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This study sought to establish factors that determine consumers’ patronage to mobile phone service providers in Kenya with a specific focus on Safaricom Kenya Ltd. Safaricom has faced intense competition in recent years in the Kenyan mobile phone market due to entry of other service providers in the industry. The competition has been mainly price based with competitors emphasizing on price reductions. While Kenyans generally exhibit price sensitive buying behaviour, in this case, they are behaving contrary to expectations. This study, therefore, sought to determine why this seeming contradiction. The main objective of this study is to identify factors that determine consumer patronage to mobile phone service providers in Kenya, with a case of Safaricom. Earlier researches in the mobile telephone sector with regards to patronage carried out in Nigeria and University of Malaysia found; customer satisfaction, service quality, brand image and switching cost are determinant factors to patronage. This study therefore, sought to establish if there exists an effect of switching costs, service quality, consumer satisfaction and brand image on consumer patronage to Safaricom Kenya ltd. The study employed descriptive research design. Sampling was done using snowball method. The sample size was of 180 respondents .Data was collected from a sample of mobile telephone subscribers in four major towns in Kenya: Nairobi, Kisumu, Mombasa and Nakuru. The clusters were further divided into three categories based on social classes depending on their disposable incomes (Lower, Middle and Upper classes). Data was collected using a structured questionnaire with close ended questions. The data collected was edited, coded and analyzed using SPSS package. Descriptive statistics such as the means and standard deviations was calculated to summarize the data. Regression analysis was also done to establish if there was a relationship among variables. Regression analysis results showed a significant effect on customer patronage by service quality, switching cost and customer satisfaction. However, the relationship between, customer patronage and brand image was not significant at 5% level of significance. The findings of this study are expected to assist both the telecommunication companies and corporate brand-management teams to better understand the value of service quality, significant switching cost and customer satisfaction in getting service and product patrons. This research was only able to explain patronage in the mobile phone sector by 79.4%.there is a 20.6% cause for patronage that was not explained. Future researchers should try to find out what the 20.6% is composed of.

Background of the study 
The modern business environment is characterized by cutthroat competition. The competition is spurred by globalization, technological change, more demanding customers and higher levels of uncertainty which have made management of organizations more challenging than before (Oliver,2005).To survive, organizations require innovative strategies to reduce costs and improve performance. In this regard telecommunication firms in Kenya have examined brand patronage as a major route to gaining the competitive edge required to make businesses successful. According to Fearme and Fowler (2006) consumer patronage is the route to competitive advantage in such an environment to cope with high levels of uncertainty and turbulence (Christopher et. al., 2000). 

In 2013 the communications sub-sector accounted for 56.0% of the total earnings in the transport and communications sector. Moreover, the sector registered a growth of 14.5 percent from Ksh.605.5 billion recorded in 2012 to 693.1 billion in 2013(KNBS, 2014).Therefore services go to the heart of value creation within the economy (Rust and Oliver, 2004). The growth and usage of mobile phones in Kenya has reached unprecedented heights with the highest growth experienced in 2007 (Phoebe, 2011). 

This trend has seen a fray of entry by mobile phone subscribers into the Kenyan market. Due to the nature of competition, the telecommunication companies have from time to time developed innovative products to enable them stay competitive and increase their market share. The notable routes that have been pursued in this regard include the introduction of M payment, M banking, loyalty schemes, and data services. 

Mobile Telephony Industry in Kenya 
In Kenya, the growth of mobile phone subscribers has been tremendous. The subscriber base expanded to 31.309 million from 31.301 million between the last quarter of 2013 and the first quarter 2014(CCK, 2014). This growth resulted in an increase in mobile penetration rate from 52.2% in June 2013 to 64% at the end of April 2014.This was above the penetration rates estimated by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) at 41.0% during the same period. 

According to Phoebe (2011) the telecommunications industry is one of the fastest growing in the Kenyan economy, resulting in saturation and tending towards maturity. Over time brand patronage has been noted as a focal point of marketing, resulting in a myriad of changes in the industry, as scramble for market share intensifies. This has prompted more innovative products and tariff wars among the industry players: Safaricom, Bharti -Airtel, Essar-Yu and Telkom Kenya- Orange. 

Safaricom was the first mover to the market in 1999 August and followed by Ken cell some months later in December 1999. Safaricom has maintained its brand name as such throughout the years, whereas Kencell has rebranded and changed ownership Three times: from Ken-cell to Celtel, Celtel to Zain and finally Zain to Airtel in 2010. Orange and Yu have been new entrants in the market. Both Orange and Yu joined the market in 2008-2009. 

When Airtel took over Zain cost leadership became their penetration strategy into the market. They charged ksh.1 for text messages and ksh.3 for voice calls while safaricom charged Kshs.8 and Kshs. 3 for text messages. With time, however, cost leadership didn’t deliver and tariffs were reviewed again, as those who migrated from Safaricom due to low tariffs have thronged back to the provider as well as new subscribers signing up. This is despite the fact that Safaricom is the highest tariff charger while Airtel, Yu and Orange are all season low in tariff charges, free calls and minimal charges within service provider, kshs.3 across other service providers for voice calls, cheaper internet and lower rates for mobile money transfer. Airtel even offers no cost to send money across all networks .Despite all these lower tariffs from its competitors Safaricom still retains 67.9% of the total market share with the highest number of new subscriptions (CCK, 2014). 

According to CCK, April, 2014, the total number of mobile subscribers rose to 31.309 million recorded in the 2014 first quarter: Safaricom gained 593,036 new subscribers, Essar Telkom (Yu) gained 223, 974, Airtel gained 91,283 subscribers while Telkom Kenya Orange lost 609,321. Safaricom thus leads by 67.9%, followed by Airtel with 16.5%, Orange with 7.2% and Essar Telkom (Yu) with 8.5%. 

YU, the last entrant into the market, wants to get out of the Kenya market despite it being the cheapest service provider in voice calls, messaging and data. One would expect it to penetrate the market but it seems getting the market share from the most expensive service provider, Safaricom is an uphill task. Telkom Orange Kenya too is sourcing for an investor as it seeks to leave the Kenyan market, despite it charging kshs.2 per minute to all networks in comparison to Safaricom’s kshs.4 per minute. In addition, the portability of mobile telephone numbers showed substantial growth in the last quarter by 72.8% (CCK, 2014). This has significantly reduced the high switching cost which was significantly reducing the buyer power while significantly raising the supplier power in the economical perspective. The entry of mobile virtual networks by Equity bank and Tangaza riding on the airtel network has not changed this trend. 

