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ADAPTATION OF HAM TRADITIONAL DESIGNS AS SOURCES OF MOTIFS FOR FABRIC AND APPAREL EMBELLISHMENT USING BATIK

ABSTRACT

The problem of this study is that of the selection, documentation, explanation and preservation of some of the traditional designs found on the artifacts of the Ham People of Kaduna State and adapting them for contemporary use on fabric using Batik Technique of fabric embellishment. The general objective of the study is to select and adapt traditional designs on the artifacts of Ham People and adapt them for use as motifs on contemporary batik resist fabric for embellishment, thereby ensuring the sustainability of such motifs. The purposes of the study are: to identify the traditional artifacts of the Ham people and the design motifs on them and to extract some of these motifs and adapt them onto fabrics using batik technique of textile decoration. The study adopts survey method for data collection to obtain relevant information from the subjects in the sample area as suggested by Adetoro (1997). Exploratory approach and product development (R&D) was used for sourcing for designs on artifacts as suggested by Itten (1997). Other parameters of investigation used in exploratory methodology include population of the study, sampling, pilot study and experiments for adaptation of designs to textile fabrics using resist techniques. Three survey instruments were used in the study. The first one which is a questionnaire (Appendix II) was used for pilot study and thesecond one Appendix III (A) interview was used for collecting data of the fifty traditional motifs. The third one (Appendix III B questionnaire) was used for the assessment of the resist pieces of fabric produced from the modified traditional design motifs extracted from the artifacts of the Ham People for comparison with those produced within the recent period. This was done by presenting the twenty five selected motifs to some randomly selected respondents, comprising of Ham youths and adults based in Zaria. The comparative assessment questionnaire is a five Likert scaled instrument. Based on the analysis of the study, the following findings were made: 1.The production of traditional artifacts of the Ham people is on the downward trend.2. Ten different crafts are still being practiced by the Ham people (mostly old people and only on request)3. The traditional artifacts of the Ham people have symbolic motifs with traditional names and can be adapted on textile fabrics, using the batik technique of fabric decoration.4. Cultural and environmental factors such as festivals, annual cultural day celebrations, naming ceremonies, marriages, burial, initiation rites and aesthetic values are guiding the use of the traditional Ham design motifs.5. Vat dyes are quite suitable for the practical adaptation of the Ham design motifs on fabrics and apparel using the batik technique. The general conclusion is that although the production of artifacts in Ham land is on the downward trend, it is still being practiced withsymbolic motifs that are adaptable on fabrics using resist dying techniques.

CHAPTER ONE
Introduction
Culture is the way of life as well as a heritage that is being passed from one generation to the other. Among the countries of Africa, according to Kashim, (2011), “Nigeria has taken a prominent position when it comes to cultural heritage and creative art which are manifested in her diverse crafts”.The products of these indigenous craft have sufficiently served economic needs of the people in the local communities. Since the pre-colonial era, various members of distinct ethnic groups engage in a lot of traditional craft practices in the agrarian occupational engagement. Nigerian culture is very colourful especially when it comes to the textiles, it‟s a thing of pride for Nigerians. This study therefore, was motivated through the observations of the varioustraditional designs found on the artifacts of the Ham people of Kaduna state. These designs could be very suitable as motifs in batik method of fabric embellishment in textile design.

Background of Study
This study is concerned with artifacts, traditional designs and motifs of the Ham people of Kaduna State. Ogunduyile, (2011) 0bserved that art has been noted to be the totality of all knowledge and values shared by a society. Creativity has been in existence right from the time of the ancient man; he used what he could find in his surrounding to solve his problems. Marvin and David, L. D wrote that human beings expressed themselves and told their stories in pictures long before they could read and write. They further explained that pictures on the walls of early cave dwellings are evidence of the human compulsion to describe the world in both representational and symbolic images.The Ham man is, therefore, not exempted in this storyof the ancient man; he created and designed things with whatever he could find in his immediate environment. Development and industrialization of a country revolves around the modernization of the artifacts and crafts of the people. “The industrial development in a country involves considerable artifacts and crafts that develops in stages and which leads to a progressive growth” (Ajayi 2007). The  use of these traditional designs is going a long way in saving the artifacts and crafts for the younger generation.

