amino acids and oligosaccharides (Khokhar and Apenten, 2006).

Antinutritional factors are those substances found in most food substance which are poisonous to humans or in some ways limit the nutrient availability to the body. Plant evolved these substances to protect them and prevent them from being eaten. However, if the diet is not varied, some of this toxin builds up in the body to harmful levels (Norman and Petter 1987).
Anti-nutritional factors are present in different food substances in varying amounts, defending on kind of food, mode of its propagation, chemicals used in growing crop as well as these chemicals used in storage and preservation of the food substances. These anti-nutritional factors must be inactivated or removed if values of food substances are to be fully maintained (Inuwa et.al, 20011).

The plant Securidaca longepeduculata is native to Africa and commonly known as Rhodesia violet, violet tree and also as ezeogwu, ipeta and uwar magunguna (mother of drugs) in Igbo, Yoruba and Hausa language in Nigeria (Agbaje and Adekoya, 2012). The plant is a semi-deciduous shrub that grows up to 12m``` tall. It is sping and much branched with an open rather straggle looking crown (owoyele et al, 2006).

The genetic name comes from a Latin word secures meaning hatched. Repairing to the shape of the met with its curved membranous wing; and long pedunculata which refers to the long peduncle. The plant is very attractive to birds, butterflies and insects especially when in flowers. The leaves are available crowded on dwarf spur branch lets which are sometimes spine tipped. They have very fine hairs when young but they lae them as they mature. Flowers are sweetly, scented, in short bunches pink to purple and are produced in early summer. They are a lot 10mm long and are each borne on a long slender stalks (Peduncle) terminals and auxiliary sprays are a lot 30-50mm long appearing with long leaves.....

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ABUNDANCE OF MOSQUITO SPECIES WITHIN SOKOTO METROPOLIS

ABSTRACT
The study was conducted to determine the abundance of mosquito species within Sokoto metropolis. Three (3) locations, which are Danbuwa, Gobirawa and GidanIgwai, in three (3) Local Government Areas, namely; DangeShuni, Sokoto South and Sokoto North Local Government Areas respectively, were sampled out of the five (5) Local Government Areas that make up Sokoto Metropolis were sampled. A total of 341 Mosquitoes species belonging to two genera were collected. The genera identified are Anopheles and Culex. The number of Culex and Anopheles were 213(62.5%) and 128(37.5%) respectively, showing a significant difference between the two genera. The total number of males was 194, representing 56.9% of the sample and a total number of females was 147, representing 43.1% of the total sample, showing a significant difference between the gender (P >0.05)

The total number of the engorged Mosquitoes collected were 57, representing 39% of the total sample, while the total number of the not engorged mosquitoes collected were 90, representing 61% of the total sample collected. There was no significant difference between the engorged and the not engorged mosquitoes P<0 .05.="" also="" area="" danbuwa="" females.="" females="" gidanigwai="" gobirawa="" however="" in="" insignificant="" males="" more="" number="" of="" p="" recorded.="" recorded="" span="" than="" the="" these="" values="" was="" were="">

Finally, only Danbuwa had more number of engorged females than the not engorged, the other two areas had lesser number of engorged than the not engorged. The values were, however, also insignificant (p<0 .05="" span="">


The results of the study is of Public Health concern as the species of mosquitoes encountered have been known for the transmission of one form of disease or the other.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
Table of content
List of tables
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE
1.0       Introduction
1.1       Statement of the research problem
1.2       Significance of the research
1.3       Aim and objectives of the research

CHAPTER TWO
2.0       Review of literature
2.1       Classification of mosquitoes
2.2       Morphology of mosquitoes
2.3       General life cycle of mosquito
2.4       Feeding habits of mosquitoes
2.5       Economic importance of mosquitoes
2.6       Control of mosquitoes

CHAPTER THREE
3.0       Materials and method
3.1       Study area
3.2       Mosquito collection
3.3       Identification
3.4       Statistical analysis

CHAPTER FOUR
4.0       Results
4.1       General results
4.2       Results of mosquitoes collected by location

CHAPTER FIVE
5.0       Discussion
5.1       Conclusion
5.2       Recommendation
REFERENCES


CHAPTER ONE

1.0       INTRODUCTION

Mosquitoes are slender and relatively small insects, usually measuringabout 3– 6 mm in length. Some species, however, can be as small as 2 mmwhile others may be as long as 19 mm (Service, 2008). The long antennae have numerous whorls of hair, short in the female and long and bushy in the male. In most species of mosquitoes, the mouthparts of the female are long, adapted for piercing and for sucking blood. The male, which feeds on nectar and water, has rudimentary mouthparts. Females of this group prefer the blood of warm-blooded animals. When they bite, they inject some of their salivary fluid into the wound, causing swelling and irritation. Many inject infectious microorganisms and thus transmit such diseases as malaria, yellow fever, dengue, and filariasis (Patel et al, 2012).