These statistics do not portray the typical Kenyan market, where consumers tend to be price sensitive. Instead subscribers are shifting from cheaper tariff providers to the more expensive provider, Safaricom. It is not clear why Safaricom has a high consumer patronage despite their higher tariffs. Could then the perceived exclusive value added to their services, quality network and perceived quality service, switching costs and brand image be the reason for consumer patronage of Safaricom in Kenya? 

Statement of the problem 
A number of studies have been done in Marketing especially in relation to mobile telephone sub sector. Maina (2001) investigated perceived quality service and found that there is a difference between customer expectation and management perception in mobile telephony business. Murugu (2008), studied the level of customer satisfaction and its impact on loyalty in Airtel (then known as Zain) and found out that customers consistently want certain attributes like ease of use, timeliness, and certainty in virtually all service products Gichuru (2003) investigated brand switching in the mobile telephony business in Kenya and found out that value added services was cause for significant switching cost while other studies such as Ogwo E. (2012) looked at Factors Influencing Attitudes to Patronage of GSM Services in Nigeria and Mokhtar (2011) examined the relationship between service quality and satisfaction on customer loyalty in the Malaysian mobile communication industry. 

These studies did not prove sufficient to gain a comprehensive explanation of the factors that affect customers’ intentions to adopt or reject the use of mobile phone services, nor did any of them incorporate key constructs in explaining consumer patronage of mobile phone service providers in Kenya. Consumer patronage enables an organization grow its customer base through customer referrals to their peers, it helps an organization cut advertising costs due to word of mouth referrals from customers and repeat purchases by patrons thus maximizing profits. 

This study sought to investigate consumer patronage in the mobile phone industry, especially in the face of value added services which result in getting value for money and cost effectiveness to the subscribers. 

Safaricom has faced intense competition in recent years in the Kenyan mobile phone market. This is due to entry of other service providers in the industry. The competition has been mainly price based with competitors emphasizing on price reductions. However cheaper mobile service providers continue losing subscribers to Safaricom while those who migrate to other networks, at some point, return to Safaricom (Phoebe, 2011).Despite it being the most expensive mobile service provider in Kenya today, Safaricom commands 67.9% of the total market share of this sub sector (CCK, 2014). While Kenyans generally exhibit price sensitive buying behavior, in this case, they seem to be behaving contrary to expectations. This study, therefore, sought to determine why this seeming contradiction.

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The main purpose of the study was to assess the factors affecting adoption of E-learning in public secondary schools in Makadara sub-county, Nairobi County. The specific objectives of the study were to establish the influence of ICT infrastructure and E- learning curricula and design on the adoption of E-learning in public schools in Makadara sub-county, Nairobi County. It was also aimed at examining the effect of teacher’s readiness and teachers’ ICT skills on the adoption of E-learning in public schools in Makadara sub-county, Nairobi County. The study adopted a survey research design. The study targeted all the head teachers, teachers and deputy head teachers of all public secondary schools in Makadara Sub-county (195 respondents) but sampled 98 of them for this study. Data collected from primary sources was analyzed with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 22.0). Correlation analysis, Regression analysis as well as descriptive statistics were used to analyze the study variables. The research study established that most schools have low investment in ICT infrastructure due to high costs of computer hardware, software and related accessories. The adoption of E-learning implementations has resulted in the need for development of new skills and competencies among teachers as most teachers who have been teaching in traditional manners are not technologically literate and sometimes may even resist because of the worry about losing their jobs if E-learning is implemented, because of their inadequate skills. The factors affecting the adoption of E-learning significantly influenced the adoption of E-learning and external factors such as the government policies, financial policies and human development hence the hypotheses were rejected.

Background of the study 
E-learning entails the provision of the course materials and teaching through web technologies. This could be a stand-alone web-based course or a combination with the traditional face-to-face mode of teaching. Stand-alone web-based course can be defined as that which "might include supplemental material but can be completed entirely without face-to-face interaction with instructor” (Aduke, 2008, p.290-295). Instead of the traditional physical classrooms E-learning offers “virtual classrooms as they are able to group students doing a particular online course from different physical locations but through the web technologies” (Adam, 2003, p.195). E-learning offers flexible access to content and resource via networked information and communication technologies at a place and time convenient to the learner in what has come to be called distributed learning (Naidu, 2006). 

In USA over three million students are enrolling in web-based courses, with estimates suggesting that nearly 20 percent of courses in the USA are currently offered at a distance (Ruth et al., 2007). Major corporations and the military have infused their traditional training programs with E-learning initiatives, resulting in millions of dollars in annual cost savings. Given the trend toward E-learning delivery methods, it has become more critical to understand the factors which impact the effectiveness of these emerging delivery methods. E-learning can be defined as “training or educational initiatives which provide learning material in online repositories, where course interaction and communication and course delivery are technology mediated” (Johnson, Hornik, & Salas 2008, p. 357). 

A recent study conducted by the Global Information Technology (2005) used the Networked Readiness Index, covering a total of 115 economies in 2005-2006, to measure the degree of preparation of a nation or community to participate in and benefit from ICT developments. Out of the 115 countries surveyed United States of America topped the list, followed by Singapore, Denmark, Iceland, Finland, Canada, Taiwan, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom etc. Similarly, a study by Nigerian Information Technology Professionals in America in 2002 indicated that given current ICT penetration it may take some African countries 50 years to catch up with America on the aspect of PC count per household (Yusuf, 2006). The domain of distance education has not been unaffected by the penetrating influence of information and communication technology. Unquestionably, ICTs have impacted the quality and quantity of teaching, learning, and research in distance education. Therefore, ICT provides opportunities for distance education students and academic and non-academic staff to communicate with one another more effectively during formal and informal teaching and learning (Yusuf, 2005). 