Brief Introduction to Kaduna State
Kaduna state is a state in the central Northern Nigeria, and its capital is Kaduna. Established in 1912 by Lord Frederick Lugard, first as a garrison town and then as the regional capital of the then Northern protectorate, Kaduna soon attracted people of all races, religion and cultures. Within two decades of its establishment, it grew from almost a virgin territory of small scattered settlement of the indigenous population of mostly the Gbagyi, to a town of over 30,000 people. This population comprise of the British colonies, artisans and clerks from the southern protectorate as well as laborers and traders from the Nupe, Hausa, Kanuris, Fulanis and other tribes in the Northern protectorate. Kaduna derived its name from the river Kaduna which gave the settlement its name; it was so called because it was crocodile infested, „Kadduna‟ being the plural of “crocodile” in Hausa, (Haruna 2013).
The state has at the moment 23 local government areas and all these 23 are all blessed with fertile land for farming of both food and cash crops, it‟s also for irrigational farming (fadama farming). The state is also blessed with several mineral resources like clay, gold, graphite and many others, which has made the state a center for several small scale businesses like pottery, textiles, poultry and many other petty trading. It is mostly dominated by the Ham, Gbagyi, Adara, Gong, Atyap, Hausa and some other ethnic communities, according to Dangel (2008). The Ham people occupy four local Government Areas in Kaduna state and they are Jaba, Jema‟a, Kagarko and Kachia Local Government Areas.

Brief Introduction to the Ham People
According to James (1997) the Ham people spread over an area of about 307 square miles (sqm) in Kaduna state of Nigeria.Theorigin of Ham include Nok, Kwoi, Zshiek( Kurmin Musa) Dung( Jaban Kogo) Chori, Fai , Ketere, Sambang Gida, Sambang Daji,Wenyom and other Ham settlements in the southern part of Kaduna State. Like many peoples of northern Nigeria, the Ham, who are neither Hausa nor Fulani, have also adopted the Hausa language as part of their lingua franca.The Hausa Language is the Language commonly spoken in the Northern region of Nigeria.
The Hausa Language to a greater extent has diluted and adulterated the native tongue (Hyam) of the Ham language often mutually in-twined or used interchangeably among younger generation that did not grow up with the native lingua franca hence the fading away of the Ham Language.

Statement of Problem
Civilization has affected the production of the Ham artifacts negatively in the sense that the production of these artifacts that are beautifully decorated with traditional designs has drastically reduced, thereby leading to the loss of some historical information. The problem of the study therefore is the lack of proper preservation and presentation of the Ham artifacts and traditional designs that could serve as means of saving information for the younger generation
In Nigeria, what is mostly known about traditional designs and artifacts in art revolves around the Igbo, Yoruba and Hausa and little is known about the minority ethnic groups who populate this country in their millions. The presence of historical crafts activities around Ham people shows that these skills can be utilized to modern day technology for if not adopted now, with time the artifacts and crafts will face extinction. Most of these artifacts and crafts were used for different purposes and it was observed that these artifacts and crafts have been replaced with modern facilities which appear to be more durable. Against the background, the researcher is therefore set to investigate the existence of these antiquities and to provide solution on how they can be used on modern fabric and apparel embellishment. The problem of the study therefore is the lack of proper documentation and preservation of the Ham artifacts, craft and traditional designs.

Aims and Objectives of the Study
The aim of this study is toexplore and preserve the Ham traditionaldesigns and motifs that can be seen on the artifactsas well as adapt them on fabrics. While the objectives of the study are:
Study the Ham artifacts and the various unique features of the traditional designs found on them.
Determine the various unique features of the Ham traditional designs as motifs in textile design.
Select some of the artifacts and develop traditional motifs for them as to find out whether they can be used for fabrics and apparel embellishment.
To identify the meaning and functions attached to the various artifacts, crafts and traditional designs of the Ham people.
Assess the relationship of the newly modified motifs and the old traditional ones that have been in existence in order to ascertain their differences

Research Questions
In this study research questions are opted for because they provide findings and solutions to research problems. Some of the research questions raised for this study are:
What are the unique features of the Ham traditional designs found on the artifacts of the Ham people?

1. What are the various unique features of the Ham traditional designs that can be used as motifs in textile design?
2. Can the traditional designs found on the artifacts of the Ham people be adapted and applied on fabrics and apparels using batik methods?
3. Are there special meanings and functions attached to these artifacts and traditional designs?
4. To what extent can the differences between the newly modified motifs and the old traditional ones of the Ham people be determined?

Justification
The Ham people are a people with an interesting culture that can be studied over and over again because of the beautiful way of life of the Ham man. The researcher had studied most of the batik designed fabrics and apparels in the markets and discovered that they are mostly embellished with the designs and motifs of the Yoruba people of the southern part of Nigeria. The various traditional designs of the Ham people, when inculcated and adapted on the fabric, will give batik another look from the ones already in circulation. Ala‟u (2006) in his study on the “Adaptation of the Traditional Designs on crafts of Southern Kaduna as motifs for Textiles Resist Technique”, talked on the crafts of some ethnic groups in the southern part of Kaduna state and which Ham was inclusive. But in his study of the Ham crafts, he only studied and talked on the Nok terracotta which is one of the major artifacts the Ham people can be identified with. James (1997), in his book entitled „The Ham: Its people, their political and cultural History‟, concentrated mainly on the cultural history and origin of the Ham people, no serious attention was given to their artifacts, crafts, designs and motifs. Looking at the study of Ala‟u (2006), Fagg (1999), James (1997) and some other paper presentations by Gandu (2013), it is obvious that much attention has not been given to the study of the artifacts and traditional designs of the Ham people which, therefore, justifies  this study.

