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ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF TRANSPORTATION TO TOURISM AND LEISURE ACTIVITIES

ABSTRACT
There is no gainsaying that road network connectivity, level of road accessibility and transport services developing nations are often poor and inadequate, yet, most of the cultural resources with which Nigeria is endowed are domiciled in the hinterlands. Developing these cultural resources into tourist attractions becomes problematic due to the abject condition of the link roads and lack of adequate means of transportation. This research is focused at investigating the transportation systems in Owerri municipal and the impact on tourism and leisure activities. Three communities were used for the study. The selection was based on the three senatorial zones in Imo State, and from the zones, the communities richer in cultural resources were chosen. Survey method was used to gather the primary data for which the questionnaire was the major instrument of research'. A total of 300 sets of questionnaire were administered to respondents in the three communities. In the findings, it was deduced that roads to the communities in Owerri are in a deplorable state coupled with lack of ready and comfortable means of transportation. All these have immensely affected tourist flow to the numerous cultural attractions in the area of study. It was also deduced that poor road condition was also responsible for the high cost of transportation. It was recommended that federal government should expunge the joint account policy between states and local governments so as to empower the later to handle their road construction and rehabilitation projects. A collaborative effort must exist between the host communities and their local governments as a condition for an uninterrupted development of their numerous cultural resources for tourism purposes.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Tourism is defined as the short-term movement of people from their usual place of residence (origin) to other places (destination) for the purpose of leisure and recreational activities without any intention of securing a permanent resident or job at the destination; Cooper and Boniface (2006). It is also seen as the science, art and business of attracting and transporting visitors, accommodating them and graciously catering for their needs and wants; Mentosh and Gupta (2008). Since the early 70s, tourism has grown to become one of the fastest growing economic sectors in the world, ranking only after petroleum and auto trades. Tourism today plays a significant role in the balance of payment of many countries both in the developed and developing worlds. Tourism therefore, brings huge economic and social benefits to many nations, especially those that carefully plan and manage their potential attractions or resources (UNTWO, 2010). It has become the world’s largest growing industry, statistics by the world Tourism organizations shows that there are no signs of this growth slowing down in the next Millennium. To benefit from this global trend, tourism is been adopted by governments as a vehicle for poverty alleviation, employment generation and wealth creation. It is also seen as a veritable tool for the realization of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

It is not in doubt that Nigeria is lavishly endowed with varieties of cultural resources which are mainly domiciled in the rural areas. The desire to witness cultural heritage like festivals, traditional architecture, monuments, arts and crafts, historic sites, shrines etc, has formed a major motivation for cultural tourism in recent times. Richards (2011) defined cultural tourism as the movement of persons to cultural attractions away from their normal place of residence, with the intention to gather new information and experience to satisfy their cultural needs. It is a fact that all forms of tourism, world over cannot thrive in isolation from transport, which provides the link amid the dwelling and destination regions of tourists. Yet, because the cultural resources are domiciled mostly in the rural locations, the need for transport becomes even more important. In the view of tourism professionals, transportation is an integral part of tourism which serves as a means of tourists' displacement from origin to the destination and other surrounding attractions. Hence, Hall (1991) highlights that there is a strong positive correlation between transport development and tourism growth. This implies that improvement in transport has a direct impact on tourism. It was gathered from the historical development of tourism that the key technical transformation in the transportation system industry brought about by the industrial revolution, marked the beginning of tourism. During this period in history, massive modifications of transport system were recorded which gave rise to the exploration of new lands to satisfy cultural needs. Hobson and Uysal (1992:209) also testified that the major steps in the development of tourism have been linked with advancements in transport.

Prior to the decision to travel to any destination, certain transport needs must be fulfilled, including safety and easy access to tourist destinations. The ability to connect attractions and carry luggage comfortably, and at affordable cost must be certain. Collier (1994) in agreement to this assertion mentioned some of the tourist transport needs that must be fulfilled as:

• Transporting the tourist from the generating to the host area

• Transport between host destinations

• Transport within host destinations

The need for effective transport to cultural attractions is not limited to tourists alone. During festival celebrations, for instance, indigenes of the host communities residing in the urban cities and aboard visit home. Besides, some invited guests like friends, well-wishers and business associates contribute to the population of the crowd moving towards the host community. Also included in the number are the service providers who provide convenience and comfort to the tourists. On this note, Okoli and Igbojekwe (2014), maintained that the quality of the transportation system is an important aspect of the traveler's experience. In their own view, poor service, scheduling problems, and or long delays associated with transportation service could seriously affect a passenger's perception and lead to regrets about a trip. Tourists expect to be transported safely, quickly and comfortably at moderate costs to their destinations before a trip could be termed memorable (Nwankwo, 2005). Various countries in Asia have also considered improving tourists transportation using tour buses instead of road transport. In Hong Kong, most tourists use trains that are managed by specific organizations. But there are also special buses for tourists that are called tour buses. These buses are not managed by the government but they are owned by the government but they are designated for tourists only.

According to Howe and Bryceson (2000) tourists transportation has been a challenge in many African countries. Popular transport for tourists used to be road transport in most of African countries. But this started to change in 1980s where some organizations tour sites operated tour buses for tourists.

Most public tour sites in African countries have no tour buses. Tourists use public buses and other means of transport. These tourists are facing many challenges including arriving late to tour site and rough treatments from bus conductors. These challenges are not bothering tourists who use tour buses within same countries (ibd).

