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Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) outbreak poses serious concerns to global education systems. Efforts to contain COVID-19 prompted unscheduled closure of schools in more than 100 countries worldwide. COVID-19 school closures left over one billion learners out of school. The study investigates the impact of COVID-19 on academic performance. Data were collected through structured questionnaires administered to 200 respondents that consist of teachers, pupils, parents, and policy makers selected from classes. The collected data were analyzed using STATA/Regression. The results show that COVID-19 has adverse effects on education including, learning disruptions, and decreased access to education and research facilities, Job losses and increased pupil debts. The findings also show that many educators and pupils relied on technology to ensure continued learning online during the Coronavirus pandemic. However, online education was hindered by poor infrastructures including, network, power, inaccessibility and unavailability issues and poor digital skills. The study underscores the damaging effects of COVID-19 on education sector and the need for all educational institutions, educators, and learners to adopt technology, and improve their digital skills in line with the emerging global trends and realities in education.

1.1 Background to the study
The recent outbreak of the Coronavirus pandemic increased the gaps in the education sector globally. Though, the Coronavirus pandemic is novel, but it already has noxious effects on humanity. COVID-19 outbreak has created educational disruptions, and global health concerns that proved very difficult to manage by global health systems. As at now, no nation or race across the world is immune from the coronavirus pandemic, and the entire world seems overwhelmed by the speed of the spread and the devastating effects of COVID-19. The coronavirus pandemic has no boundaries, and the effect is large and fast. Just within few months of the outbreak of the disease, it has drastically changed the lifestyles of the entire world with billions of people being forced to ‘stay at home’, ‘observe self isolations’, and work and learn from home. It has limited the freedom of people to move, trade or associate. Not only has COVID-19 caused a total lockdowns in many countries across the world, but it also caused the death of thousands of people including, women, and the elderly. It was more worrisome to know that reports from various continents, including, America, Africa, Asia, and Europe indicated a daily increase in the number of new cases, and mortality due to COVID-19. As at April, 2020, the number of global COVID-19 cases has surpassed one million cases and more than 220 thousand deaths. It was also frightening that the USA recorded more than 2000 COVID-19 deaths in a single day despite the country’s strong commitment to the fight against the contagion. The number of Coronavirus deaths was soaring with no immediate solutions in sight. The disease showed no sign of slowing down across the globe. The COVID-19 outbreak triggered the President of the United States, President Trump to invoke the “Defense Production Act”. The government also issued a national emergency as a result of the growing number of new cases of Coronavirus in the country (Priscillia, 2020). The U.S government also negotiated with the parliament to approve more than 2 trillion US dollars stimulus package to combat the Coronavirus pandemic, and to provide some reliefs to citizens and businesses affected by the Coronavirus outbreak. Similar actions were also replicated in many other countries including, Germany where 810 billion US dollars were also set aside to contain the effects of the pandemic, yet the virus rapidly spread to many parts of the world.

The outbreak of COVID-19 affected all aspects of human activities globally ranging from education, research, sports, entertainment, transportation, worship, social gathering/interactions, economy, businesses, and politics. Indeed, the entire world was in distress as a result of COVID-19 threats, the reality of the situation was challenging to bear, and the education sector remains one of the worst-hit by Coronavirus outbreak.

1.2 Statement of the problem
The institution closures are impacting not only the pupils, teachers, and families, but have far-reaching economic and societal consequences. In response to school closures, UNESCO recommended the use of distance learning programs and open educational applications and platforms that schools and teachers can use to reach learners remotely and limit the disruption of education.

According to UNESCO monitoring as of 7th July 2020, approximately 1,067,590,512 learners have been affected due to school closures in response to the pandemic, 110 countries have implemented nationwide closures, impacting about 61% of the world’s pupil population. Several other countries have implemented localized closures impacting millions of additional learners. Solely in Nepal, about eighty- seven lakh pupils ranging from preprimary to tertiary education level [ISCED levels 0 to 8] are affected due to COVID-19 pandemic closure. While it is difficult to predict how the pandemic will unfurl, the possibility of extended restrictions on physical distancing exists.

The United Nations had reported that 166 countries closed schools and universities to limit the spread of the coronavirus which affected about One and a half billion children and young people, representing 87 percent of the enrolled population.

In Southeast Asia like in many other developing regions, a large segment of the population doesn’t have access to the Internet and electronic devices. And even people with access to the Internet experience some infrastructural divide. The infrastructural gap can be seen through several circumstances, including the discrepancy of Internet speeds in different regions. People in the city centers often enjoy significantly faster Internet compared to those living in less developed areas.

According to reports, total of 821,249 subscribers are using the internet in Nigeria in 2019. The country has a population of 29,086,128 as of 2020, based on Worldometer which depicts that not all pupils have access to high-speed internet. Even those with high bandwidth internet have found that service is getting interrupted or slowing down due to high collective consumption as more people are using the internet to work, socialize and entertain themselves during the lockdown. While data packages on mobile networks are relatively faster, they are also far more expensive for pupils to afford on a regular basis.