Significance of the Study
Studies carried out shows that scholars like Fagg (1990) have written on Nok culture, which is one major part of the Ham people, however most of the documentations made by these scholars were on sculptures and none has been made on the textiles of the people. In response to Fagg (1990) and Ala‟u (2006), this study will concentrate on digging into the artifacts and traditional designs of the Ham people. Most of these artifacts and traditional designs are in the danger of extinction as the younger generation is not keen on taking over from the older generation.
The significance and importance of this study therefore will be talked about in the following sub topics, and aspects of life;Educational, cultural, aesthetic, economical and technological
         * Educationally, the study will provide a good source of information, especially when there is limited number of literature on the comprehensive study of the artifacts, crafts and traditional designs of the Ham people.
          * Economically, this study will encourage people to go into private practiceof textiles through the use of local resources, skills, artifacts and traditional designs for the economical growth of the Ham people, Kaduna state and the country as a whole. Industrial development in a country involves considerable artisanal crafts firms in the early stages that grew progressively innumber into large scale manufacturers over the years. Ajayi, (2007).
          * Culturally, this study contributes to the preservation of the cultural heritage of the Ham people, in the sense that most of the information on cultural artifacts and traditional designs would be documented and motifs adapted on fabrics. It will further develop the awareness and understanding of the cultural activity of the Ham people.
          * Aesthetically, this study will provide the Ham people beautifully designed fabrics and apparels that can be used as the identity of the Ham people in social gatherings.Textile dyeing with embellishment of colourful patternsand motifs will satisfy the local clothing needs.
There is the need to identify and preserve these traditional designs, and their adaptation on fabric is one way of reserving and representing them.The arts councils, museums and departments of culture are all in the business of studying, preserving and promoting culture, and the new policy on education emphatically stresses the significance of integrating our cultural system, (Rhoda 2006). In line with Rhoda (2006) it can be said that the culture can be disseminated to a larger public.This study, therefore, will compliment the efforts of the culture departments and the art councils. The study will also enlighten the public on the artifacts and traditional designs of the Ham people, thereby rekindling the interest in the study of Ham arts and culture. It is also anticipated that this work will provide fresh resources in motifs with a view to improving or adding to the existing literature on fabric embellishment in textiles. Similarly, Wangboje (1985), encouraged the conduct of local research into local and traditional materials in order to meet the challenges of the time and to produce products that are relevant to the needs, taste and culture of the society. This study also responds to the call made by Jamkur (1992) and Ala‟u (2006) for more research on the Nok culture and the craft of the southern Kaduna people for adaptation to other textile methods of production using pigments and dyes. Furthermore, it responds to Governments‟ incessant call for Nigerians to look inwards rather than outwards for their needs.
The fact that Nigerians are living in an era of democracy with some economic hardship that is making the people patronize home made goods makes this study relevant.

The home made goods which Nigerians now rush for include textile products such as adire- eleko, okene, akwete and aso-oke (Alau 2006). This recent development, therefore, makes this study not only justifiable and imperative but also timely. Finally, in the present democratic dispensation and the seemingly rising feelings of nationalism,cultural inclination with the ardent desire for industrialization and economic emancipation, the significance of the study in this direction cannot be underrated.

Scope and Delimitation
The scope of the study is delimited to two Local Government Areas the Ham people are predominantly found, namely, Kachia and Jaba Local Government Areas. Kachia Local Government Area has 23 districts and out of which the Ham people occupy 9. In Jaba Local Government Area there are 16 districts all of which are occupied by the Ham people.These two Local Government Areasare sample areas because most of the artifacts of the Ham people are the same.
Furthermore, the study is delimited to the artifacts and traditional designs that are found on household utensils, musical instruments and ritual equipment of the Ham people. The study was alsolimited to batik method of fabric embellishment only. Below are some Ham cultural artifacts and crafts that were studied.
* Nik fang (The co-joined pot)
* Yok zar (The co-joined spoon)
* Hyep shi (Oil jar)
* Hki Nok (Nok terracotta)
* Biyes (Tray)
* Kponkpon (Basket)