Tour buses are chosen because generally tour buses and other special buses for tourists are considered to be safer than other public buses. Considering how many tourists the buses carry and the distance they cover, deaths on the road are extremely rare. Tour buses in America have a rate of 0.2 deaths per 100 million miles traveled. The rate of deaths in other automobiles transport is eight times higher. Statistics provides a good way of comparing risks involved. In a period of 11 years, from 1994-2004, a total of 71 passengers on tour buses died in crashes. But in one year, 2004 alone, traffic accidents killed 31,693 people traveling in cars and light trucks in America (Forkenbrock, 2004).

In Nigeria, Imo state residents travel under difficult conditions from one part of the city to another. Available information shows that daily travel in the city is facing many difficulties. These difficulties include the split between residential areas and places of work or areas where people get services, expansion of urbanized area and deficient transport system. As a result of these factors, transport remains to be a critical need for city residents (Sliuzas, 2001).

Werlin (1999) explain that generally lack of adequate transport system, is potential to create complicated daily life by making access to various destinations and services difficulty for majority of people especially the poor. Privileged section of the population has access to good transport infrastructure but on the other hand, the low income population is facing poor urban road transportation.

Rural transport is considered as a vital component of the system of services necessary for the continuing existence of a dispersed settlement in less densely populated areas (Tolley and Turton 1995). More so, in most developing countries, the road is the principal mode available, while the rail and inland waterway transport generally play little or no role within rural areas. Considering the nature of cultural tourism, the location of cultural attractions leaves the travelers with no other choice than the road transport. Yet, the overall road network connectivity, level of road accessibility and transportation services is generally poor and inadequate. The situation is so pathetic that they are highly deprived of infrastructural facilities like smooth tarred roads, adequate drainage system, sufficient road networks and transportation means. The most problematic is the poor physical condition of the rural roads. It was alleged that even up till 1960, other parts of Africa excluding the Southern part have less than 5 percent of their roads tarred, with large proportion of their minor feeder roads still existing as tracks. The condition in the communities in Owerri is so bad that a good number of the rural roads can only be managed during the dry season, when the rains are over.

Governments at all levels have not demonstrated adequate effort in the repair and general maintenance of the roads, and this amounts to a domino effect on vehicle maintenance cost and transport fares (Adesanya, 1997). Adeniji (1983), further posits that this level of insensitivity could be as a result of the low volume of traffic and periodicity, as well as seasonality in demand for transport in rural areas. Furthermore, Aderamo and Magaji (2010) expressed some fears that the solution cannot be at sight so long as the local government remains underfunded. Under this situation, most rural roads remain unpaved, narrow, circuitously aligned, and with pot holes, thereby leaving them impassable until dry season reappears. According to Ifegbo (2021), majority of festivals in Igbo land take place during the raining season, when most of the rural roads are in their worst conditions. This has remained a challenge to the respective stakeholders

i.e. the government at all levels, tourism planners and the transport industry and until a remarkable improvement is made, tourism development will remain a dream.

Such inadequate and unreliable transport in Imo state is also experienced by tourists. The tourists also need transport every day to go to various tourists destinations and back. It is common in Imo state to see many tourists stranded at bus stands for long time waiting for transport. But there are other tourists who use special tour buses. This group may not be experiencing the same transport impact as their fellows who use public means (Nyirenda, 2012). This study examined the impact of peace transit on tourism and leisure activities in Imo state.

1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
Tourist attraction in Imo state is growing. According to Mjingo (2011), there are about 10,000 tourists in the city who need transport to go to tour site and travelling back home. But the safety of travelling for these tourists, most of them rely on the erratic road transport system, which is at stake most of the time. Mjingo (2011) also reports that Imo state has about 12 tourist sites.

But most of these tour sites have no proper transport arrangements for their tourists. University of Imo state (2008) observed that the tourists travel to various tour sites and back home with a lot of difficulty. When travelling from the outskirts of the city to their respective tour sites, tourists face the inconvenience of commuting unreliable road transport. This means that the future of transport system for tourists who use road transport system in Imo state is uncertain.

But on the other hand, University of Imo state (2008) argues that some road transport systems like peace transit have an orderly way of transporting both tourists and citizens within and out of the city, these public transits although expensive, provide safe and comfortable movement giving tourism a positive effect as the problem of transportation is reduced Those who use tour buses are mainly those attending private tour sites in the city. This group is privileged with less difficulty in travelling compared with their fellows who use road transport system. One would wonder what happened to tourists who face such transport challenges both personally and in their social activities. At the same time one would want to know what are the benefits enjoyed by tourists who use tour buses to travel over those who use road transport system. This study examined the impact of road transport system on the tourism development of primary tourists in Imo state.

1.3 Research Objectives
1.3.1 General Research Objective
The general objective of the study was to assess the transportation system in Owerri and the impact on tourism and leisure activities in Imo state.

1.3.2 Specific Research Objectives

Specific objectives of the study were as follows:

• To assess the current system of road transport used by tourists in Owerri Municipal.

• To assess the impact of transportation on tourism in Imo state.

• To examine coping strategies that are used by tourists to deal with challenging road transport system in Imo state.

1.4 Research Questions
1.4.1 General Research Question

What are the transportation system in Owerri municipal and it’s impact on tourism and leisure activities in Imo state?

1.4.2 Specific Research Questions

• What is the current system of road transport used by tourists in Owerri Municipal?

• What is the impact of transportation on tourism in Imo state?

• What are the coping strategies that are used by tourists to deal with challenging road transport system in Imo state?

1.5 Significance of the Research
The study contributes towards the on-going discussions and initiatives taken by various stakeholders towards providing reliable transport to tourists. The study also adds on information about the impact of poor transport system on tourism peace transit owners will use the available information to up their management of their transport systems, passenger treatment and proper management of their vehicles.

Tourism organizers in Ebony will have a second look into the transport sector as a major factor in setting up a tourist event, as it will involve transporting tourists around

This study provides information on the impact of those challenges on tourists‟ tourism development especially in Imo state.