1.3 Objectives of The Study
The study aimed at investigating the impact of pandemic on pupil’s academic performance.

1. To examine the impact of COVID-19 on education.

2. To investigated the various challenges that hinder continued/online education during the COVID-19 lockdown

3. To ascertain the major ways in which the coronavirus pandemic outbreak affect girl child education in Nigeria

4. To examine the impact of coronavirus pandemic outbreak on the pupils’ academic performance

1.4 Significance of the study
The COVID-19 virus affects different people in different ways. COVID-19 is a respiratory disease and most infected people will develop mild to moderate symptoms and recover without requiring special treatment. People who have underlying medical conditions and those over 60 years old have a higher risk of developing severe disease and death.

This study will impact the knowledge on the teachers’ perception of the impact of corona virus on pupils learning and performance.

1.5 Research Question
To achieve this, the research was guided by four main research questions as follow:

1. What is the impact of COVID-19 on education?

2. What are the various challenges that hinder continued/online education during the COVID-19 lockdown?

3. In which major ways did the coronavirus pandemic outbreak affect girl child education in Nigeria?

4. What are the perceptions of teachers on the impact of coronavirus pandemic outbreak on the pupils’ academic performance?

1.6 Scope/Limitation of the study
The study covers primary schools in Enugu, although rural communities were randomly selected as areas of study. Thematically, the study is restricted to teachers’ perception on pandemic and its impact on the pupils academic performance in primary schools in Enugu East local government area, they include;

1. Calvary Foundation International Nursery & Primary School.
2. Lilly Pinnacle Nursery and Primary School.
3. Lily Hills Schools.
4. Tender Links Schools.
5. Bellflower Academy.
6. Brain Child International School.
7. Bright Star Nursery & Primary School.
8. Carlton Duke Nursery and Primary School.

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Gum Arabic exudate was collected from Acacia Adamawa trees around Sangerei, Girie Local Government Area.

These experiments were conducted at Sangerei, Girie Local Government Area. Two rates (1 and 3 tones/fed) of gum alone or in combination with other organic amendments namely: farmyard manure (FYM), chicken manure (CHM) and Bagasse (BAGS) were applied. Soil samples were analysed at the end of each season for Water retention (WR), aggregate stability (AS), Hydraulic conductivity (HC), pH (paste), electrical conductivity of the saturation extract, Calcium, Magnesium, Potasium, and Sodium. Growth parameters measured were plant height and fresh weight. The results of soil experiment showed that the two rates of gum alone did improve rendering (soil water retention, aggregate stability or hydraulic conductivity). Water retained in pots in case of FYM and CHM is lower compared to gum alone and BAGS. This was attributed to the better growth and higher yield of FYM and CHM treatments, where more water consumed by the plant. Gum in combination with BAGS insignificantly increased AS and decreased WR and HC.

1.1 Background of study
Soil physical condition is one factor that can limit crop production. Poor soil physical condition can restrict water intake into the soil and subsequent movement, plant root development, and aeration of the soil. Producers and researchers alike are interested in improving the physical condition of the soil and, thus enhance crop production. These goals can be accomplished in part through the use of good management techniques. In addition, there are amending materials that claim to improve the soil physical condition. Such materials are called soil conditioners.

Recently, a major sound contribution to crop production technology is the application of synthetic polymers to the soil of arid and semi-arid conditions, where hot dry conditions cause very high rates of evaporation. Addition of synthetic polymers to soil was found to improve soil physical conditions. They stabilize soil structure, hence, improving aeration, water flow, seedling emergence and aggregatation (Gardner, 1972). The addition of synthetic polymers has been known for many years as means of modifying soil physical properties (Harris et al., 1966). However, synthetic polymers have not been commercially used in agriculture, partly, due to economic consideration and partly to the incomplete understanding of complex polymer-soil interactions.

Research continued to seek better and cheaper means for improving soil physical properties. This research leads to many promising synthetic polymers of very high molecular weight, which were found to be effective at a very low quantity. Many formulations of synthetic polymers are available, often based on industrial by-products. Although synthetic polymers have proved to be very effective as soil conditioners, many questions about their residual effect and toxicity are not clearly answered. Many doubts were raised about the monomers left in the soil after polymers degrade. Although the amount needed to treat a soil is relatively small, still the cost is very high and not economically feasible.

1.2 Statement of Problem
A new approach is to use Hydrocolloids (Gum Arabic) as natural polymers. Being a natural product, they could be environmentally safe and can eliminate fears and worries about residual effect and toxicity and are safe for humans, plant, and animal. Natural polymers besides being soil conditioners, they add an extra nutritional value to soil. Also, because they are natural products, they will be cheaper and available compared to synthetic polymers.

Natural conditioners are flexible since many modifications can be done to change their molecular weight, charge and their composition. Many important elements e.g. nitrogen, phosphorus or potassium are available or can be incorporated in their molecules. They can be added to soil alone or mixed with other organic amendments e.g. farmyard manure, chicken manure and bagasse. They can be added to the soil as solution dissolved in irrigation water, emulsion, or as a powder mixed with soil. Gum arabic is a natural hydrocolloid, available in plenty in Adamawa and cheaper compared to other synthetic or natural hydrocolloids.