Basic Assumptions
The following assumptions weremade for the study:

i. The Ham people have an established artifacts and traditional designs that are on the way to total extinction
ii. The Ham people are a people with an interesting culture that needs to be exploited and critically studied
iii. Representation of other Nigerian cultures should also be reflected in fabrics and apparels embellished with batik method of resist technique instead of focusing on some and ignoring the others.
iv. The researcher will gain access to most of the artifacts and traditional designs of the Ham people.
Most of the respondents have adequate knowledge of these artifacts and traditional designs

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EVALUATION OF GROUNDWATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT AND MODELING

ABSTRACT
Water is essential for growing food., for household water uses including drinking, cooling, sanitation., as a critical input into industry, for tourism and cultural purposes., and for its role in sustaining the earth’s ecosystem (Mark et al., 2002). In addition to water value for direct human consumption, it is integrally linked to the provision and quality of ecosystems service. Domestic water is used for drinking, cooking, bathing and cleaning, However, access to safe drinking and sanitation is critical in terms of health especially for children. For instance, unsafe drinking water contributed to numerous health problems in developing countries such as the one billion or more incidents of diarrhea that occur annually (Mark et al., 2002)

In Nigeria, inadequate supply of pipe borne water is a major concern; hence many homes have wells as a source of water for household uses. The groundwater of forty wells in Agbowo community was assessed for Total Aerobic Bacteria Counts (TABC) and Total Coliform Counts (TCC). The location and distances of wells from septic tanks were determine using the Global Positioning System (GPS) device and a tape rule respectively. All the wells sampled had high TABC(4.76±1.41 log CFU/mL) and TCC (2.29±0.67 log CFU/mL) counts which exceeded the international standard of 0 per100 mL of potable water. There were no significant differences in the bacterial counts between covered and uncovered wells (p > 0.05). The mean distance (8.93±3.61m) of wells from the septic tanks was below the limit (15.24 m or 50 ft) setby United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). TABC increased with a decrease in distance between thewells and septic tanks though not significant (p < 0.05) A very weak positive correlation (r2=0.021)ensued between thedistance from septic tank and CC, while a weak negative correlation (r2 = ‒ 0.261)  was obtained between the TCC and TABC. This study accentuates the need to set standards for the siting of wells from septic tanks while considering allpossible sources of well contamination as well as treatment of ground water before use.

CHAPTER ONE:
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study  
Groundwater from shallow and deep (borehole) wells has become the major source of potable water in most semi-urban and rural areas of Nigeria. This is especially so because, aside its assumed low susceptibility to pollution the method is a readily available and reliable but cheap source of domestic water supply. For instance, Eduvie (1995) stated that groundwater is usually preferred to surface water because it is available in most areas, potable without treatment and of low cost technologies. As a result of the foregoing, governments and individuals in Nigeria have explored groundwater in forms of shallow and deep wells for the supply of potable water. The use of the method became more pronounced especially during the last fifteen years in a way to meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of potable water supply target in the [6]. However, there is spatial variation of groundwater quality based on the type of geological formation in an area, exposure to pollution sources and method of abstraction amongst other factors [7, 8]. Consequently, there is the need for the assessment of the quality of groundwater at local scales in the country for safety purpose. The quality of groundwater is a measure of its wholesomeness. This means that such water should not contain any physicochemical and microbial substances in amounts that are harmful when consumed by man. Thus any source of water for human consumption must conform to the quality control guidelines set by both international and national agencies such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Nigerian Industrial Standard (NIS), respectively. This is necessary to avoid the negative health implications of the consumption of such water [9-11]. Studies have shown that many health challenges such as mortality, morbidity and poverty are consequences of consumption of water from unwholesome sources [12-14]. In addition, about 80% of the diseases causing deaths in developing countries are contracted through the consumption of polluted water [15]. Naturally, groundwater is usually of high quality, but as a result of urbanization, indiscriminate siting of septic tanks and pit latrines, refuse dumps and mining activities, the quality of many ground water resources has been degraded [16]. For this reason, there is the need to continuously assess the quality of water from this source, especially in areas where people depend solely on it.

As population grows and urbanization increases, more water is required and greater demand is made on ground and surface water. The rate of urbanization in Nigeria is alarming and the major cities areas are growing at rates between 10-15% per annum (Yusuf, 2007) and thus, human activities including soil fertility remediation, indiscriminate refuse and waste disposal, and the use of septic tanks, soak-away pits and pit latrines are on the increase. Groundwater pollution has been attributed to the process of industrialization and urbanization that has progressively developed over time without any regard for environmental consequences (Longe and Balogun, 2010) which eventually results in the deterioration of physical, chemical and biological properties of water (Isikwe et al., 2011).