1.6 Scope of the Study
In order to understand the impact of peace transit on tourism and leisure activities of tourists in Imo state, the study assessed type of challenges faced by tourists and their impact on the tourism. Peace transit was used as the case study

1.7 Organization of the Study
The study has five chapters that present introduction and background of the research in chapter one, literature review of ideas and arguments from various authors related to the subject in chapter two, followed by chapter three that discussed research methodology that was followed on the research work. Chapter four presents study findings and analysis of the findings. Chapter five presents summary conclusions and recommendations.

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CONTRIBUTION OF CULTURAL TOURISM AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT. A STUDY OF NZULEZU

ABSTRACT
The main objective of this study was to investigate the impact of cultural tourism on community development in Nzulezu, with particular reference to Mount Afadja. Tourism is a vital source of both public as well as private income, source of foreign exchange earnings. It is one of the most important sectors in generating employment opportunities to unskilled, semi-skilled and skilled human resources. Despite of all the economic benefits, tourism can also be a threat to natural environment where the tourist attraction exist. In order to fulfil the objectives of this study, both secondary and primary sources of data were used. A total of fifty two respondents participated in this research. The study found that Tourism has both negative and positive impacts to the tourist attraction. The study established that, negative impacts appeared to a large extent; hence the study suggests various ways to overcome the problems. According to the findings, the study concluded that,tourist sites attractions along the coast of Nzulezu present many opportunities and challenges for sustainable tourism development. Many of the attractions, however, need a great deal of work in terms of rehabilitation, management and promotion. Since different attractions are under the supervision of many different agencies, it is important to take a comprehensive approach that creates and sustains management program. The study recommends that tourism management plans have to be developed and implemented on a pilot basis which can develop into a sustainable financing mechanism for the management and protection of these important resources.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Cultural tourism is one of the largest and fastest growing global tourism markets. Culture and creative industries are increasingly being used to promote destinations and enhance the competitiveness and attractiveness. Many locations are now actively developing their tangible and intangible cultural assets as a means of developing comparative advantages in an increasingly competitive market place, and to create local distinctiveness in the face of globalisation.

The impact of tourism industry on community development examines the growing relationship between tourism and culture, and the way in which they have together become major drivers of destination attractiveness and competitiveness. Based on the case study. Mount Afadja in Nzulezu, that illustrate the different facets of the relationship between the culture, tourism and regional attractiveness, and the policy interventions which can enhance the relationship, this research work shows how a strong link between tourism industry and community development can be forestered to assist places become more attractive to tourists, as well as increasingly their competitiveness as locations to live work and invest in.

This project is essential reading for academic national and local policy makers and practitioners and all those in the tourism sector who wish to understand the tourism industry as a lead to community development.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE STUDY
There are many cultural heritages in Ghana distributed in different parts of the country. Most rock art sites are executed on limestone, sandstone caves, shelters and boulders. Western part of Ghana, particularly the Jomoro district area is known for large concentration of rock artsites. The motifs depicted in these sites are predominantly domestic cattle, wild animals, geometric and human figures, and domestic scene with few plant depictions (Tekle, 2011). So far, there are no researches on the use of rock art for sustainable tourism in Ghana and the Nzulezu region in particular.

It is erroneously believed that our cultural heritage is gradually being pushed aside by technological advancements. Therefore, this research work is interested in finding answers to how the tourism industry can enhance the community development in Nzulezu.

1.3 Objectives of the Study
1. To investigate the cultural practices in Nzulezu, Jomoro district?

2. To investigate the tourism activities carried out in Mount Afadja, Nzulezu, Jomoro district?

3. To assess the impact of tourism activities around Mount Afadjato the community development in Nzulezu, Jomoro district

1.4 Research Questions
1. Are there cultural practices in Nzulezu, Jomoro district?

2. What are the tourism activities carried out in Mount Afadja, Nzulezu, Jomoro district?

3. Are there any development caused by the tourism activities around Mount Afadjain Nzulezu, Jomoro district

1.5 Significance of the Study
As discussed earlier, tourism has unlimited potential in improving the economics and culture of the nations. However, if poorly planned and managed could cause a negative impact to the tangible natural heritage resources such rocks, mountains, marine life, mangrove trees.The findings of the study therefore, could help decision makers in the sector to make informed decisions on the management of tourism tangible heritage resources.

Also, the study has the potential of raising awareness among the public and decision makers on the impact of tourism on tangible heritage resources.

1.5 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This research work is limited to Mount Afadja which is a major tourist destination in Nzulezu Jomoro district.

1.6 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
In the course of this research work, the researcher encountered problems such as financial and time constraints, lack of right and informative materials and journals.

1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Tourism: Is the travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes.

Industry: The production of goods from raw materials especially in factories.

Tourism Industry: This is the business of providing things for people to do, places for them to stay etc. while they are on holiday. Tourists: Someone who is traveling or visiting a place for people to do.