There are researches on gum Arabic use for various purposes and none is discussing it’s use on slum rendering, it is against this backdrop that tis research seeks to analyze the use of gum Arabic on slum rendering.

1.3 Objectives of Study
1. To determine the effect of different rates of gum arabic on:

• Soil water retention, hydraulic conductivity and aggregate slum rendering.

• Improvement of the geotechnical properties of slums.

Justification of the Study
Rivers State has an area of 3,032.2 sq. Km and lies between 1,200 and 1,800 meters above sea level. The population of Rivers is estimated at 1,630,934 (as projected in 2009) of which female constitute 52% while male is 48%. The major economic activity in the area is farming and business but the road network is in a poor state making it impossible for farmers to access the markets. The cost of improving roads is exorbitant due to clay soil which requires a replacement with imported materials or being stabilized. The traditional renders like lime, cement etc are very expensive hence alternative means of using gum arabic are sorted. The gum arabic is readily available and has disposal problem with National environmental management Authority (Nema).

Scope of the Study
Reviewing literature pertaining to standardized laboratory procedures for preparing mixtures using traditional stabilizers. The scope included:

• A classification of the slums by performing the following tests: natural water content, particle size distribution, Atterberg limits, moisture-density relationship using standard Proctor test and mineralogy of the clay soil. Other procedures for mixtures involving nontraditional stabilizers that have been studied previously by other researchers.

• Developing a laboratory mixture preparation and testing procedure that can be used to evaluate and compare traditional and non-traditional stabilizers including gum arabic.

• Identifying the existence and significance of trends among base soil characteristics, and strength characteristics using the laboratory procedure developed. This study provides insight into how gum arabic as used in rendering is effective for stabilizing clay soils commonly encountered in Rivers state. This report can be used as a guide to help in developing materials that can be used in road construction to improve the economy in the State. In addition, will solve a disposal problem for the company and hence reduce a pollution level that endangers the lives of people.

The Limitations
The main research limitations are;

• Lack of capital to carry out further research to ascertain some reactions like using more quantity of gum Arabic.

• Lack of equipment like combustion chambers where high temperatures of gum Arabic is achieved.

• Lack of grinding machine that could have enabled the comparison between burnt and unburnt gum Arabic on slum management.

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The most significant elements that enable us to understand economic growth and development levels of nations are economic indicators of the country of interest. As much as these indicators have positive and high values, they affect the economic, social, psychological and cultural texture of the nation positively. These effects increase the culture, living and welfare levels of the individuals in the society. Logistics is one of the tools that play an important role in the change and improvement of economic indicators. Logistics industry provides significant macro contributions to national economy by creating employment, and creating national income and foreign investment influx. On the micro scale, logistics industry is a key industry in increasing the competitive power of corporations. Furthermore, the logistics industry has an important mission in revitalizing and improvement of the competitiveness of other industries. Today, all industries are dependent on logistics sector. The present study aimed to investigate how the logistics variables of transportation and communication affected economic growth in Nigeria. The effect of both transportation industry variables and communication industry variables that form the logistics industry on the increase in per capita income

1.1 Background of the Study
It is expedient to note that, over 90 percent of International Trade is done by sea or carried by ships. It is believed that on daily basis, these ships move millions of tons of cargoes comprising goods and commodities, fuel, crude oil, raw materials, machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, medicaments, around the world. The situation is not different in Nigeria, being a member of international community. It is estimated that well over 90 percent of her visible international trade is sea borne. The maritime industry, if effectively harnessed, has the capacity to be a big factor in the national economy; with revenue at maximum potentials, capable of competing with oil and gas revenue. Maritime revenue can be a major contributor to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of a nation. Gross domestic product (GDP) estimates are commonly used to measure the economic performance of a whole country, but can also measure the relative contribution of an industry or sector. The economic growth of a nation depends on how efficient and cost effective, the port is operated and managed. Just as the economic growth of a nation demands for port facilities, also the port facilities must be run or operated efficiently to enable further economic growth or expansion (Emeaghara, 2008). The World Bank's logistics Performance Index (LPI) and United Nation Conference on trade and Development (UNCTAD's) Logistics and Supply Chain Index( LSCI) are targeted at espousing information about countries trade competitiveness in the area of transport and logistics (Jean-Francois and Lauri, 2014).

Due to the trend of nationalization and globalization in recent decades, the importance of logistics management has been growing in various areas. For industries, logistics helps to optimize the existing production and distribution processes based on the same resources through management techniques for promoting the efficiency and competitiveness of enterprises. The key element in a logistics chain is the transportation system, which connects the separated activities. Transportation occupies one-third of the amount in the logistics costs and transportation systems influence the performance of logistics system hugely (Tseng, Yue and Taylor, 2005). Transportation is required in the whole production procedures, from manufacturing to delivery to the final consumers and returns. Only a good coordination between each component would bring the benefits to a maximum.