The Global Information Technology (2005) established that the pedagogical integration of ICT had a positive impact on teaching and learning. Both students and teachers reported that they used computers to access knowledge. In 60% of the institutions, off line resources such as Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia was used, there was also restricted access to information from online resources in schools that had connectivity. Twenty percent of the institutions were using the cyber-school software to teach science subjects. In cases where the school had no connectivity students reported that they accessed the internet from cyber cafés during school holidays. 

Global Information Technology (2005) study further established that teachers used ICTs for pedagogical purposes. Indeed, more than fifty percent (50%) of the courses in the institutions under study were taught using ICTs. Programmes such Microsoft excel were used for academic data analysis, 20% of the institutions used NetCen School Solution to prepare the school time tables. Some teachers reported the use of computers to present work in class using PowerPoint presentations, while 20% the institutions used smart board technology in teaching. Teachers reported use of Ms Word for their day to day and routine work such as making of lesson plans and schemes of work. Students reported that ICTs made learning more interesting and fun, enhanced learning and made them produce better results especially in practical subjects and science congress competitions. They also used computers to write and present assignments. The students further reported that learning using ICTs enhanced retention. 

Various studies have discussed some benefits of e- Learning which is first and foremost capable of reducing the challenge of capacity, equity and access due to the opportunity it provides to “educate and train anyone, anytime, and from anywhere” ; breaks the barriers of times and space; hence making it possible to enroll a large number of learners without restrictions. As explained by (Schrum & Ohler 2005, p.60-83) e- learning significantly challenges the standard onsite educational culture; Instructions delivered are independent of time, location, pace and space; hence learners can still face other commitments and learn at their own pace; the increase in enrolment rates in a distance education system lowers the unit cost per learner; permits the achievement of individual educational objectives at affordable costs, without affecting the normal schedule of learners (Olakulehin, 2008). Nafukho (2007) argued that current developments in technology have an extraordinary potential for transforming education to meet the growing need for customized, on-demand learning. 

Statement of the Problem 
One of the key components of the Government’s approach to achieving the stated goal of quality basic education is through provision of secondary education using Information and Communication Technology (ICT). The Sessional Paper No. 1 of 2005, KESSP and Vision 2030 documents underscores the importance of ICT in education in laying a firm base for skills development and innovation for enabling the country to attain a competitive edge (MoE, 2009). Although, in Kenya, ICT has penetrated many sectors including banking, transportation, communications, and medical services, the Kenyan educational system still seems to lag behind (infoDev; 2011). Whereas there are a number of researches done on the introduction, use and the potential impact of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) on learning especially in the context of the developed countries, there is no evidence of studies done on factors affecting adoption of E-learning in public secondary schools in Kenya. Therefore this study sought to fill this gap and examine the factors affecting adoption of E-learning in public secondary schools in Makadara Sub-county, Nairobi County.

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Rewards play an important role in increasing employee job satisfaction resulting in improving organizational performance. Motivated employees are the cornerstone of any successful organization. The main objective of this study was to establish the effects of reward management strategies on employee performance in selected universities in Nakuru County. The specific objectives were: to determine the effect of financial rewards on employee performance, to determine the effect of non-financial rewards on employee performance and to determine the combined effect of financial and non-financial rewards on employee performance. Descriptive survey design was adopted in conducting this study, as it was suitable for collecting information that described an existing phenomenon. The target population was 620 lecturers in two universities in Kenya namely Egerton and Kabarak Universities, which comprised a sample of 242 lecturers. The study primarily used a questionnaire to gather data from the respondents. Data from the questionnaire were systematically analyzed according to the research objectives and hypotheses. All hypotheses were tested using regression statistics and the results of the findings established that there is a strong positive association between combined effect of financial and non-financial rewards on employees‟ performance. According to the findings of this study, financial and non-financial rewards motivate employees to better performance. Thus, employee performance will be high in Kenyan universities that adopt an integrated effort on both financial and non-financial reward measurements. The study recommends the following: First, lecturers‟ promotion should be done regularly on merit. Secondly, Universities establish a competitive retirement benefit scheme to its employees. Third, Universities should engage their lecturers on regular training programs.

Background of the Study 
Reward strategies are developed to make employees performance more effective. Employees work to fulfill their several needs. They do not only want money but also recognition and self- satisfaction. Valued employees are retained if they are properly rewarded. 

In Kenya, there are two categories of universities, public and private universities. Public universities are owned and funded by the state. Private universities are owned by private individuals, organizations or are religious based. They are mainly funded through tuition fees from students and sponsors Tumwet, (2013). Egerton University is a public university while Kabarak University is a private university. 

Universities are a center of higher education where lecturers play an important role in ensuring high quality of education by developing their students as global citizens for the outside corporate world. However, it is only possible when lecturers in universities are motivated enough to accomplish their goals effectively. Unfortunately, most of the research available is on students‟ motivation but little on motivating lecturers Martin, (2003). 

Universities, whether public or private, are training grounds for students undertaking various comprehensive courses in order to translate theory into practice Adenike, (2011). The fundamental goal of these institutions is to provide manpower needs for both private and public sector for overall national development. The Kenyan public universities admit both privately sponsored students and those partly sponsored by the government through the Kenya Universities and Colleges Central Placement Service (KUCCPS). The major issue in public universities in Kenya is the rapid expansion amid declining funds which has seen universities experience challenges in terms of physical facilities, overcrowding and staff disillusioned due to several factors including inadequate and non-competitive salaries, and dissatisfaction with non monetary factors such as poor working conditions, heavy workload, institutional governance among others Tettey, (2006). These factors have led to the exodus of teaching staff to the private sector or abroad in search for better opportunities despite the fact that these institutions have invested heavily in training them. 

Kenyan universities have experienced rapid expansion in terms of enrolment of regular and self- sponsored students over the last decade without corresponding increase in staff numbers. Due to social demand of university education and globalization, private universities (both local and international) have been established. Most universities in Kenya are under immense pressure to increase their enrolment in order to meet the human resource development targets. Also public universities have established privately funded programmes as a way of supplementing income due to reduced budgetary allocation by the government. All these clearly show that there is competition in the provision of university education among public universities themselves but also with private universities. Therefore, this means that there is increased regional and international competition for qualified university staff which leads to brain drain and loss of some of the most highly qualified academic staff GoK, (2006). This calls for motivation of lecturers so that they can be retained in Kenyan universities. 