In Nigeria, there is the challenge of lack of supply of pipe borne water hence many homes have wells sited around the house at a distance from the septic tank. 52% of Nigerians do not have access to improved drinking water supply (Orebiyi et al., 2010). For most communities the most secure source of safe drinking water is pipeborne water from municipal water treatment plants. Often, most of water treatment facilities do not deliver or fail to meet the water requirements of the served community; due to corruption, lack of maintenance or increased population. The scarcity of piped water has made communities to find alternative sources of water: ground water sources being a ready source. Wells are a common ground water source readily explored to meet community water requirement or make up the short fall (Adekunle, 2008). This is the situation in many parts of Nigeria and several other African countries (Adelekan, 2010). These wells serve as major source of water for household uses (drinking, cooking, washing etc.). Commonest cause of pollution is attributed to close proximity of septic tanks to wells, unhygienic usage of the wells e.g. some wells have no cover/lids; they are dirty and unkempt thus, making the water unfit for use, resulting into water borne diseases. Groundwater pollution may also be caused by the disposal of solid or liquid wastes in pits, abandoned boreholes or even stream channels and landfills (Onunkwo and Uzoije, 2011). Safe drinking water remains inaccessible for about 1.1 billion people in the world (Mintz et al., 2001). Those most susceptible to water borne illnesses are children, the elderly, pregnant women and immunocompromised individuals, making water-borne illnesses one of the five leading causes of death among children under age five (Gerba et al., 1996). In 1997, the World Health Organization (W.H.O.) reported that 40% of deaths in developing nations occur due to infections from water related diseases and an estimated 500 million cases of diarrhea, occurs every year in children below 5 years in parts of Asia, Africa and Latin America (Adejuwon and Mbuk, 2011).

Ibadan suffers serious water supply problems; cases of dry taps are common in virtually every part of the city. Sights of children/women searching for water are common experience (Ifabiyi, 2008). Potable water is one that does not contain chemical substances or microorganisms in amount that can cause hazards to health (Alonge, 2005). Water must be substantially free of dissolved salts, plant, animal waste and bacterial contamination to be suitable for human consumption. Poorly designed septic tanks and inadequately maintained septic systems have contaminated ground water with nitrates, bacteria and toxic cleaning agents. This can serve as a vehicle for spreading illnesses caused by such microorganisms as; Vibrio cholera, Yersinia enterocolitica, Escherichia coli, Cryptosporidium spp. and vector borne diseases such as guinea worm, schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariosis, onchocerciasis, parasitic and viral infections (Swerdlow et al., 1992; Mackenzie et al., 1995). Feacal (Simango et al., 1992; Obi et al., 2002; Fenwick, 2006) and chemical (from industries and farms) contamination, combined with the failure to adequately treat water, have been incriminated in many water borne epidemics (CDC, 1993; Bridgman et al., 1995). The risk of contaminated water for people was manifested in Lake Erie, Ohio, USA in 2004 when 1450 people became ill because of a pathogen in the well water (Fong et al., 2007). Microbial feacal contamination indicators are Echerichia coli, Clostridia spp., Streptococci (Binnie et al., 2002; Simpson et al., 2002; Scott et al., 2002) and other bacteria that could be of human or non-human origin. Escherichia coli, particularly those possessing virulence markers as; haemolysin, verocytotoxin and belonging to the enteropathogenic serotypes have been responsible for gastroenteritis in humans (Griffin and Tauxe, 1991; Bell et al., 1994; NRC, 1998). Hence, the need to ensure the supply of potable water is a priority to prevention of water borne illnesses.

The increasing dependence on ground water as a source of potable water has spurred efforts to protect the quality of this limited resource. It has been estimated that the total volume of waste disposed off via septic tanks is approximately 800 million gallon per year, virtually all of which is disposed in the subsurface (USEPA, 1977). This makes septic tanks the leading contributor to the total volume of waste discharged directly to ground water. Assessment of water is therefore very crucial to safeguard public health and the environment (Lin et al., 2010). Climatic conditions, land use patterns, vegetative cover, topography, soil and geologic characteristics, well condition, location of potential pollution sources, and agricultural management practices can affect the transport and contamination of groundwater by bacteria (Bourne, 2001).

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Various factors affect the microbiological quality of groundwater. In areas where the depth to bedrock is shallow, there is little interaction with the soil and, therefore, contaminants are not effectively removed (Conboy and Goss, 2000). It is noteworthy that Individual houses in Agbowo, Ibadan, are closely parked together in an in orderly fashion with high number of inhabitants. Refuse dumps, pit latrines and open sewers are common. Environmental sanitation is almost nil. All these suggest possible chances of pollutants and contaminants entering these wells. Improving the quality of groundwater resources offers an important economic opportunity for the gradual improvement of the quality of life (Valenzuela et al., 2009). Therefore, evaluation of the microbial quality of water is an important weapon to the achievement of potable water for daily consumption.