Maritime industry plays an important role in international freight; it can provides a cheap and high carrying capacity conveyance for consumers. Therefore, it has a vital position in the transportation of particular goods, such as crude oil and grains. Its disadvantage is that it needs longer transport time and its schedule is strongly affected by the weather factors. To save costs and enhance competitiveness, current maritime logistics firms tend to use large scaled ships that incorporate operation techniques. Moreover, current maritime customers care about service quality more than the delivery price. Thus, it is necessary to build new logistics concepts in order to increase service satisfaction, for example real-time information, accurate time windows and goods tracking systems. The operation of maritime transport industry can be divided into three main types: (1) Liner Shipping: The business is based on the same ships, routes, price, and regular voyages. (2) Tramp Shipping: The characters of this kind of shipping are irregular transport price, unsteady transport routes, and schedule. It usually delivers particular goods, such as Dry Bulk Cargo and crude oil. (3) Industry Shipping: The main purpose of industry shipping is to ensure the supply of raw materials. This sometimes needs specialized containers, such as the high-pressure containers for natural gas (Tseng et al, 2005).

It is important to note that economic growth partly depends upon moving goods efficiently and safely through the transportation chain. Since the current scenario of world trade goes to cellular vessels, thus the demand for transportation of goods via sea increases tremendously. In view of this, more and more terminals are expanding in order to cater for available demand (Olayinka and Ogundele, 2015). In other words, improved supply chain and logistics (seaport development) will guarantee trade expansion and larger foreign direct investment. This means that transportation and logistics improvements are critical to trade flows and the competitiveness of an economy’s exports and imports.

Logistics management is very critical for the performance of maritime industry in Nigeria because of its complex nature. Logistics management is needed more than ever before in order to facilitate movement of cargoes from one location to another in efficient and effective manner. Tilanus (1997) uses ‘five important key terms’, which are logistics, inbound logistics, materials management, physical distribution, and supply-chain management, to interpret the concept of logistics. Logistics is the entire process of materials and products moving into, through, and out of firm. Inbound logistics is the movement of material received from suppliers.

1.2 Statement of the Problem
Policy inconsistency has been one of the problems encountered in maritime sector in Nigeria, the issue of inadequate policy formulation and implementation; hence the contribution of the maritime sector to economic growth has been a subject of debate. Concessionaires in Nigeria’s seaports situated at Warri, Port Harcourt, Lagos, Calabar, Onne, and Sapele have recently listed obstacles to efficient operation. Inadequate power supply and incessant removal of management of government agencies in the nation’s maritime industry are some of the factors impeding the efficient running of the ports. The concessionaires, who spoke under the aegis of the Seaport Terminal Operators Association of Nigeria (STOAN) in commemoration of eight years of port reforms, cited the aforementioned glitches to be affecting the effective and efficient running of the nation’s seaport. Other hitches are the arbitrary arrest of vessels at berth and attendant consequences, poor power generating system, friction among maritime statutory agencies due to overlapping functions and lack of national carrier capacity for the United Nation Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) 40:40:20 carriage rights. The concessionaires that spoke through the, stressed that since they took over the running of the ports nearly a decade ago, they have been contending with these constraints.The poor implementation of the nation’s Cabotage Act 2003 was one of the factors militating against the growth and development of the Nigerian Maritime sector. It combines with poor implementation of the international port state control policy to encourage the visit to the Nigerian port by aged vessels with archaic handling facilities. In addition, the concessionaires condemned the proliferation of tank farms around the port locations, especially in Lagos, saying that they are constituting security risk to the ports and their users.

In other words, when a ship operator chooses a port of destination, he does not only think of reaching the port in time but also the reliability of leaving the port in time.

A higher utilization of the vessel will only be achieved if time in port is improved which will signify that fixed cost by the operator will be spread over increased number of voyage. This will consequently lead to reduced cost of ship operation. Traditionally; the turnaround time of a ship in port is a function of two variables namely:

(i) Waiting time or queuing time

(ii) Service time

The time of a vessel in port is high when either of the two is high compared to normal or the combination of the two.

Waiting time is always high when the demand for berths is higher than the supply. Here the major task of a port planner is to serve the annual vessels efficiently often referred to as the design capacity.In traditional maritime nations such as United Kingdom, USA, the Scandinavians, other European Countries among others, the factors of time, proper planning, co-ordination and implementation of clear-cut policies through government intervention largely account for the enviable levels of efficiency, sophistication and monumental success in their maritime activities especially in respect of its contribution to economic growth. The reverse appears to be the case in Nigeria as the fortunes of the industry have continued to suffer progressive catastrophe over the years. A very near example is the fact that the Nigerian National Shipping Line (NNSL) which took delivery of 19 (nineteen) brand new tonnages from European shipyards in 1979 and 1980, has not only lost all her vessels but has been liquidated altogether. This is complicated by the inability of governments of different types to float an indigenous national carrier up till date.

If delay in clearing goods at country is poor will make cost of good to go up and the country product will not be competitive in the market. Lack of online checking will make physical checking tortious and time consuming adding to delay in clearing of goods and will lead to the payment of additional fees at the port.

1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study is to ascertain the effect of Logistic industry on Performance of Nigerian economy with focus on Maritime Industry.The specific objectives were to:

i. Determine the extent to which material handling affects service quality

ii. Ascertain the extent of the relationship between customer ordering processing and customer satisfaction

iii. Determine the effect of warehousing on revenue of Nigerian ports

iv. Ascertain the nature of relationship between container traffic and GDP maritime sector contribution.

v. Evaluate the extent to which transportation influences cargo throughput of Nigerian ports.