There are twenty two (22) accredited public universities in Kenya with nine (9) constituent colleges. This is in addition to seventeen (17) private chartered universities with five (5) constituent colleges. There are thirteen (13) institutions with letters of interim authority and one (1) registered private institution (Commission for University Education). These universities cater for the increasing number of students who enroll for higher education. All these universities need lecturers whose workload increases due to the demand of university education. Many secondary school graduates and working class look for opportunities to pursue university education. Motivation of academic staff (lecturers) is therefore a pertinent issue in universities to enhance their performance. 

A good reward system that focuses on rewarding employees and their teams serves as a driving force for employees to have higher performance and hence end up accomplishing the organizational goals and objectives. The current era is highly competitive and universities are facing employee retention challenges. To overcome these restraints a strong and positive relationship and bonding should be created and maintained between employees and the universities. Human resources or employees are the most central parts so they need to be influenced and persuaded towards task fulfillments. For achieving prosperity, universities design different strategies to compete with their competitors and for increasing their performance. 

Unless employees are encouraged to fulfill their tasks, universities cannot progress or achieve success. Reward strategies should be used by managers to increase effectual job management amongst employees in organizations Shadare & Hammed, (2009). An employee who is well rewarded is responsive of the definite goals and objectives he/she must achieve. Rutherford (1990) reported that provoked employees are constantly looking for improved practices to do work, so it is essential for organizations to reward their employees. 

Reward strategies can either be financial or non-financial. Employees expect financial and non- financial rewards for their services and efforts. In the absence of equitable pay, training and development opportunities and recognition, employees get dissatisfied and do not perform to the standards Rynes et al. (2004). The dissatisfaction resulting from the unavailability of financial and non-financial rewards usually leads to employee turnover and poor performance. The benefits employees foresee for themselves and their families encourage them to give their best. Financial rewards are also known as intrinsic rewards and include pay/salaries/wages, bonuses, allowances, insurance, incentives, promotions and job security. Non-financial rewards, also known as extrinsic rewards include appreciation and recognition, meeting new challenges and caring attitude from the employer. 

In Nigeria, interest in effective use of rewards to influence workers performance to motivate them began in the 1970s. So many people have carried out researches in this area, some of which are, Kayode (2003), Egwuridi (2008), Nwachukwu (2004), Olajide, A. (2000). The performance of workers has become important due to the increasing concern of human resources experts about the level of output obtained from workers due to poor remuneration. Adelabu (2005) found out in Nigeria that teachers are dissatisfied with their working environment and salary conditions. Teachers there feel that they have low salaries as compared to other professionals, poor working environment, no decision making authority and no opportunity to develop their career. 

An employee‟s output greatly determines organization‟s performance. Enhancing employees‟ capabilities through career development programs like further studies, collaborating in research, seminars, workshops, conferences and team learning in organizations, employees‟ performance improves. In universities lecturers‟ performance is measured through the extent to which they effectively teach allotted workloads, attendance of learned conferences, publication of books and journal articles, and furtherance of academic and professional qualifications Kiriri and Gathuthi, (2009). 

When employees leave their jobs, it is often a sign that something is wrong. According to Zhou et al (2004), the costs of academic turnover, such as subsequent recruiting expenses, disruptions of course offerings, discontinuities in departmental and student planning, and loss of student graduate advisors, are borne at individual, departmental and institutional levels. Thus there is need to motivate academic staff which was the essence of this study. Pienaar et al (2008) note that academic turnover has several disadvantages such as costs related to decreased organizational loyalty, the loss of knowledge and experience regarding the institution and the decrease in time and cost in training novice academics. 

According to Kipkebut (2010), the biggest challenge occasioned by expansion of student numbers in universities is staff shortage which has forced the universities to recruit from each other. The recruitment vendetta has come to be known as poaching with the most vulnerable lecturers being those who have not been promoted by their respective universities either because they did not meet the requirements for promotion or because there were no available positions in the establishment. The universities are guided by statutes and policies such as promotion and training policies, however the manner in which these policies are implemented has led to academic staff disillusionment. 

Good working relationships with colleagues enhance productivity and efficiency. A working environment that is comfortable, relatively low in physical psychological stress, facilities and attainment of work goals will tend to increase employee performance. Academic staff requires office space, research and book support. Obwogi (2011) observed that some lecturers in Kenyan public universities did not have access to some of the basic teaching facilities like offices and desks. This brings a lot of stress among lecturers especially when they have to share with their colleagues. Working relationships employees engage in with their supervisors, peers and subordinates should be conducive. How employees feel about the interaction and discussions that take place within the work environment can affect performance. 

Training is a form of human capital investment, whether made by the individual or organization. It provides employees with specific skills and helps to correct deficiencies in their performances (Chew, 2005). By offering training opportunities, the academic staff feel that the universities have invested in them and there are growing opportunities within the organization and hence give meaning to their jobs. This leads to academic advancement which is the engine that keeps the universities true to their mandate as centres of ideas and innovation. Without training, intellectual capital can stagnate and the relevance of universities to society may diminish. Lecturers thrive on intellectual and collegial stimulation from their peers when they engage in intellectual activities and national and international research meetings Rosser, (2004). 

Training leads to job enrichment as lecturers have more autonomy over their work. Job enrichment is the decree to which employees exercise power relative to their jobs. It increases their personal responsibility and the degree to which the job provides substantial freedom, independence and discretion to employees to schedule work and determine the procedures used in carrying it out Dockel, (2003). Job enrichment provides autonomy to lecturers so that they can decide work patterns, actively participate in major academic decision making, have work evaluated by professional peers and be relatively free of bureaucratic regulations and restrictions Daly et al, (2006). 

Promotion tends to effect the long-term satisfaction of employees. This is done by elevating the employee to a higher stage and offering a title with increased accountability due to employee efforts, behavior and period serving a specific organization. This is vital for the main reason of redundancy and routine. In universities, lecturers are promoted as heads of departments, directors of institutions, principals of campus to name but a few. This gives them a sense of responsibility and they adhere to contribute all their efforts in order to gain the management‟s trust and acquire their delegation and responsibility. University management must however be seen to be fair and reasonable in promoting their employees. 