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SOCIALIZATION AS AN INSTRUMENT FOR NATIONAL INTEGRATION IN NIGERIA (A CASE STUDY OF ABUJA MUNICIPAL AREA COUNCIL)

ABSTRACT
This research work was conducted to evaluate the effects of Socialization on national integration among the people in AMAC. The descriptive survey research design was used in carrying out the study hence it required the collection of data from a large number of respondents within the limited time scheduled for the completion of the project, and in doing this, relevant research questions were asked and hypotheses were formulated to test them in order to show the findings of the study. A questionnaire was designed by the researcher and validated by the supervisor which was then administered to the respondents for the generation of data. A total of 400 respondents comprising 200 boys and 200 girls were selected through simple random sampling method to generate the sample size. The sample size was considered adequate and representative because all the students were of similar age, although they were drawn from different schools. The analysis of the data collected from respondents was carried out with the use of percentage and frequency distribution tables, while the hypotheses formulated for the study were tested using chi- square statistical tools to establish their correctness or otherwise. The findings made from the study revealed that; Socialization is an effective tool for the achievement of national integration among the people in AMAC; Socialization imparts knowledge of patriotic and democratic skills among the people in AMAC. It was therefore recommended among other things, that the concepts of culture, religion, tolerance, inter-tribal marriage and cooperation, unity, patriotism and nationalism should be well communicated to people in AMAC.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
• Background to the Study
There is a well-known saying that what is learnt at a tender age is hardly forgotten even at adulthood. The dictum that national integration occupies a prominent position in the quest to build a united, strong, virile and prosperous Nigeria can never be overemphasized.

Socialization as a holistic approach to societal unity, makes it possible for vital issues such as cultural tolerance and national unity to be accommodated. A survey through the Socialization from childhood to adulthood clearly indicates the commitment of the process in installing attitudes and values necessary for national unity and integration in Nigeria (NTI/STUP, 2007).

Notwithstanding the efforts made at this time, Socialization dream as held by these educators from Ohio University was not realized. Its entry into the curriculum at that time was short-lived because there were no schools in which the process could be communicated but it was re-introduced in 1963 to enable learners to learn about themselves (Ezegbe,1988).

Socialization deals with man and his environment, how man discovers himself and how he can be useful both to himself, to the community and to the society at large, are questions that engage Socialization thinkers. The constant search of how man can fit into the society by utilizing the necessary attitudes, values and skills are at the root of Socialization objective. This in fact, explains why Socialization is simply seen as “the way of life” of the people. Its study focuses on the use of critical and reflective thinking to solve problems of man’s survival in his environment, to which peace, unity and national integration are critical catalysts. Hence these catalysts are sine qua non to development as no meaningful progress can be achieved in an atmosphere marred by disunity.

Nigeria is a pluralistic entity comprising large cultural groups and different ideological divides with tribalism constantly challenging every spirited effort any successive government makes towards national integration. Some of the programmes which the government has introduced with the aim of achieving integration in Nigeria include, among many others, the National Youths Service Corps (NYSC) in 1973, and the Declaration of Ethical Revolution in 1982 to mention but a few. All these efforts were geared towards achieving integration within the country, but despite these laudable programmes provided by the government to achieve unity in Nigeria, the divide however, remains so sharp across the country that we can observe it politically, culturally, economically, linguistically and religiously, constantly resulting to conflicts, breach of national peace and putting so much pressure on government and security agencies as well as creating some kind of developmental setbacks.

According to Anegbu, (n.d) in People of Nigeria; “Nigerian census 2006 showed that over five hundred ethnicities exist in Nigeria but there are three major tribes which are Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba. The Hausa are the biggest tribe in Nigeria; they inhabit about ten states out of the 36 states of the federation, and are predominantly Muslims but a few of them practice traditional religion. The Yoruba account for the second biggest tribe and are predominantly Christians but a large number of them are Muslims, a few practice traditional religions. The Igbo are the third largest tribe. They are largely Christians, a few practice traditional religions. The diversities however, the 2006 Nigerian Census, put the population of Nigeria to about One Hundred and Forty Million (140,000,000) people living together and interacting with one another”.Anegbu (n,d). Retrieved August 19, 2017 from http://www.total-facts-about-nigeria.comHYPERLINK "http://www.total-facts-about-nigeria.com/".

Quite often therefore, misunderstandings do occur, resulting to ethnic clashes, religious disputes and killings. Recent examples of such problems are the cases of the Boko-Haram and the threats from the Northern Youths Forum to the Igbo communities living in the northern parts of the country, the hate speeches coming from every region of the country, the agitation for a separate state of Biafra and the activities of the Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB) embodied by their leader, Nnandi Kalu to mention but a few. These social unrests are parts of the indices that indicate the limit of the status of Socialization in our schools and colleges, and they have generated a lot of controversies and series of concerns coming from a cross section of the larger society over the failure or inability of processs communicated in our schools to foster unity among children.

Evaluation of Socialization at the junior secondary school level shows that it focuses attention in the area of critical thinking and reflective enquiry; for example, a responsible citizen should be able to distinguish between facts and rumours or propaganda. Therefore, hence education in Nigeria is regarded as the vehicle by which Nigeria hopes to make its teeming youths become good citizens, the effective communicating of Socialization in the junior secondary schools in Nigeria will, in no small measure, enhance national integration among people in junior secondary schools and as well expose them to active role participation in their various communities. The study will hinge on a determination of the extent to which the communicating of Socialization has fostered national integration among People in Abuja. There is the need for an urgent study to determine ways for emphasizing national unity and integration through school curricular. The study will examine the effects of Socialization on National Integration among the people in AMAC against the above backdrops. It will proffer ways for which the much needed national integration will be achieved in our secondary schools through the communicating of Socialization.

• Statement of the Problem
No nation will ever move forward where there are crises and clashes among the people, more so, when youths as future leaders of society are manipulated and made to become vehicles by which ills are perpetrated by the selfish and zealous politicians who take advantage over the ignorance of these young men and women to fan embers of discord in the society. Nigeria is a large and pluralistic nation. Its ethnicities are politically, religiously, linguistically, and culturally diverse, and it is not preternatural for conflict of interest to arise intermittently in the course of social relations among the people due to these pluralisms, but because the political classes in their greed, have created a system where the youths now live in an enterprise of free-market culture of ethnicism and nepotism, where the license of tribalism rules over nationalism. As can be imagined, the effect of this is the erosion of consciousness of shared values and nationalism in the subconscious minds of Nigerians - a culture that is totally antithesis to national integration and nation-building.

• Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of Socialization in achieving national integration among the people in AMAC.

Specifically, the study seeks to:
• Examine the extent to which Socialization is effective in the achievement of national integration among people

• Examine the extent to which Socialization impart knowledge of patriotic and democratic skills to people.

• Evaluate the methods of communication by teachers to impart Socialization contents on the students with a view to understanding if the students are being communicated well or not.

• Investigate the effectiveness of Socialization practices and activities in the achievement of national integration among people.

• Evaluate students’ attitudes to one another having been exposed to such Socialization concepts as cultural integration, inter-tribal cooperation, friendship, and conflict management, as well as social justice and self-development.

• Research Questions
The following research questions will provide guide for the study:

• Is Socialization an effective tool for the achievement of national integration among people?

• Does Socialization impart knowledge of patriotic and democratic skills to people?

• Does method of communicating affect students’ comprehension of the process-matter being communicated?

• Does Socialization practices and activities especially teacher to people, and student to student relationships, improve general relationship among people?

• Do students attitudes and general perception of one another change having been exposed to such concepts as cultural integration, inter-tribal marriages, cooperation, friendship, conflict management, as well as social justice and self-development?

• Research Hypotheses
• Ho1: There is no significant relationship between Socialization and impartation of knowledge of national integration on students.

• Ho2: There is no significant relationship between Socialization and impartation of patriotic spirit and democratic skills on students.

• Ho3: There is no significant relationship between Socialization learning methods and students’ understanding of the concepts of Socialization.

• Ho4: There is no significant relationship between Socialization practices and activities and the building of cooperation and friendship among people

• Ho5: There is no change in students’ attitudes and general perception of one another after been exposed to Socialization process-matter.

• Scope and Limitation of the Study
The scope of the study will be delimited to the following variables; cultural integration, inter- tribal cooperation, friendship, conflict management, civic responsibilities and democratic skills, social justice, self-development, patriotism and nationalism, among others.

However, the research is centred on Effects of Socialization on National Integration among the people in AMAC. There is no research without limitations. The researcher experienced some difficulties in terms of availability of materials. Some of the materials that would have been used for the work, especially online materials, were inaccessible without payment. And also, a lot of the materials found in the libraries were outdated. Another difficulty experienced was that it took the researcher time to convince the respondents concerning the confidentiality of the questionnaire. Time constraint was another factor which the researcher encountered. As the time allotted for the research was so short, the researcher had to exhaust himself to finish in the nick of time.

• Significance of the Study
The study will be of immense help to Socialization planners, designers and developers to know the effects of the process curriculum on students in order to know areas that call for innovation or change, and also which communicating and learning materials should be made available to schools. The study will also serve the needs of teachers to determine the effectiveness of their learning methods on students so as to know which methodology is most efficient in communicating national integration and unity. It will also be beneficial to the students and the general public who are interested in Nigerian national unity. Above all, this study will be immensely beneficial to the government in its efforts towards achieving national integration. It will serve as a blueprint of action for peace and unity, and a generalization on methods towards conflict resolution among the different ethnic groups.

• Operational Definition of Terms
• Peace: “A tranquility of order”. (Saint Augustine, A.D. 354 – 430). It also means having a feeling of security, calm and restfulness.

• Unity: A state of togetherness in mind and action.

• National Integration: Coming together of people of different ethnic, tribal, social, political, religious and cultural backgrounds as one people with a common destiny.

• Conflict: Confrontation between individuals or groups. Conflict could also mean incompatible behaviour between two or more parties whose interest clash. Conflicts emanate from social relationship.

• Interaction: A process that defines social relationships between individuals or groups in their dealings with one another in the society.

• Ethnophaulism; Ethnic, racial or tribal slurs, including derisive nicknames.

• Prejudice; A negative attitude towards an entire category of people, such as a racial or ethnic minority.

• Discrimination: The denial of opportunities and equal right or treatment to individuals and groups because of prejudice or for other arbitrary reasons.

• Nepotism: An act of favouritism done to friends, relatives and one’s kiths and kin against others, as a result of position one occupies.

• Tribalism: An arbitrary act of giving an undue advantage to one tribe against others because of reasons that one is a member of that tribe. Tribalism leads to prejudice.

• Sectionalism: An act of being loyal to one’s own region or section of the country rather than to the country as a whole.

• Nationalism: The act of being proud, loyal and patriotic to one’s own country.

Nationalism is the love of one’s country.

• Patriotism: This is the devotion or love one has for one’s nation.

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INVESTIGATION ON LABORATORY RESOURCES ON CHEMISTRY ACHIEVEMENT AMONG SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENT IN GUSAU METROPOLIS, ZAMAFARA STATE