RESEARCH OBJECTIVE
Research objectives are statements that the research project will attempt to achieve. They provide the guidelines for establishing research agenda of activities necessary to implement the research process (Hair et al, 2006; 663).
The main objective of this study is to assess the bacteriological quality of ground water at the Agbowo community via the use of microbial counts (Total aerobic plate and Total coliform) to determine the microbial quality of the ground water and the relationship between the distances of the wells to septic tanks.specifically the objective of the study is:
1.      To determine the differences in the bacterial counts between covered and uncovered wells
2.      To determine if the  mean distance of wells from the septic tanks was below the limit set by United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA).
  
RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Research Question is the question which the researcher set out to answer. It is essentially a hypothesis asked in the form of a question (Kerlinger 2006). For this study the following research questions are raised:
1.      What are the differences in the bacterial counts between covered and uncoveredwells?
2.      Isdistance of wells from the septic tanks was below the limit setby United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)?

Research Hypotheses
Research hypothesis is a formal statement that presents the expected relationship between an independent and dependent variable (Creswell 2006).
1.      Ho: there are nosignificant differences in the bacterial counts between covered and uncovered wells?
2.      Ho:  The distance of wells from the septic tanks is not below the limit setby United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA)?

Significance of the Study
This study on completion would provide a ready guide to policy makers on environmental harzard and it would contribute to the existing literature body.

Scope/ Limitation of the Study
Samples were collected from the Agbowo community in the Ibadan North Local Government Area of Oyo state, Nigeria. Agbowo which is located on latitude 7°26’ 39’’ N and longitude 3° 54’ 57’’ E is one of the largest communities in Ibadan North. Ibadan north has a population of 306,795, (NBS, 2006) making it densely populated and having the highest residents in the state. The community is largely occupied by students and staff of the University of Ibadan and The Polytechnic Ibadan as well as other local occupants.

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RADIO DRAMA AS A TOOL FOR SOCIAL CHANGE

ABSTRACT
The major focus of this study is to find out how the audience perceives the radio drama as a tool for social change. The survey method was adopted for the study.  A questionnaire containing multiple-choice and written-response questions was administered to three hundred (300) respondents from three randomly selected local government areas of Kaduna state in Northwest Nigeria. Data obtained from copies of the returned questionnaires were analysed using simple percentages and chi-square-based statistics. Analyses reveal that majority of respondents do not see the selected radio drama as sufficient on its own (in its present form) to bring about increased awareness on issues concerning the social change.


CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to study
Radio is regarded as the blind man's medium. However, it has the ability to stimulate the mind. It was invented by a great Italian electrical engineer, Guglielmo Marconi in 1895 (Brittnre, 1989) and from its first tentative experiments, it has expanded into an almost universal medium of communication. It is a medium that leaps around the world on short waves, linking the continents, the nations, states, regions and communities in a fraction of a second. It brings the world to those who cannot read and helps maintain a contact for those who cannot see.  Okigbo points out the popularity of radio in Nigeria stating that:
"The attraction radio has for rural dwellers is derived from its cheap price and cost of operation" (57).
He further explains that:
"Radio sets are portable and can be used by both the educated and the illiterate" (58).
Radio drama is a dramatized, purely acostic performance broadcast on radio or published on audio media such as tape or compact disc. With no visual components, radio drama depends on dialogue, music, and sound effects to help the listener imagine the characters and story. It is auditory in the physical dimension but equally powerful as visual force in the psychological dimension. By the 1940s, radio drama became a leading international popular entertainment.
The Roman playwright Seneca has been claimed as the forerunner of radio drama because his plays were performed by readers as sound plays, not by actors as stage plays, but in this respect, Seneca had no significant successor until the 20th century technology made possible the widespread dissemination of sound plays.
However, radio drama can be traced back to the 1900. In 1901, French Engineer Clement Ader had filed a patent for improvements of telephone equipment in Theatres. (Theatrophone). English language drama seems to have started in the United States.
Meleish Ponts that:
The radio medium has a distinguished History of turning thoughts, words and actions into satisfying pictures within the listeners mind by using techniques of drama (221).
This no doubt helps to place in perspective the concept of radio drama, which is using sound and words to create vivid pictures in the minds of listeners and which must satisfy some objectives.
Duno (2002) explains that the objectives of these programmes are "relaxation" and entertainment. He adds that local stations use drama to propagate societal norms values and systems. It can also be used as satire to correct societal ills and clarify gross misconception held about prevailing societal issues.
The importance of radio drama can not be over-emphasized because it can serve as a corrective tool for social change. In Nigeria, there are several radio drama aired across the nation. But "one thing at a time" is broadcast nationwide in both public and private radio stations, hence, it is the focus of this study.