Monetary strategies as a way of motivation go a long way towards ensuring employees feel appreciated, cared for and deemed worthwhile. These can be in the form of bonuses, paid insurance, or raising employee salaries. This can go a long way to help with employee motivation across the board. Motivation does not only encourage productive performance but also show employees how much the organization cares. The most vital impact of employee motivation is that of increased performance. Therefore, if employee motivation is increased, performance will be inevitable Ryan, (2011). 

The performance of any organization is closely tied to the job performance of its employees. Employee performance depends on their level of motivation which stimulates them to come to work regularly, work diligently, and be flexible and willing to carry out the necessary tasks. In order to perform well, employees need the knowledge and skills that are required for the job. When these are backed by good motivation, performance will ultimately be at the optimal. Ability depends on education, experience and training. Employees must understand what they are required to do and have the motivation to do so. They need to work in an environment that allows them to carry out the task and the motivation to do their work. Without motivation even the most talented employee will not deliver Landy & Conte, (2010). The performance and quality of teaching depends on the quality and motivation of the lecturers. 

Swasto (1996) said that lecturers are educators, researchers and disseminators of information. This means that performance is determined by the number of papers presented in seminars, articles written in scientific journals and books authored. In addition, lecturers need to have the ability to think logically and critically and master the principles and methods of research and be able to communicate the results of research. Thus, lecturers are responsible for developments in science, technology and social. Competence of university graduates is strongly influence by the lecturers‟ performance. Therefore, lecturers‟ performance should be improved through motivational strategies. They should be properly compensated if they are expected to improve productivity. Contribution of universities in creating quality human resources is significant. Lecturers are mandated with this task and thus should be motivated appropriately, Chintallo & Mahadeo, (2013).

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Work-life balance is gaining increasing importance and considered to be the most important challenge encountered in the field of Human Resource Management. Advancement in technology, increase in the complexity of work, change in the values and attitudes of the young and energetic work-force are some of the factors that compel organizations to address the work- life balance issue. The general objective of this study was to assess the effect of work-life balance programs on job satisfaction of nurses in public hospitals in Kenya. The specific objectives of the study were to: determine the effect of flexibility in work arrangements on job satisfaction of nurses; determine the effect of leave policies/arrangements on job satisfaction of nurses; determine the effect of employee support schemes on job satisfaction of nurses and to determine the combined effect of flexibility in work arrangements, leave policies/arrangements, and employee support schemes on job satisfaction of nurses in public hospitals in Kenya, a case of Nakuru Town. The study adopted descriptive, cross-section survey research design to collect data. The target population was 489 nurses working in three selected hospitals in Nakuru Town. The sample size of the study was 237 nurses randomly picked from the target population in accordance to Sample Size Determination Table by Krejcie and Morgan (1970). Questionnaires were used as the main data collection tool. The researcher used descriptive and inferential statistics (Pearson product correlation and multiple regression) in data analysis and presentation. The study established that leave policies/arrangements and flexibility in work arrangements programmes had a strong positive relationship/effect on job satisfaction of nurses respectively, whereas employees support schemes had a moderate positive relationship/effect on job satisfaction of nurses in public hospitals. This study contributes to the existing literature dealing with WLB and job satisfaction by providing information indicating that adoption of work-life balance programmes in public hospitals is likely to significantly improve/enhance the job satisfaction of employees. This is in agreement with research done in private sectors in developed countries. The study therefore recommends that public hospitals or organizations‟ management need to implement/adopt different WLB programmes as per the needs of the employees to enable them (employees) jungle between work and family issues with ease hence enhancing their job satisfaction.

Background Information 
The ultimate performance of organizations depends on the performance of its employees, which in turn depends on numerous factors which can be related to work or family or both. In today's business context, the pressures of work have been intensifying and there is a growing feeling among employees that the demands of work is dominating life whereby a sense of work-life imbalance is felt. The challenges of integrating work and family life/roles are a part of everyday reality for majority of workforce. Work and family are two important domains for those who are employed and work- family conflict arises when an imbalance exists between the two roles. One role may demand more time or more responsibilities, thus causing the responsibilities of the other role to be left to suffer. The two roles are often in conflict in that the more the job involvement, the higher the work-family conflict thus leading to increased burnout, lack of job satisfaction, and reduced commitment (Morgan, 2009). 

Employees work hard to strike a balance to fulfill the demands of the working life and meeting the commitments of family life. The existence of work-life imbalance or work-life conflicts among employees affects employees, employers and communities at large. Increase in work life conflict may be attributed to the nature of modern workforce in organizations, which is characterized by higher rates of labour market participation by women, a young workforce with generation „Y‟ employees, long working hours, work intensification, working in odd hours, emerging technology, global competitive market and renewed interest in personal lives and family values. Demographic changes as seen in the increasing number of women in the workplace and dual career families have generated an increasingly diverse workforce and a greater need of employees to balance their work and non-work lives (Bharat, 2003 as cited by Baral & Bhargava, 2011). 

According to Hein, (2005), as cited by Chitra, (2011), work-life balance issues have been particularly strong in developed countries where they are pushed high on political agenda. But this problem is not expressed to the equal level in developing countries. Grady and McCarthy, (2008) as cited by Chitra, (2011), reveal that today‟s employees place more emphasis on quality of working life and seek greater flexibility in their work so that they will be able to manage both work commitments and personal life. They state that among graduates and job seekers, work-life balance is found to be key in choosing an employer and it is the number one factor of job attraction and retention. Erratic work hours, more work pressure and lack of policies that support work-life balance results in work-life imbalance. The adverse effects of work-life imbalance include deterioration in psychological and physical health. It negatively affects well-being, family satisfaction, and quality of work life. From the organization‟s side, the negative effects may be a decline in productivity, reduced organizational commitment and increased turnover intentions. 

Work-Life Balance 
Generally Work-Life Balance is essentially the idea of balancing paid work commitments with other activities that are important to the individual for example spending time with family, taking part in recreational activities and volunteering or undertaking further study (Dyson, 2006). Little, (2002) states that contemporary definitions of a work-life balance highlight the immense need for work to be able to be performed in such a way that it is both humanly possible and economically viable to do it, while at the same time carried out without compromising personal and family responsibilities. Achieving a work-life balance means that employees are more flexible in their work environment and are thus better able to deal with problems and events that arise such as being able to take a day off to care for a sick child or attend an out of town function and so on. 