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of chemistry laboratory resources on students‟ achievement in chemistry in Gusau metropolis‟ public secondary schools. The main objective of the study was to establish if there is any significant difference in academic achievement in chemistry between students exposed to chemistry laboratory resources and those not so exposed. Learners‟ achievement in chemistry was determined by scores obtained by students in Students Achievement Tests (SAT) done just before and immediately after exposure to the topic under investigation. Data relating to teachers‟ and students‟ views on the use or non use of chemistry laboratory resources and its effects on achievement in chemistry were collected using questionnaires. The computer package SPSS (Statistical package for social scientists) was used to analyze the data. Descriptive statistics such as frequency, mean, percentages, and standard deviation was used to discuss the research findings. The study also used inferential statistics such as ANOVA, ANCOVA, independent T-test and multiple regression to test the statistical significance in the four null hypotheses generated for the study. It was found that the use of chemistry laboratory resources in teaching and learning of chemistry at secondary school level, improved performance in the subject. There was a difference between the mean scores in the post test of the students of both groups. The mean score for experimental group was (15.73) whereas it was (14.18) for the control group. The t-test value was (4.47) at p = 0.00, that is, a significant level at p ˂ 0.05 which indicated that there was a significant difference in performance of the experimental and the control group. That is, the students exposed to chemistry laboratory resources scored significantly higher in the achievement test than those not exposed. The ANOVA results (F= 74.2, p = 0.00), a significance level at p ˂ 0.05 and (F= 132.7, P = 0.00), that is a significance level at p ˂ 0.05 showed that a strong relationship existed between achievement in chemistry and nature, and frequency respectively, of chemistry laboratory resources used in the teaching and learning of chemistry. It was further found that a majority of students (68.8% and 76.6%) respectively agreed that the use of chemistry laboratory resources makes learning to be enjoyable to students and increases their understanding of concepts. In addition, it was observed that pressure to cover the syllabus is not an obstacle to using of chemistry laboratory resources as a teaching and learning method. The study recommended that students be given an opportunity to engage in „deep learning‟ during chemistry laboratory resources and that there should be further study on the curriculum and learning standards for chemistry laboratory resources in secondary school Chemistry and that due consideration should be paid to improving school conditions and teachers‟ capacity, for effective implementation of chemistry curriculum.

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
• Background to the Study
Chemistry is the branch of science that deals with the study of the composition and properties of matter, changes in matter, the laws and the principles that govern these changes (Ebbing, 2016). Chemistry is one of the subjects that is offered in the Nigerian secondary school curriculum (KIE, 2012). It is an important part of what is called science and an active and continually growing science that has vital importance to our world in both the realm of nature and realm of society (Anaso, 2015). According to Kauffman and Szmant (2017), chemistry is characterized as the most utilitarian of all the experimental sciences. For example, in Nigeria, a good secondary school education pass grade in chemistry is a prerequisite for joining medical and agricultural professional courses. Poor performance in the subject means fewer students are able to join such professions, therefore lack of enough professionals leading to low health care provision and food insecurity in the country.

Since chemistry is the science that has the most direct and dramatic impact on our lives, and the science that shapes the world we will live in tomorrow, the performance of students in the subject is a major concern to any developing country (Khan, Hussain, Ali, Majoka, and Ramzan, 2011). The uniqueness of chemistry and the central role that it stands to play in the development of any nation when considered, are however, not evident in the performance of students. The students‟ achievement in chemistry in Nigeria has been poor and unimpressive (Anaso, 2015).

In their study, Edomwonyi-Out & Avaa (2011) made an attempt to ascertain the remote causes for the poor performances reported in Nigeria in chemistry at the secondary level of education. Teacher variables, student variables and environment-related variables were investigated and the findings showed that these all contribute greatly to the poor performances of students in science subjects and chemistry in particular.

According to Inyega and Thomson (2016), the poor achievement in chemistry in the national examinations by many candidates has been a subject of debate since the inception of 8-4-4 system of education in Nigeria. This is an indication that the teaching and learning of this subject in secondary schools has not been well. The Strengthening of Mathematics and Science in Secondary Education (SMASSE) project (Nigeria) was introduced when the consistently poor performance in Mathematics and Science became a matter of serious concern (Nui & Wahome, 2016).

Knowledge of how teaching methods affect students‟ learning may help educators to select methods that improve the teaching and learning quality and effectiveness. An appraisal of the role of chemistry laboratory resources as an approach or method in the learning and teaching of chemistry is necessary. This can be done by conducting related classroom-based relevant research on central issues like the effectiveness of the method, which can shape and improve chemistry learning consequently improving performance. Hence, the study intended to find out the effects of chemistry laboratory resources on learners‟ achievement in chemistry in Nigerian secondary schools.

While chemistry laboratory resources are assumed to be necessary for all learners, some studies (Gardner, 2015) show that boys and girls differ in the reception of the practical approach. Although learners benefit through engagement with concepts in chemistry laboratory resources through interactions, hands-on activities and application in science, Gardner (2015) shows that sex may determine students‟ attitude towards science. A study in Israel (Trumper, 2016) showed that boys and girls of the same age tend to have different attitudes to similar teaching styles. On the other hand, a study by Kibirige and Tsamago (2013) shows that the attitudes of boys and girls towards science are not different when using similar methods. Due to differing views, this study also sought to find out if there was gender differences in performance when learners were taught chemistry using methods incorporating practicals.

• Statement of the Problem
Chemistry has a crucial role in the rapid developments in science and technology. Since the Nigeria „Vision 2030‟ emphasizes the role of science, technology and innovation (STI) in a modern economy, then, good performance in the subject and other sciences is crucial. The school science curriculum in most countries has a distinct purpose of supplying new recruits to jobs requiring more detailed scientific knowledge and expertise then, learning of school chemistry, a science, provides the foundation for more advanced study leading to such jobs. Poor performance of students in chemistry is a major concern to teachers, policy makers and curriculum developers who are all geared towards achieving the „Nigeria Vision 2030‟.

In Nigeria, chemistry laboratory resources are given a central and distinctive place in the teaching and learning of chemistry at the secondary school level. Although chemistry teaching and learning essentially involves chemistry laboratory resources and has a long tradition of student experimental work in schools, questions have been raised about the appropriate role and the reality of what is actually achieved by the chemistry laboratory resources especially with continued decline in performance in the subject. Despite the widespread use of chemistry laboratory resources as a teaching and learning strategy in school chemistry, and the view that increasing its amount would improve chemistry learning, some science educators have raised questions about its effectiveness. Although chemistry laboratory resources often occupy a massive share of curriculum time and resources, doubts have been raised about their effectiveness or their real educational value, as students continue to perform poorly in the subject. Therefore, this study sought to find out the effect of chemistry laboratory resources on students‟ achievement in chemistry in Nigerian secondary schools in a bid to improve the academic achievement in the subject.

• Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of chemistry laboratory resources on achievement in chemistry among public secondary school students of Gusau metropolis in Zanfara State, Nigeria.

• Research Objectives
The study aimed at achieving the following objectives. These were to:

• Establish whether students learning chemistry using chemistry laboratory resources perform better than those learning without.

• Find out the effect of nature of chemistry laboratory resources on students‟ performance in secondary school.

• Examine the effect of quality of chemistry laboratory resources on students‟ performance in secondary school chemistry.

• Determine the effect of frequency of chemistry laboratory resources on students‟ performance in secondary school chemistry.

• Research Hypotheses
The following research hypotheses were generated for the study and tested at significance alpha level of 0.05.

H01: There is no significant difference between the post-test mean score in chemistry of students exposed to chemistry laboratory resources and those not exposed.

H02: There is no significant difference in achievement in chemistry of students exposed to various types of chemistry laboratory resources and those not exposed.

• Significance of the Study
The study attempted to provide evidence on the effects of chemistry laboratory resources on learners‟ achievement in chemistry in Nigerian public secondary schools. By so doing, the findings of this study has added to the existing body of knowledge about the role and effects of chemistry laboratory resources in the teaching and learning of chemistry. Using this knowledge, the teachers of chemistry, science teacher trainers and science educators may be able to maximize the benefits of using the chemistry laboratory resources as a teaching and learning strategy. The findings may give some necessary feedback to tutors in science teachers training colleges, which will probably improve on the training of chemistry teachers. This may in turn boost the teaching of chemistry at the secondary school level, which may lead to higher performance at WAEC. The study might be of immediate benefit to those developing secondary school science curriculum and text books, for example, Nigeria Institute of Curriculum Development (NICD). The study may also bring out suggestions and ways of inspiring and teaching chemistry students.

• Limitations of the Study
There were some constraints that could have influenced the results of the study. First, there was limited control on the teachers‟ attitude towards chemistry laboratory resources which may have influenced the outcome of the students‟ performance in the examination. Similarly, there was limited control on the size of classes in these schools. The number of students in a class may affect the quality of the chemistry laboratory resources which might influence the outcome of the students‟ performance in the examination. Some schools were not willing to participate in the study as control groups where teaching and learning of chemistry was to take place without practicals.

• Delimitation of the Study
The study was conducted in form 2 classes from selected public secondary schools in two metropolis in Zamfara State, Nigeria. For this study, one form 2 topic (Chemical Families: Patterns in Properties) was chosen, taught and examined. This topic was chosen because of its nature. The content of the topic is such that it provides an excellent opportunity for exposing the student to various types of experiments during teaching. Teaching of chemistry as a science subject should be approached by use of investigatory methods and so experiments should be performed in all topics that demand them (NECO, 2008).

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SANITATION PROTOCOLS IN UNIVERSITY OF JOS AND ITS IMPLICATIONS ON HEALTH

ABSTRACT
Sanitation protocols has been important since time immemorial. With the unprecedented increase in population worldwide, especially in Sub Saharan Africa, sanitation protocolshas been vital for good health, good environment and aesthetics of its towns and cities. The research intended to study the impact of sanitation protocols on the health status of students; a case of sanitation protocols in the University of Jos, Nigeria and it focuses on the following objectives:- to examine how sanitation protocols affects the health status of students in the University of Jos, to assess how sanitation protocols affects the health status of students in the University of Jos, to examine how environmental pollution created by sanitation protocols affects the health status of students in the University of Jos, and, to determine how social conflicts created by sanitation protocols affects the health status of students in the University of Jos. The research design is a descriptive survey. The target population of this study is 6420 from the said region. A pilot study was done to check the reliability and validity of the instruments’. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire which were administered personally, via e-mails, enumerators and pick them after they have been filled. The data was then coded and analyzed using the SPSS version 20.0. Chi-square tested the hypothesis. 99 questionnaires were administered to the respondents with a return rate of 91%. The study concludes that the Sanitation protocols in the University of Jos just like any other in the rest of the world have led to jobs creation in the area and other surrounding environs. It also concludes that health hazards and issues have been surrounding the implementation of the Sanitation protocols in the area just like any Sanitation protocols across the world in countries like China, India, Uganda, and many more.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of study
It is believed that God created man in his own image to be in control of the environment and make the best out of it as recorded in the bible (Gen 1:26-31). But man in his search for daily bread, quest for knowledge and materials wealth, has turned round to pollute the beautiful environment. From the earliest times man has been striving to control the environment. But as said earlier, man owns the health and life. That is why he found himself from the dragon headed problems he has caused himself in recent times. Sanitation protocols has become a topical subject at international, national state and local spheres. This is aim at initiating action to arrest the fast deteriorating environmental health status worldwide. In Nigeria, today the congestion of people in urban areas which is mainly as a result of rural urban migration the concentration of industrial establishment and share increase in population have made the control of the environment imperative and equally challenging.