1.4 Research Questions
With the above objectives in focus, the study seeks to find answers to the following questions.

i. To what extent does material handling affect service quality?

ii. What is the extent of the relationship between customer ordering processing and customer satisfaction?

iii. What is the effect of warehousing on revenue of Nigerian ports?

iv. What is the nature of the relationship between container traffic and GDP maritime industry contribution?

v. To what extent does transportation influences the cargo throughput of Nigerian ports?

1.5 Significance of the Study
The study has a good number of components that would be beneficial to the operators of Nigeria maritime industry, scholars, students, corporate organizations and individuals. Logistics which is the main concept this study dwells on is needed by every organization to effectively facilitate its operations. Logistics management is critical to Nigerian ports because of number of activities that would be executed before importers receive their consignments. The key driver of logistics management is transportation which helps to create value along the supply chain.

The findings that will be established in the study will make important information available to the operators of maritime industry in Nigeria as well as other stakeholders.

Nigerian ports are crucial to Nigerian economy because maritime industry is one of the sectors that contributes greatly to internally generated revenue (IGR) of the country. Apart from oil and gas sector, maritime sector is one of the main focuses of the government. Hence, a work in this sector would be welcome by the government, the operators of maritime sector and other stakeholders.

1.6 Scope of the Study
The study was focused on impact of Logistics Management on the Performance of the Maritime Industry in Nigeria. Related studies on logistics, logistics management and performance with reference to Maritime industry in Nigeria and abroad were examined.

The study evaluated logistics management in Nigerian ports through such variables as containerized cargo through put, bulk cargo throughput, dry cargo through put and liquid cargo throughput as well as container traffic.NPA and NIMASA websites visited in the course of this research for relevant information and data that may be useful in this study.

A review of theoretical and conceptual framework, methodology and empirical study relevant to this research was made. The study spanned a period of 2007 to 2014 based on the period expected for data availability. Six ports in Nigeria that ie Lagos port complex, Tin Can Island port, Calabar port, Delta port, Rivers port/Port Harcourt and Onne port were considered in this study

1.7 Limitations of the Study
The limitation of the study were:

Attitude of the Respondents
Some of the respondents showed negative attitude towards the study because there was no financial benefit attached ,Some refused to supply the necessary information required for fear of leaking the secret of their organization. The researcher was able to overcome this limitation through the help of the Managing Directors who sensitized and educated them on proper purpose of research as an academic exercise

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This research work was designed to examine and analyze the incidence of cholera among children in Benin City. Four (4) research questions were formulated and questionnaires were administered to three hundred and eighty four (384) respondents in order to gather data for the research. Results showed that poor environmental sanitation leads to cholera outbreak, washing of hands before eating help to prevent cholera outbreak, drinking and batting with contaminated water leads to cholera infection and also, poorly kept toilet causes cholera outbreak etc. recommendations included that; government should swing into action by providing various measures in other to prevent cholera disease in the country, our water should be treated properly by adding chlorine before drinking and batting with it.


1.1 Background to the study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Purpose of the study
1.4 Research questions
1.5 Significance of the study
1.6 Scope/delimitation of the study
1.8 Definition of terms

2.1 Cholera Overview
2.2 Infection and clinical aspects of cholera
2.3 Hygiene Practices

3.1 Design of Study
3.2 Study Area
3.3 Study Variables
3.4 Sampling
3.5 Data Collecting Techniques/Methods
3.6 Data Processing and Analysis

4.1 Results
4.2 Discussion of Findings

5.1 Conclusion
5.2 Recommendations

1.1 Background to the study
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine that is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae 01 and 0139 (Riyan 2004 & WHO 2010). The main symptoms are profuse watery diarrhea and vomiting. Transmission is primarily through consuming contaminated drinking water or food. The severity of the diarrhea and vomiting can lead to rapid dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. Every year there is an estimated 3-5 million cholera cases and 100,000-120,000 deaths due cholera. The short incubation period of two to five days, enhance the potentially explosive pattern of out breaks (Faruque 2008 and WHO 2010). Cholera transmission is closely linked to inadequate environmental management. Typical at-risk areas include peri-urban slums, where basic infrastructure is not available, as well as camps for internally displaced people or refugees, where minimum requirements of clean water and sanitation are not met. The consequences of a disaster – such as disruption of water and sanitation systems, or the displacement of populations to inadequate and overcrowded camps – can increase the risk of cholera transmission should the bacteria be present or introduced. Epidemics have never arisen from dead bodies. Cholera remains a global threat to public health and a key indicator of lack of social development. Recently, the reemergence of cholera has been noted in parallel with the ever-increasing size of vulnerable populations living in unsanitary conditions (Emch 2008 and WHO, 2010).