The notion of providing and maintaining a healthy workplace where a work-life balance is apparent has evolved vastly over the past 60 years. For employers, providing a work-life balance is about creating, establishing and utilizing employment policies in the form of initiatives that both encourage and optimize the wellbeing of all employees, thus creating a productive work culture where potential tensions between employees work and other parts of their lives out of work are minimized (Department of Labour, 2006 as cited by Branch, (2008). Studies conducted on work-life balance such as by De Cieri, Holmes, Abbott, and Pettit, (2005), noted that numerous organizations have implemented work life balance programmes to help in improving employee work-life balance, while increasing organization‟s efforts to recruit, retain, and motivate valued employees in a highly competitive market. Mumbi, Muleke, Obino and Wagoki, (2013), in a study in ECO-BANK Kenya, observed that inadequate work life balance possess a greater risk to workers performance, well-being and organizational performance. In the study it was observed that the conflict between work and family lowered the perceived quality of work and family life which, further, influences organizational outcomes like such as productivity, turnover and absenteeism which are indicators of job satisfaction/dissatisfaction. 

Hudson Highland Group, (2005:5) explains that organizations not providing real opportunity for employee work/life balance are increasingly more vulnerable to seeing more dissatisfied and unproductive employees and hence increased attrition rates. “Employees who experience increased stress due to work/life conflict and decreased perceptions of control over their work and non-work demands are less productive, less committed to, and less satisfied with their organization and more likely to be absent or leave the organization”. He further explains that strategies which are deemed to improve WLB are seen as enhancing the autonomy of workers by facilitating them to integrate and co-ordinate both their work and non-work roles. According to Little, (2002), improved WLB will facilitate greater consistency and continuity in service delivery both as a whole and will reduce economic spending resulting from significant turnover and absenteeism rates. Work life balance enhances efficiency and thus, the productivity of an employee increases. 

Work-Life Balance Initiatives/programmes 
Work-Life Balance Initiatives or programmes refer to any program/policy designed to alleviate individual conflict between work and life. These are programmes (often financial or time- related) established by an employer that offers employees options to address work and personal responsibilities. These programmes are concerned with creating and maintaining a supportive and healthy work environment, thus enabling employees to balance between work and personal duties (Melissa, 2007). A variety of work life initiatives considered important in improving worker outcomes and productivity include: flexible work arrangements (working from home, compressed work weeks, flexible working hours, job sharing, working in shifts and telecommuting); leave policies and arrangements (maternity, paternity, compassionate leaves, leave to care for sick dependents and emergency leaves), return-to-work options, resource and referral services); dependent care assistance like on-site or subsidized daycare, elderly and referral childcare) and general employee support programmes to entice employees (Felstead, Jewson, Phizacklea, & Walters, 2002). 

Work life programs which are family-friendly policies are therefore, a means of attracting, retaining and engaging workers by enabling them to balance their work and life outside thus enhancing their job satisfaction, commitment and intentions to stay in the organization. They enhance the level of autonomy of workers in the process of coordinating and integrating work and non-work aspects of their lives (Felstead, et al., 2002). Provision of WLBPs also contributes to organizational performance and effectiveness (Sands & Harper, 2007 as cited by Baral & Bhargava, 2011). Supporting employees could contribute to job satisfaction by offering alternative work schedules and family-friendly benefits. Organizations that offer flexible alternatives can engage employees and decrease job turnover (Morgan, 2009). 

Job Satisfaction 
Generally, Job satisfaction is simply how people feel about their jobs and different aspects of their jobs. It is the extent to which people like (satisfaction) or dislike (dissatisfaction) their jobs. Job satisfaction is one of the most studied topics in the field of Industrial/Organizational (I/O) psychology. This is because job satisfaction occupies a central role in many theories and models of individual attitudes and behavior in I/O psychology (e.g., organizational justice, turnover), has been shown to be related to important behaviors that affect the functioning of organizations (e.g., turnover, absenteeism, organizational citizenship behavior, job performance), and has practical applications for the enhancement of individual lives and organizational effectiveness. Job satisfaction is considered a strong predictor of overall individual well-being, as well as a good predictor of intentions or decisions of employees to leave a job. It is one of the constructs that has often been used to describe nursing personnel‟s working condition, particularly because of its significant relations with other variables. 

The state of the nursing profession in Kenya 
Work–life conflict is reported to be a major contributing factor to work stress for those working in the health-care sector in many industrialized and developing countries. Over the past few decades increased work demands, working hours, shift work and staff shortages have been associated with an imbalance between work and personal life. As shift work, particularly night and weekend work, is fundamental to health care, work–life conflict is a significant concern among health-care workers particularly among females who represent a significant proportion of health-care workers. Work–life conflict, where work interferes with personal life, has been associated with a number of negative employee health and wellbeing outcomes, particularly low job satisfaction, low psychological wellbeing, burnout and depression leading to poor work performance, sickness, absence and intention to leave the health-care profession (Bryson et al. 2007; Fereday & Oster 2010 as cited by Munir, Nielsen, Garde, Albertsen, & Carneiro, 2011).

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Quality of service delivery (QSD) is an important factor in the success of any institution that wants to remain in business. Theoretical literature suggests that employees’ work ethics is critical in determining quality of service delivery. However, empirical studies have not focused on how work ethics affects QSD. The main objective of the study was to determine the effect of work ethics on quality of service delivery. The specific objectives are to determine the effect of integrity, accountability, commitment, competency on quality of service delivery and to establish the combined effect of all the variables on QSD. The study was guided by the service quality theory described by Oliver (1980), where customers judge quality as low if the performance does not meet their expectations, as high when performance exceeds their expectations. Customer satisfaction is a more crucial element and determines the continuity of the organization and future income. The target population for the study was 276 academic staff and 25,395 students in public and private universities in Nakuru County, Kenya. Stratified random sampling and simple random sampling techniques were used to select a sample of staff and students for the study. A questionnaire was used to collect the described data. The study employed both descriptive statistics such as percentages, means and standard deviations and inferential statistics such as Pearson’s correlation and Multiple Regression to present and analyze the data. The statistical package for social science (SPSS) a computer programme for windows aided the data analysis. The study established that work ethics has a strong positive effect on quality of service delivery and accounted for 76.5% (R square = 0.765) of the variation in quality of service delivery. The study adds knowledge and enhances understanding of the relationship between work ethics and quality service delivery. This study, therefore, suggests that there is need for managers in public and private universities to ensure that these work ethics are formulated, enforced and adhered to, to regulate their conduct. It is also important that institutions adopt university code of conduct/ethics to improve on quality of service delivery. It is recommended that a more comprehensive survey covering all universities in the country be done to shed more light on this subject.