There are some 3300 species of mosquitoes belonging to 41 genera, all contained in the family Culicidae (Service, 2008). This family is divided into three subfamilies: ToxorhynchitinaeAnophelinae (anophelines) and Culicinae (culicines). Mosquitoes have a worldwide distribution; they occur throughout the tropical and temperate regions and extend their range northwards into the Arctic Circle. The only areas from which they are absent are Antarctica, and a few islands. They are found at elevations of 5500mand down mines at depths of 1250m below sea level (Service, 2008)....

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STUDY ON THE DESTABILIZATION OF LYSOZYME AND THE CHAPERONE-LIKE ACTIVITY OF ALPHA CRYSTALLIN FROM SOKOTO RED GOAT EYE LENS

ABSTRACT
Destabilization of Lysozyme and chaperone like action of alpha crystallin isolated from goat’s eye lens was investigated at various temperature ranges in phosphate buffer (pH 7.1) solution and dithiothretol (DTT). This was monitored spectrophotometrically at 260nm. The heat and DTT-induced destabilization of lysozyme was prevented by alpha crystallin in a concentration dependent manner. Alpha crystallin like other chaperones, fulfils its chaperone like action in preventing aggregation of denatured proteins by the formation of complexes.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES
LIST OF FIGURES
ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW
1.0       INTRODUCTION
1.1.1 PROTEIN FOLDING
1.1.2    PROTEIN DENATURATION
1.1.3 CRYSTALLINS
1.1.4 JUSTIFICATION
1.1.5 AIM AND OBJECTIVES
1.2       LITERATURE REVIEW
1.2.1 α-CRYSTALLINS: PROPERTIES, OCCURANCE AND FUNCTIONS
1.2.2    FUNCTIONS OF ALPHA CRYSTALLIN AND ITS RELATION SHSPS
1.2.3 GENE STRUCTURE, EXPRESSION AND REGULATION
1.2.4 QUATERNARY STRUCTURE MODELS OF CRYSTALLIN
1.2.5    IN VITRO MODIFICATIONS OF ALPHA CRYSTALLIN
1.2.6    FUNCTION OF CRYSTALLIN
1.2.7    LYSOZYME
1.2.8    DITHIOTHRETOL
1.2.9    LENS

CHAPTER TWO
2.0 MATERIALS AND METHODS
2.1 MATERIALS
2.1.1 REAGENTS AND EQUIPMENT
2.1.2 APPARATUS USED FOR CHROMATOGRAPHY
2.2 METHODS
2.2.1 PREPARATION OF ALPHA CRYSTALLIN
2.2.2 DETERMINATION OF ALPHA CRYSTALLIN
2.2.3 ESTIMATION OF PROTEIN BY FOLIN-CIOCALTEU [LOWRY]  METHOD
2.2.4 PURIFICATION OF CRYSTALLIN USING GEL CHROMATOGRAPHY
2.2.5 TEMPERATURE DESTABILIZATION OF OXIDIZED LYSOZYME AND CHAPERONE EFFECT OF ALPHA CRYSTALLIN

CHAPTER THREE
3.0 RESULTS, DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
3.1 RESULTS
3.2 DISCUSSION
3.3 CONCLUSION
REFERENCES
APPENDICES


CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW

1.1 INTRODUCTION


Proteins are the workhorses of the living cell. Although proteins may differ in sequence, shape and function, but have in common, the same stereo configuration (i.e. they all have to fold into specific three-dimensional structures) which are mandatory for proper function (Bruce et al., 2002). Protein structures however are not rigid, but have a dynamic life style, which may involve unfolding and refolding, complex association and dissociation (Anfisen, 1972). Stress and also many physiological events require proteins to surrender their structure or to regain it at a later stage. A very large number of distinct conformations exist for the polypeptide chain of which a protein spends most of its time in the native conformation, which spans only an extremely small fraction of the entire configuration space. Thus, the amino acid sequence of proteins must satisfy two requirements: one, thermodynamics and the other kinetic. The thermodynamics requirement is that the sequence must have a unique folded conformation, which is stable under physiological conditions.

Most proteins can be denatured by heat, which has complex effect on the weak interactions in proteins (Vandenberg et al., 2000). If the existing temperature is increased slowly, a protein conformation generally remains intact until an abrupt loss of structure and function occurs over a narrow temperature range (Nelson and Cox, 2008). The spatial arrangement of atoms in a protein is called its conformation (Deechongkit et al., 2004). The possible conformations of a protein include any structural state it can achieve....

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