Two serogroups of v. cholera - 01 and 0139 - causes out breaks (Alexander 2008). v. cholera 01 causes the majority of outbreak, while 0139 -first indentified in Bangladash in 1992 –is confined to South-East Asia. Non-01 and non-0139 v. cholera can cause mild diarrhea but dot not generate epidemics. The bacteria are transmitted via contaminated drinking water or food. Pathogenic v. cholera can survive refrigeration and freezing in food supplies. (Reildl et al 2002) The dosage of bacteria required to cause an infection in healthily volunteers via oral administration of living vibrios is greater than 1000 organisms (Hartely 2006 ). After consuming an antacid, however, cholera development in most volunteers after consumption of only 100 cholera vibrios experiments also show that vibriosconsumed with food are more likely to cause infection than those from water alone (Finkelstein 1996). Cases tend to be clustered by location as well as season, with most infections occurring in children ages 1-5 years (WHO 2010).

Cholera is severe water-born infectious disease caused by the bacterium vibriocholerae. In 2005, 131,943 cases including 2,272 deaths have notified from 52 countries. The year was marked by a particular significant series of outbreaks in West Africa, which affected 14 countries and accounted for 58% of all cholera cases world-wide (WHO 2006). In the same year Nigeria had 4,477 cases and 174 deaths. There was reported case of cholera in 2008 in Nigeria in which 429 death out of 6,330 cases. More so, 2,304 cases in Niger State in which 114 were reported death in 2008 (NBS 2009). Recent years have seen a strong trend of cholera outbreak in developing countries, including among others, those in India (2007), Iraq (2008), Congo (2008), Zimbabwe (2008-2009), Haiti (2010), Kenya (2010). Koko in Edo State (1989). In Nigeria, according to UN figure, 1,555 people have died since January and 38,173 cases have been reported. The figure is more than four times the death toll the government reported in August (Guardian. 2010)

Cholera is a disease characterized by profuse diarrhea accompanied with a severe dehydration and loss of electrolyte (Colwell and Huq, 1994), caused by toxigenic Vibrio cholerae, a serologically diverse, environmental, and gram-negative rod bacterium (Li et al., 2002). In the absence of appropriate treatment, there is a high mortality rate. Cholera is a major public health concern because of its high transmissibility, death-to-case ratio and ability to occur in epidemic and pandemic forms (Kaper et al., 1995). Cholera is responsible for an estimated death of 120,000 globally every year (WHO, 2001), and still continues to be a scourge worldwide covering all continents. In developing countries with endemic areas, cholera is still very significant with incidence of more than five million cases per year (Tauxe et al., 1994; Lan and Reeves, 2002). The explosive epidemic nature and the severity of the disease and the potential threat to food and water supplies have prompted the listing of V. cholerae as an organism of biological defense research (Zhang et al., 2003). In an epidemic, the great majority of cases can be recognized by clinical diagnosis easily and a bacteriological diagnosis is often not required.

Cholera is endemic in Nigeria (Falade and Lawoyin, 1999) and epidemiological features (Utsalo et al., 1991, 1992; Eko et al., 1994; Hutin et al., 2003) have been reported from various parts of the country with investigations on possible sources of outbreaks. Outbreaks of cholera had been reported from various State in Nigeria such as Ogun, Edo, Pleatue State etc, of Nigeria. Investigations on outbreak of cholera in Nigeria have focused on the epidemiological features, the probable source of contamination and the risk factors without spatial linkage of health data. However, advances in Geographical Information Systems (GIS) technology provides this opportunity and have become an indispensible tool for processing, analyzing and visualizing spatial data within the domains of environmental health, disease ecology and public health (Kistemann et al., 2002).

The use of GIS is not new in waterborne disease outbreaks and cholera studies. It has been applied in investigating waterborne disease outbreak (NWW, 1999), microbial risk assessment of drinking water reservoirs (Kistemann et al., 2001a), drinking water supply structure (Kistemann et al., 2001b), and spatial patterns of diarrhoea illness with regards to water supply structures (Dangendorf et al., 2002). In cholera studies, GIS technology has been applied in studying the correlation between socio-economic and demographic indices and cholera incidence (Ackers et al., 1998), environmental risk factors (Ali et al., 2002a), spatial epidemiology (Ali et al., 2002b), health risk prediction (Fleming et al., 2007) and spatial and demographic patterns of cholera (Osei and Duker, 2008). This study seeks to assess the causes and effect of cholera outbreak in Benin City, Edo State.

1.2 Statement of problem
The threat of cholera rampaging through Nigeria has long been of concern to many. The crowded settings coupled with minimal water, sanitation, hygiene and health services, present a fearsome breeding ground for cholera to quickly escalate beyond control. In an attempt to avoid this worse-case scenario, a massive response needs to be mounted by the Government to enlighten the general public about the causes of this deadly disease and also ways to avoid the outbreak. Hygiene promoters should be employed to work every day, sharing information on how to avoid contracting the illness and the signs and symptoms of the disease.

1.3 Purpose of the study
The purpose of this study is to determine the causes and effect of cholera during rainy season in Benin City.

The specific objectives of the study are:

1. To identify the cause of cholera in Benin City.

2. To ascertain if cholera outbreak is usually rampant during the rainy season among children in Benin City.

3. To identify the problems associated with the prevention of cholera in Benin City

4. To determine the ways of preventing cholera outbreak in Benin City.

1.4 Research questions
The following research questions were asked and answered in the study:

1. Does poor environmental sanitation lead cholera outbreak?

2. Is cholera outbreak rampant during the rainy season?

3. Does the use of pipe borne water for drinking and cooking help reduce cholera outbreak?

4. What ways can be used to prevent cholera outbreak in Benin City?

1.5 Significance of the study
The research work is important in several ways both to the health personnel and the individual within the society. Firstly, this study will expose to us some of the causes of cholera outbreak in Benin City and also proffer ways of preventing cholera outbreak within our community.