Background of the Study 
Quality, which is defined as conformance to requirements, is one of the leading topics of debate and discussion on the global level. It is important for any company that wants to remain in business to make quality its focal point (Owolabi, 2010). There are rising expectations from clients and other stakeholders, business leaders and civil society that Public service /Governments will establish and deliver higher standards of work ethics and integrity worldwide. Work ethics are as important for the public servant as blood for the body (Raga and Taylor, 2005). There is a lot of public scrutiny, and increasing anxiety by citizens, whose members want to see an end to the unethical practices and systems of the past in the African continent. 

There has been significant progress made in the Kenyan public service recently by developing effective and efficient civil service work ethics, codes of conduct, transparency measures, work ethics and Integrity systems, and anti-corruption agencies (Ssonko, 2010). A satisfied customer creates repeat business as well as possible other referrals; hence, the organizations should ensure the right products and services for today’s competitive market. Clients expect quality service and judge the service as satisfactory when performance exceeds their expectations. In order to ensure high quality of services provided, public and private universities have come up with codes of work ethics to guide their personal conduct of their personnel. Professionalism ensures quality service and achieves the increased business. The various University codes of work ethics lay down the standards of integrity, professionalism, accountability and confidentiality, which all members should abide by. 

According to the chapter Six on Leadership and Integrity and chapter thirteen Values and Principles of a Public servant, the Kenyan constitution states the several guiding principles of a public servant, which include Integrity, Competence, Objectivity, Accountability and Commitment among others. Most institutions of higher learning strive to achieve quality of service delivery to all its clients, as stipulated in the Vision, Mission, and Core values in the Quality statement and other related documents of the various tertiary institutions. In the Egerton University Quality statement, the University management shall ensure continual improvement by monitoring and reviewing its quality performance and effective implementation of Quality management systems based on the ISO 9001:2008 Standards (EU Strategic Plan, 2011) 

These institutions are committed to providing quality products and services as ratified in their various Institutional quality statements, certifications like Quality Management Systems, Environmental Management Systems, Performance Contracts, Service charters and other University Statutes where the institutions are expected to meet and exceed customer satisfaction, stakeholder’s expectation and comply with statutory requirements. To realize these anticipated goals of being world class institutions and to achieve Millennium Development Goals as well as other goals set in the new constitution and Vision 2030, these institutions strive to integrate higherwork ethics among its employees in the management of public affairs.work ethics provides principles that guide behaviour and help people make moral choices among other choices of action (Hanekom, 1984); Chapman, 1993). 

The Charter for the Public service in Africa, (2001), states the values and principles of a sound culture, which include professionalism, discipline, efficiency, dignity, equity, impartiality, fairness, public spiritedness and courtesy in the discharge of duties according to Ashour, A.S. (2000) Practice of unethical behaviour make the individuals find it necessary to do a cover up which reduces effectiveness. Employees should promote ethical behaviour by setting a good personal example in the workplace. Personalwork ethics and ethical behaviour needs to be taught at an early age by parents, society and educators. 

The Kenya Vision 2030 aims to have a globally competitive and prosperous nation with a high quality of life by 2030. This can only be achieved by having organizations that observework ethics to achieve fair competition with other organizations. Indeed, as stipulated within the framework of the University statutes, Service charters, and the new Kenya Constitution 2010, Vision 2030 and in the realization of the MDGs, it is instrumental that economic and social development depends on the implementation of good policies and building strong and effective institutions that observework ethics. This can only be achieved through having ethical managers heading the relevant organizations for efficiency and accountability which leads to profits and having Quality of service delivery in each organization. 

Egerton University’s quality statement highlights that the University management shall ensure continual improvement by monitoring and reviewing its quality performance and effective implementation of Quality management systems based on ISO 9001:2008 Standards. In the Kenyatta University’s Vision, Mission and Strategic Plan (2005-2015), the Directorate of Student Affairs (DSA) is committed to ensuring that the services measure up to ISO 9001:2008 standards. They are committed to serving clients, the students, by sensitively addressing their needs through strategically designed procedures of efficient welfare provision. By this, they are conscious of the diversity of the student population and seek to create a sense of a beautiful mosaic in the student body, while at the same time they are sensitive to their individual and corporate needs. They constantly review their service provision procedures to ensure that the university lives up to its motto of "Providing Integral Support and Care" (Kenyatta University Strategic Plan, 2005-2015). 

The mission for Kabarak University is to provide a holistic quality education to the youth, and other age groups, equipping them with knowledge, practical skills and Christian moral values necessary for the service of God and humanity. Jomo Kenyatta University in its quality statement commits to providing quality services in training, research and Innovation that consistently meet customer requirement and attempt to exceed their expectation. Mount Kenya University's mission, is to achieve their goals through the following objectives: provide quality training through provision of scholarships, advancement of knowledge through research and development of specialized activities in the University; produce effective graduates with the appropriate practical and specialized skills, attitudes and values required for personal growth and advancement of responsible citizens in the global environment; participate in community service through provision of continuing education, conduction of research, participation in external services, provision of specialist consultative or referral services, facilitation of community empowerment, promotion of fairness and natural justice, and maintenance of good neighborliness with the community. 

This clearly shows that indeed Egerton university, Kenyatta University, Jomo Kenyatta, and Nairobi Universities are committed to providing quality products, services that meet and surpass customer contentment, stakeholder’s anticipation, and comply with statutory requirements. This will only be possible if all the staff have the relevant qualities in place such as Integrity, commitment, Accountability Competency and ensure continual improvement. It is influential that economic and collective development depends on the 
implementation of good policies and building of strong and valuable institutions that adhere to observingwork ethics. This can only be achieved through having ethical managers heading the relevant organisations for efficiency and accountability which leads to profits and quality service.