1.2 Statements of Problem
The need to reform the societal behaviour has become paramount. The decadence in the Nigerian society is on the high side. But in the theatre today, most theatre directors/producers do not see the need of producing a radio drama. Hence radio drama has been overlooked not only in the educational theatre but also in the general society. This has made people not to pay attention to radio drama. Hence, the main thrust of this work is to proffer solution to this problem. Change is the only thing that is constant in nature, so humans must adapt to favourable social changes for a better and healthy living. However, radio drama is an effect tool though which these changes can be achieved.

1.3 Scope of Study
This study focuses on "effectiveness of radio drama as a tool for social change" using "one thing at a time" as a case study. It tends to point out the importance of drama/radio drama in our society. The scope of this study would show how drama helps the society to see themselves through the characters in their right form.

1.4 Research Questions
Can radio drama be used as a corrective tool?
Can radio drama serve as an enlightenment purpose?
Is radio drama effective?
Does the audience/listeners appreciate radio drama as entertaining and educative medium for social change?
Is radio drama well-structured and produced to achieve its desired goal?

1.5 Objectives of Study
The aim of this study is to create the awareness that radio drama is a vital tool in effecting social change in our society.
This work is also intended to;
state the fact that radio drama is an effective tool for social change
See how a well-structured radio drama can bring about a desired change.

1.6 Rationale
Radio has a wide coverage of audience. It has also recorded huge success in communication sector. Drama is a recreation of human actions and feelings. It is a play to be acted. Drama reaches the hearts of people where real changes manifest from, hence, radio drama can bring about the expected social change.

1.7 Significance of Study
The significance of this study is to provide the society with the knowledge that radio drama is very effective and important in bringing about positive social change.
Since this study intends to show the effectiveness and importance of radio drama as a tool for social change, it will go a long way to provide radio drama producer with further knowledge on how to produce a well-structured and packaged radio drama. Also, it will provide the educationist, parents and the general public an appropriate means in their quest to correcting the ill social behaviour in the society.
Lastly, the researcher intends to make her findings and recommendation as a good starting point for further research in related fields in the near future

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 40 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
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FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT

ABSTRACT
The child abuse menace is as old as the birth of the first child, until very recently child maltreatment has never been seen as a social problem. It was falsely assumed that such physical punishments are supposed to correct had behavior and ensure conformity. But the consequential distorted personality of the child disproves the assumption. This study aims at showing that it is only through the care of children will one gain experience and develops interest in finding out more about the affliction of the Nigerian child. In addition, the researcher hopes that who are able to read this will get to know and pray that the past experiences of these silent suffers will serve to prevent tomorrow’s children from similar fate. 


CHAPTER ONE
1.0       INTRODUCTION
1.1       BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
It has been the general assumption that children with reasonable physical care would grow into normal happy adulthood. But scientific investigations of psychologists, sociologist and psychiatrists regarding personality development has uncovered the greater importance of the growing up and its lasting effects on the total personality of a person. Adult personality has its root in childhood. What we can do as adult is largely determined by ways in which we were allowed into experience inevitable events of childhood.

Thus the aim of this research work is to shed more light on the issue of child abuse and neglect in Kaduna South Local Government of Kaduna State.

A child is neglected when he lacks continues physical and emotional contact with his mother. Children under this category are those may be due to lose of mother or both parents or the separation of both parents, thus child may be sent to nursery school or orphanages with many children which makes it difficult for special individual attention to be rendered to each child. Those children are therefore brought up by stranger which could be changed at different times due to the shift of their study.

Child abuse on the other hand can be defined as the portion of harm to children that result from human action or in action that is prescribed, proximate and preventable. The definition recognizes that such harm is no accident but something perpetrated on children by others, usually intestinally and that the actors inflicting this harm do not enjoy society approval. It is also point out that abuse generally come from the child immediate environment and that it is preventable child neglect is a passive form of maltreatment or abuse UNICEF (1986).

1.2       HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
Kaduna South Local Government Area was created on 23rd September 1991 by the Babangida’s regime. Hitherto it was part and parcel of Kaduna Local Government. The Local Government Council has its headquarter located at Makera, comprising of two districts namely: Tudun Wada and Makera, each district headed by a district head and supported by village and wards councilors, Kaduna South shares common boundary with Kaduna North to the North West. The two districts share common boundary with the other districts located in the three local government area. Kaduna South has a population of 373,576 as per 2006 census. 

Education
However, in the education, the area is having about (29) public schools in which (8) primary schools and in Tudun Wada and (13) in Makera and five (5) secondary schools in Tudunwada and three (3) in Makeri.