This study will also be of importance to the health personnel and our local community health workers in the sense that it will expose to them the various preventive measures to put in place to avoid cholera outbreak in our community and Benin City at large.

This study is also be relevant to the government by providing the number of cholera outbreak within the Nigeria economy and also presenting the figures of victims who dies as a result of this disease, by this the government will swing into action by providing various measures in other to prevent further outbreak of the disease.

1.6 Scope/delimitation of the study
The study is set out to determine the causes and effect of cholera outbreak during rainy season in Benin City, Edo State. Therefore, the study is restricted to only community health workers, and other health related personnel in Benin City, Edo State. Respondents include students, teachers, civil servants, youths, and drivers.

1.8 Definition of terms
Cholera: is an acute diarrhoeal infection caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium, Vibrio cholera

Infection: is the invasion of body tissues by disease-causing microorganisms, their multiplication and the reaction of body tissues to these microorganisms and the toxins that they produce.

Transmission: The act or process of transferring a disease from a person to another.

Threat: An expression of an intention to inflict pain, injury, evil, or punishment. An indication of impending danger or harm. One that is regarded as a possible danger; a menace.

Contamination: Is the term describing the state of a person or material on coming in contact with the disease pathogen.

Disease: Can be seen as a depart from the normal healthy state of the body soul and mind of a human being, which manifests itself in an abnormal development of the physical, physiological and mental state of the human being concerned.

Epidemiology: The study of disease that affect large numbers of people. Traditionally, epidemiologist has been concerned primarily with infectious diseases such as typhoid and influenza, that arise and spread rapidly among the population as epidemics.

Environment: This is the physical, chemical, and biological condition of the region in which one lives.

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Environmental sanitation has been important since time immemorial. With the unprecedented increase in population worldwide, especially in Sub Saharan Africa, environmental sanitation has been vital for good health, good environment and aesthetics of its towns and cities. The research intended to study the impact of environmental sanitation programme on the health status of students; a case of environmental sanitation in the University of Maiduguri, Nigeria and it focuses on the following objectives:- to examine how environmental sanitation programme affects the health status of students in the University of Maiduguri, to assess how environmental sanitation programme affects the health status of students in the University of Maiduguri, to examine how environmental pollution created by environmental sanitation programme affects the health status of students in the University of Maiduguri, and, to determine how social conflicts created by environmental sanitation programme affects the health status of students in the University of Maiduguri. The research design is a descriptive survey. The target population of this study is 6420 from the said region. A pilot study was done to check the reliability and validity of the instruments’. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire which were administered personally, via e-mails, enumerators and pick them after they have been filled. The data was then coded and analyzed using the SPSS version 20.0. Chi-square tested the hypothesis. 99 questionnaires were administered to the respondents with a return rate of 91%. The study concludes that the Environmental sanitation in the University of Maiduguri just like any other in the rest of the world have led to jobs creation in the area and other surrounding environs. It also concludes that health hazards and issues have been surrounding the implementation of the Environmental sanitation in the area just like any Environmental sanitation across the world in countries like China, India, Uganda, and many more.

1.1 Background of study
It is believed that God created man in his own image to be in control of the environment and make the best out of it as recorded in the bible (Gen 1:26-31). But man in his search for daily bread, quest for knowledge and materials wealth, has turned round to pollute the beautiful environment. From the earliest times man has been striving to control the environment. But as said earlier, man owns the health and life. That is why he found himself from the dragon headed problems he has caused himself in recent times. Environmental sanitation has become a topical subject at international, national state and local spheres. This is aim at initiating action to arrest the fast deteriorating environmental health status worldwide. In Nigeria, today the congestion of people in urban areas which is mainly as a result of rural urban migration the concentration of industrial establishment and share increase in population have made the control of the environment imperative and equally challenging.

To improve the general environmental sanitation of the major town in Nigeria has always constituted a big problem to both individual and government with the result that the town/cities are being strangulated by things generated by the inhabitant. The result of this condition is environmental pollution in all its ramification. The problems of pollution have also found its way into the political area and every community in every state has been confronted difficulties of his environment. To the man concern regarding pollution is the adverse effect exerted on the health of the people. The problems of poor sanitation and unhygienic behaviour among the majority of Nigerians are so serious that the federal military government had to come into check the situation towards achieving “health for all by the year 2010” as declared by the world health organization (WHO). Several strategies were mapped out and adopted by the federal government (the military regime in 1984 to achieve this objective. Consequently, the environmental sanitation programmes were mounted throughout the federation. This was followed by the establishment of the “task force on environmental sanitation” at both state and local levels to co0ordinate this elaborate programme.