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Talent management involves positioning the right people in the right jobs for competitive advantage. Many organizations at times fail to engage in the activities that enhance their talent pipelines, equip individuals with critical knowledge and skills, and deny employee an opportunity to enhance teamwork or be engaged to their jobs. This leads to many negative employee outcomes that affect the organizational outcomes because business objectives are not linked to individual competencies. The study aimed at investigating the effect of talent management on employee outcomes at Central Bank of Kenya. The independent variables were talent attraction, talent retention, employee training and career management while the dependent variable was employee outcomes; i.e. teamwork, job satisfaction and employee engagement. The sample for this study was 130 staff drawn from the population of about 700 staff at CBK’s head office. The main objective of the study was to investigate the effect of talent management on employee outcomes at the Central Bank of Kenya. The specific objectives were to establish the effects of talent attraction, find out the effects of talent retention, determine the effect of employee training, establish the effect of career management on employee outcomes and find out the combined effect of talent management on employee outcomes. The study adopted a descriptive survey of the staff of Central Bank of Kenya. Primary data was used in the study through use of questionnaires. After the collection of data the study used the SPSS (Version 20) to analyse the data. Descriptive analysis which aims at finding out what, where and how of a phenomenon was used mainly to summarize the data collected. The data was presented using statistical measures such as pie charts and frequency tables. A regression model was used in predicting the relationship between employee outcomes and various aspects of talent management. The descriptive statistical analysis of this study’s findings revealed that employee outcomes (in this case teamwork, job satisfaction and employee engagement) are significantly influenced by talent attraction, retention, employee training and career management at CBK.

1.1 Background of the study 
Complicated business realities and unexpected economic meltdown and recession have delivered shock waves to many organizations, (Bano, et al 2011). One of these realities is the relevance of talent management in an organization. David Watkin, (1998) coined the term talent management and continues to be adopted, as more organizations have realized that their employees' talents and skills drive employee outcomes leading to success or failure of an organization. Determinants of talent management in this study include; talent attraction, talent retention, employee training and career management. To be successful an organization needs to align talent management strategies with the organizations strategy. According to Gardener, (2002), this is usually an unmet need in many organizations leading to negative employee outcomes. 

Talent Management refers to the organization attracting, retaining, motivating, training and developing talented people that an organization requires to remain competitive, (Collings and Mellahi, 2009). This competitiveness can only be derived from positive and growth oriented employee outcomes. Nowadays, talent management has become an essential priority for modern organizations, and organizational success is directly related to talent that is attracted, hired, developed and retained, (Ashton and Morton, 2005). Talent management that gives competitive employee outcomes is the process of building effective relationships with people in their roles, creating a great place to work and treating individual employees fairly, recognizing their value, giving them a voice and opportunities for growth (Thompson, 2005). 

In the 21st century the big question is why some organizations are successfully implementing talent management processes for competitive advantage while others are not so successful (Bano,et al 2012). Organizations have learned that, they need the right talent to execute strategy through employee positive behaviours, (Gebelein, 2009). The challenge for many companies today is that they put tremendous effort into attracting employees but spend little time into retaining and developing talent and therefore denying them an opportunity to produce right outcomes, (Beheshtifar and Ziaadini, 2012). 

Positive employee outcomes stem from developing a human resource asset base that is capable of supporting current and future organizational growth, directions and objectives, (Mahapatro, 2010). Due to the realization that people are the most valuable assets in an organization, the importance of organizational performance has been pushed to the front burner in many organizations in the 21st century, (Thomson et al., 2007, Blass, 2006). They go on to say that performance management system in organizations must measure the performance of assets including the most valuable asset, human resources (talent), meaning measuring employee outcomes. 

One of the most important goals of any organization is to promote efficiency and effectiveness that could lead to positive employee outcomes that result into organizational success. The Balanced score card of Kaplan and Norton 1996 is one of mechanism which provides a holistic measurement of organizational performance (outcomes) since it provides with a comprehensive view of the business. It measures employee outcomes on four level also known as four pillars; i.e. financial outcomes, customer service outcomes, learning and growth as well as internal processes outcomes. It is not only a measurement system but also a management system which enables organizations to clarify their vision and strategy and translate them in action of talented employees (Kaplan and Norton, 1996). Many researchers have linked the aspect of talent management with employee outcomes whether negative or positive. Collings and Mellahi (2009) argued that the aspect of motivation of staff is important in linking talent management with employee outcomes and, in turn, with organizational outcomes because having high potential is already a confirmation of the fact that one possesses desired abilities. Boxall (2013) underscores how HR practices affect employee outcomes. He says that positive organizational outcomes result from aligning organizational and employee welfare and interests. 

1.1.2 The Central Bank of Kenya 
The Central Bank of Kenya was set up in 1966 through the Central Bank of Kenya Act of 1966. Its main aim is to be a central bank that is at par with international standards in terms of regulating the commercial banks in Kenya as well as formulating and implementing financial and monetary policies. CBK has seven branches throughout the country with a total number of approximately one thousand seven hundred staff members. 

The central bank of Kenya has established an institution, Kenya School of Monetary Studies that trains and develops staff for the bank as well as for other banks and organizations in the East African region. In all organizations employee outcomes lead to positive or negative results. CBK has been criticized in many forums for non-performance and therefore this study will investigate whether these outcomes have anything to do with the organizational talent management. In addition to the challenges stemming from the global recession and the depreciation of the Kenya shillings, CBK has been criticized for non-performance and various performance gaps that could be resulting from challenges related to implementation of the talent management strategy. The fact that employee outcomes lead to organizational growth and success give this study the bases of finding out the relationship between talent management and the employee outcomes. 

As much as CBK is one of the institutions where most employees have had one job in a lifetime, there is a new trend of younger employees moving for greener pastures and therefore dragging CBK into the war for talents, thus the need to study the Bank’s talent management strategy and employee outcomes.

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Item Type: Kenyan Postgraduate Material  |  Attribute: 67 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
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