To improve the general sanitation protocols of the major town in Nigeria has always constituted a big problem to both individual and government with the result that the town/cities are being strangulated by things generated by the inhabitant. The result of this condition is environmental pollution in all its ramification. The problems of pollution have also found its way into the political area and every community in every state has been confronted difficulties of his environment. To the man concern regarding pollution is the adverse effect exerted on the health of the people. The problems of poor sanitation and unhygienic behaviour among the majority of Nigerians are so serious that the federal military government had to come into check the situation towards achieving “health for all by the year 2010” as declared by the world health organization (WHO). Several strategies were mapped out and adopted by the federal government (the military regime in 1984 to achieve this objective. Consequently, the sanitation protocolss were mounted throughout the federation. This was followed by the establishment of the “task force on sanitation protocols” at both state and local levels to co0ordinate this elaborate programme.

Plateau state chapter was launched on 20th March 1984 by the then state military governor SANYA. This led to the appointment of captain JOSHUA AYODELE as the state chairman of the taskforce on sanitation protocols-the position he actively held till the task force was decentralized in October, 1988 this sanitation movement was backed up legally by edicts for Plateau state it was captioned edict No 18 of 1984, which took effect from Monday April 2nd 1984. At the local government level too, sanitation protocols committees were appointed with members down from various walks of life. Serious sanitation were imposed on individuals public and private establishment or corporate bodies who fell short of the expected governments guidelines on sanitation protocols or health habits and practices. For instance, dirty filthy private premises dumping of refuse in unauthorized places. Urinating or defecating in public places were punishable by the fine ranging from N 100-1000, or punishment as the case may be.

Food hygiene, street trading, unauthorized parking of vehicles were also areas of concern which were also embedded in WAI “War Against Indiscipline” meant to inculcate in people correct healthful living habits, attitude and practices. Later, incentives were put and the programme became competitive in nature among the various state and local government areas of the federal republic of Nigeria. This effort was also aimed at identifying the nation with the cause of the world health organization which then declared June 1984 as the “World sanitation protocols Day”- with War Against filthy environment as the theme. Because of the military nature of the implementation of the new sanitation protocols people responded accordingly, but not without close supervision. Consciously or unconsciously, most of our town and cities were given some face-lift for sometime. Health implication of their poor health habits and practices the motives of the sanitation protocols are often misunderstood to their “status quo” when they are no longer closely supervised.

Infact, the problem of poor sanitation protocols and unhygienic behaviour among the majority of Nigerians have persisted despite the various sanctions or stringent measured taken by governments and other health agencies to enforce a change of attitude among the people. It is important to note too that all the while emphasis has been concern about the mass rural population or communities that contribute significantly to the urban populace, it then stands to reason to assert that the individuals home orientation would also be unconsciously exhibited in a new environment. Hence the neglect of the sanitation crusade at the grassroots level has made the sanitation efforts in most of our town and cities abortive.

1.2 Statement of The Problems
The main concern of the study, therefore is to identify investigate and find out answer to the following sub problems.

The psychological impact of the programme on the health status of students in University of Jos, Plateau State.

The sociological influence on the people in University of Jos hostel by the sanitation protocols.

The impact of the programme on the economic development of the community.

The impact of the University of Jos experiment on the physical development of the said community.

1.3 Objectives of the Study
1. To examine how sanitation protocols affect the health status of students in the University of Jos, Nigeria.

2. To assess how poor sanitation protocols affects the health status of students in the University of Jos, Nigeria.

3. To determine how social conflicts created by sanitation protocols affects the health status of students in the University of Jos, Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions
1. How do sanitation protocols affect the health status of students in the University of Jos, Nigeria?

2. How do sanitation protocols affect the health status of students in the University of Jos, Nigeria?

3. How do social conflicts created by sanitation protocols affect the health status of students in the University of Jos, Nigeria?

1.5 Research Hypothesis
The study was guided by the following alternative research hypothesis:

H1: Sanitation protocols have a significant effect on the health status of students in the University of Jos, Nigeria.

H1: Sanitation protocols have a significant effect on the health status of students in the University of Jos, Nigeria.

1.6 Significance Of The Study
The “University of Jos experiment” is a unique venture in the recent time and in the history of sanitation protocols in the urban level. The result of the findings of the study would therefore be useful to not only the government but also to individuals, the public and the community. To the government, it could help in reviewing their former strategies with a view of achieving health for all at a low or no significant cost. The findings and recommendation may stimulate health challenges in other rural/urban community towards inculcating and maintaining health habits and practices thereby advancing lasting solution to the fast global environmental decay.

To the community, the study could be a source of motivation that could immortalize the initiative of the people and so this health practice part of the people so this health practice part of the people culture. The result of the investigation could also initiate further research in the health area, in the effort to establishing a more dynamic health culture for the world at large.

1.7 Definition of Terms
In the course of this study certain operational technical terms were unavoidably used in the write-up to express some views. Those terms have however, been defined herefore the quick understanding.

Catch them young- The act of involving children of tender age in the sanitation activities-aimed at training them to group with good/correct health habits, attitude and practices.

Sanitation protocols-the control of all those factors in mans environmental which exercises or may exert a delicious effect on his physical development, health and survival.

Influence- The impact made by something through invisible or intangible means.

The mass-community Action-A joint cooperative and coordination venture involving all members of the community.

Mass-Mobilization-involvement of all able-bodies citizens in carrying out a programme.

Modus-operand-The manner by which an activity operated.

Pollution- Contamination or unfavourable change in physical, chemical or biological conditions in the environment, which exert may exert harmful effects on the quality of human life. Including effects on other animals, plants, industries as well as cultural and aesthetic assets.

Population- A group of individuals of the same species inhabiting in a specific area.

Status Quo- The original state of affairs/habits.

Task force- A temporary merging of units or individuals under once command with the purpose of accomplishing a specific mission or finding a solution to a particular problems.

World Health Organization (WHO) this is the greatest world health organization. It was formed in 1942. After the Second World War. It is an arm of the United Nation organization (UNO) and has its all-independent nations are members. sanitation protocols.

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