Bornu state chapter was launched on 20th March 1984 by the then state military governor SANYA. This led to the appointment of captain JOSHUA AYODELE as the state chairman of the taskforce on environmental sanitation-the position he actively held till the task force was decentralized in October, 1988 this sanitation movement was backed up legally by edicts for Bornu state it was captioned edict No 18 of 1984, which took effect from Monday April 2nd 1984. At the local government level too, environmental sanitation committees were appointed with members down from various walks of life. Serious sanitation were imposed on individuals public and private establishment or corporate bodies who fell short of the expected governments guidelines on environmental sanitation or health habits and practices. For instance, dirty filthy private premises dumping of refuse in unauthorized places. Urinating or defecating in public places were punishable by the fine ranging from N 100-1000, or punishment as the case may be.

Food hygiene, street trading, unauthorized parking of vehicles were also areas of concern which were also embedded in WAI “War Against Indiscipline” meant to inculcate in people correct healthful living habits, attitude and practices. Later, incentives were put and the programme became competitive in nature among the various state and local government areas of the federal republic of Nigeria. This effort was also aimed at identifying the nation with the cause of the world health organization which then declared June 1984 as the “World environmental Sanitation Day”- with War Against filthy environment as the theme. Because of the military nature of the implementation of the new environmental sanitation programme people responded accordingly, but not without close supervision. Consciously or unconsciously, most of our town and cities were given some face-lift for sometime. Health implication of their poor health habits and practices the motives of the environmental sanitation programme are often misunderstood to their “status quo” when they are no longer closely supervised.

Infact, the problem of poor environmental sanitation and unhygienic behaviour among the majority of Nigerians have persisted despite the various sanctions or stringent measured taken by governments and other health agencies to enforce a change of attitude among the people. It is important to note too that all the while emphasis has been concern about the mass rural population or communities that contribute significantly to the urban populace, it then stands to reason to assert that the individuals home orientation would also be unconsciously exhibited in a new environment. Hence the neglect of the sanitation crusade at the grassroots level has made the sanitation efforts in most of our town and cities abortive.

1.2 Statement of The Problems
The main concern of the study, therefore is to identify investigate and find out answer to the following sub problems.

The psychological impact of the programme on the health status of students in University of Maiduguri hostel of Bornu State.

The sociological influence on the people in University of Maiduguri hostel by the environmental sanitation programme.

The impact of the programme on the economic development of the community.

The impact of the University of Maiduguri experiment on the physical development of the said community.

1.3 Objectives of the Study
1. To examine how environmental sanitation programme affect the health status of students in the University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.

2. To assess how poor environmental sanitation affects the health status of students in the University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.

3. To determine how social conflicts created by environmental sanitation programme affects the health status of students in the University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions
1. How do environmental sanitation programme affect the health status of students in the University of Maiduguri, Nigeria?

2. How do environmental sanitation programme affect the health status of students in the University of Maiduguri, Nigeria?

3. How do social conflicts created by environmental sanitation programme affect the health status of students in the University of Maiduguri, Nigeria?

1.5 Research Hypothesis
The study was guided by the following alternative research hypothesis:

H1: Environmental sanitation programme have a significant effect on the health status of students in the University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.

H1: Environmental sanitation programme have a significant effect on the health status of students in the University of Maiduguri, Nigeria.

1.6 Significance Of The Study
The “University of Maiduguri experiment” is a unique venture in the recent time and in the history of environmental sanitation in the urban level. The result of the findings of the study would therefore be useful to not only the government but also to individuals, the public and the community. To the government, it could help in reviewing their former strategies with a view of achieving health for all at a low or no significant cost. The findings and recommendation may stimulate health challenges in other rural/urban community towards inculcating and maintaining health habits and practices thereby advancing lasting solution to the fast global environmental decay.

To the community, the study could be a source of motivation that could immortalize the initiative of the people and so this health practice part of the people so this health practice part of the people culture. The result of the investigation could also initiate further research in the health area, in the effort to establishing a more dynamic health culture for the world at large.

1.7 Definition of Terms
In the course of this study certain operational technical terms were unavoidably used in the write-up to express some views. Those terms have however, been defined herefore the quick understanding.

Catch them young- The act of involving children of tender age in the sanitation activities-aimed at training them to group with good/correct health habits, attitude and practices.

Environmental sanitation-the control of all those factors in mans environmental which exercises or may exert a delicious effect on his physical development, health and survival.

Influence- The impact made by something through invisible or intangible means.

The mass-community Action-A joint cooperative and coordination venture involving all members of the community.

Mass-Mobilization-involvement of all able-bodies citizens in carrying out a programme.

Modus-operand-The manner by which an activity operated.

Pollution- Contamination or unfavourable change in physical, chemical or biological conditions in the environment, which exert may exert harmful effects on the quality of human life. Including effects on other animals, plants, industries as well as cultural and aesthetic assets.

Population- A group of individuals of the same species inhabiting in a specific area.

Status Quo- The original state of affairs/habits.

Task force- A temporary merging of units or individuals under once command with the purpose of accomplishing a specific mission or finding a solution to a particular problems.

World Health Organization (WHO) this is the greatest world health organization. It was formed in 1942. After the Second World War. It is an arm of the United Nation organization (UNO) and has its all-independent nations are members. environmental sanitation programme.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 55 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
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