Furthermore, the area is having private nursery/primary and secondary schools approximately one hundred and twenty four (124) i.e. 80 in Tudun Wada and (44) in Makera district.

Adult education programmes and constructed apart from the various vocational training centres, run by various organizations like (YMCA). Apart from Kaduna Polytechnic as a higher institution of learning. There is a prison school at Barnawa, Health Institution like the school of Nursing and Midwifery and school of psychiatric Barnawa.  

There are over fifty (50) large and small scale industries that abound in the local government and some include, textile, defence corporation, Nigeria Breweries, Peugeot Automobile, KFCC, fertilizer superphosphate, pharmaceutical company, blanket industry just to mention a few.

To boost commercial activities in the local government area and the markets and up to R. Tourist attractions and hotels, the council has six (6) tourist areas and about twelve (12) hotels. Kaduna South Local Government areas well connected by road, bridges and railway line system.

Thus, the above mentioned geographical, emotional, educational and administrative features taken together given Kaduna South its unique characteristics. It was discover that the habitants have little or no knowledge of what child abuse is.

Some with dishes roaming the street and begging for food and aims for certain belief. They were also denied educational pursuit and a child right to decide for themselves what they want to become in future. Without being told, you will see for yourself how little children hawk around from morning till evening for financial support, this researcher strongly, belief is one of the causes of child abuse and neglect because this kind of occupation endangers the child’s life and expose him to hard situation.

1.3       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The researcher’s concern to delve into the affairs of CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT in Kaduna South Local Government Area of Kaduna State becomes necessary because the record available to this researcher shows that since the creation of Kaduna South from the former Kaduna local government there was not been any necessary attempt for research work into the activities of child abuse and neglect.

However, it is widely believed that the good image of any social or community depend largely on the social background of its children. Therefore, the problem of child abuse in the local government has been a total neglect in large extent. A situation brought about probably by the undesirable element in our society mostly associated with women folk and partly perhaps the government who have not given enough attention to the ugly situation in the area but rather sitting on chairs in offices. Based on this, the researcher will seriousness wishes to know the activities to the authority concerned with the affairs of child abuse, towards educating the people of the area and of course suggest ways on how to improve and implements their programme towards making the entire area a conducive place of living.

  1.4     OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
            The following are the objectives of the study:
a.       To identify the factors responsible for child neglect
b.      To determine the factors responsible for child neglect
c.       To identify the factors responsible for child abuse
d.      To determine the rating of the factors responsible for child abuse

1.5       RESEARCH QUESTIONS
            The following research question guided the study:
a.       The absence of either parent in any family setting can also perhaps bring about child abuse
b.      Roaming the street and begging  for food and aims for certain belief will equally bring in child abuse
c.       The act of ignorance among the parent will make a child not go to school but hawk all day and that also brings in child abuse
d.      The occupational pressure of the working parent is also a contributing factor to child abuse

1.6       SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study is the opportunity to do or achieve something which children are being abuse of more to say, production of two many children to the wide world and not taking care of them should be eradicated by family planning to space the recreation of babies. 

However, the absence of mother in any family setting can also perhaps bring about child abuse and the study is out in looking for the suitable solution of resolving it, through the government and the societal people to be aware of the child to try to come affection, warmth etc.

Finally, the scope of the study is to improve the standard of living  of clued not by seen influence by an absent of one parent and two much of giving birth of babies.

The government should Endeavour to encourage agencies to treat such a social ill or evil in the society.

1.7       SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study is an attempt to provide evidence and identify pattern of child abuse and neglection with a view to offering suggestion and recommendations that will date the level. This study would be of immense value to parents, counseling teachers of low level of educational and children. The finding and suggestion resulting from this study will go along way in helping parent and guidance to know irritating iterance or actions, it have on youth and children or young once which can be economically, psychological or society which will enable parents, adult to adjust in order to ensure smooth development of children. It will also addressed the practical problem which when left will cut at the very root of civilized ethics particularly  significant at present a bold attempt to go into an area of scarcity literature.

1.8       DEFINITION OF TERMS
Child: Child is defined as a dependent person in the custody of a parent or guardian for protection of his/her life.
Abuse: Is any deliberate act by a person: group of person of society designed to inflict on a child or parent normal, mental physical, emotional and normal development.
Neglect: This usually occurs when families fail on their own part to provide the necessary need fro their children such as food, medical care or being deprived of essential need of life or it is a situation were one show a sign of suffering or lack of care and attention.
Child care: This is care which is supposed to be given to children by those who are responsible for looking after them provide them with child care facilities.
Child Abuse: Those are cruel treatment of children by adult involving violence or sexual activities which is capable of affecting physically, mentally and psychologically.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 53 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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