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The major purpose of this study was to identify strategies for improving the production of ready-to-wear garments in clothing industries in Southeast Nigeria. The study answered four research questions while four null hypotheses were tested. The study adopted descriptive survey research design and was carried out in Southeast, Nigeria. The population for the study was made up of 365 workers of the 19 technologically related clothing industries in Abia and Anambra States. Due to the manageable size of the population, there was no sampling. For data collection, two sets of instruments were used namely: Focus Group Discussion (FGD) Guide and 179-item structured questionnaire titled: “Strategi es for Improving the Production of Ready-to-Wear Garments Questionnaire (SIMRWGQ)”. Th e instruments were subjected to face validation by five experts. To determine the reliability of the instrument, Cronbach Alpha reliability co-efficient was used to test the internal consistency of the instrument. Reliability coefficients of 0.78 was obtained for technology-related strategies, 0.82 for skill-related strategies, 0.73 for operational-related strategies and 0.77 for environmental-related strategies while an overall reliability coefficient of 0.79 was obtained for the entire instrument. Data for the study were collected by the researcher with the help of five research assistants. The focus group discussion (FGD) was carried out with 20 discussants. The data collected from the questionnaire administered were analyzed using mean for answering the research questions while t-test statistics was used for testing the hypotheses at p≤0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study identified 75 technology-related, 31 skill-related, 47 operational-related and 26 environmental-related strategies for improving the production of ready-to-wear garments in clothing industries in Southeast Nigeria and the findings on the null hypotheses tested revealed that there were no significant differences in the mean ratings of the responses of supervisors and operators on 152 out of the 179 identified strategies for improving the production of ready-to-wear garment in clothing industries in South East Nigeria while on the remaining 27 strategies, there were significant differences in the mean ratings of the responses of supervisors and operators. The study therefore concluded that the application and adoption of the identified strategies in the production of ready-to-wear garments will improve the quality and competitive advantage of Nigeria made garments. The study among others recommended that the identified technology, skill, operational and environmental strategies for improving the production of ready-to-wear garment be integrated in the curriculum of Home Economics (Clothing and Textile) at all levels in Nigerian education system.

Background of the Study

Clothing refers to any covering worn on the human body. Clothing is one of the basic necessities of any human being which is used for protection, decoration, beautification, adornment, self expression, status symbol and to express one’s personality (Weber, 1990). Clothing helps one to meet one of the basic human needs which provide satisfaction and enjoyment in life. Clothing can be made at home or produced by roadside tailors or in the industry. Devaraja (2011) stated that industry is an organized production or manufacture of goods or a branch of commercial enterprise producing a particular product. Industry is also the term for the manufacture of goods using machinery in factories. Clothing is produced in clothing industry. 

Clothing industry is a factory where materials of clothing are made for consumption. The production of clothing continues to be one of the driving forces of industrialization in the developing world. Clothing industry is thus one of the industries that employed the greatest percentage of workers both globally and locally (United States Bureau of Labour and Statistics, 2009). Clothing industries contribute to employment in developed as well as in developing countries particularly in regions where paid employment may be difficult to find like Nigeria. The Nigeria clothing industry can generate more than 600,000 employments if properly harnessed with appropriate techniques and innovations (Olunegbon, 2009). These clothing industries are involved in the production of garments. 

Garments are physical matter intended for a body (Bjork, 2011). Garments can be defined by its role in revealing or resisting ethnic, professional, class-based, or political identities, or in screening off or establishing a sense of individuality (Bergstrom, 2011). Garments are article of clothing use in covery the body. It can be used as an outer covery or outward appearance like dresses, suits, pants and so on. Garments can be produced at home or in the industry as ready-to-wear. 

Ready-to-wear are garments that are mass produced opposite of custom made. However, custom made garments are item of clothing made according to individual purchaser specification. Ready-to-wear garments often abbreviated RTW, is the term for factory-made clothing, sold in finished condition. They are in standardized sizes as distinct from made to measure or bespoke. Made to measure or bespoke garments are tailored to a particular person’s frame (Nathania, 2011).

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This study investigate the sales and usage of secondhand clothing in Alimosho local government area of Lagos State. Social construction, sales and usage of secondhand clothing. Certain conditions compel individual into taking decisions and actions. Sales and usage of secondhand clothing is a major occupation, for which, Igbo people are famous. With the economic downturn, more Igbo people have taken to the sales of secondhand clothing. Today, sales of secondhand clothing are no longer exclusive Igbo affairs. Government policy has caused inflation, which has in turn, deprived people employment and even choices in terms of wears. As a result, patronage of used clothes that was a character of the low income earner, and people with no or low education, has become an attraction to educated folks as well as medium income earners. The rising population of the patrons of used clothing has in effect, significantly led to a rise in importation of used items especially through illegal perceptions. This study is carried out with duly valued questionnaires and indepth interview were used as instrument to collect primary data from 150 respondents from various market in Alimosho which are Kantagua. Igando, Ikotun and Egbeda market for statistical analysis. The results of data collected were analyzed and transcribed with Pearson’s Product moment correlations statistical tool to test the three (3) hypotheses formulated. The result of the three hypotheses tested indicated that: there is a significant relationship between social construction of sales and usage of secondhand clothing in Alimosho Local Government, consumer do attached meaning to the usage of second-hand clothing in Alimosho Local Government and problems associated with the sales and usage of second-hand clothing in Alimosho local Government area of Lagos metropolis. The findings of this research revealed that the sales and usage of secondhand clothing have adverse effect on the nation economy which ranges from diseases, loss of cultural values and unemployment. The study reveals that people also benefits from the sales and usage of secondhand clothing as a result of factors which are durability, quality and cost. From this study, it was also realized that there are various places where people get secondhand clothing from and people attached meanings to it. It recommended that consumers should appreciate and patronize local products, if such products meet their needs and expectations in the face of competing brands from oversea. No nation became advanced suddenly; some of them sacrificed and had an inward orientation that favoured their economies. It is better to encourage domestic producers of this product to put in their best to make the product viable and saleable. That local fabric/garment producers need to address themselves to the socio-economic factors influencing secondhand clothes traders to prefer these imported items. Attention should be given to the implications on local production and marketing if the local industry is to meet consumer needs satisfactorily, the industry should strive to make high domestic sales so that exportation makes a small contribution to business performance. Domestic sales will make local industries almost self-reliant. The Nigerian government through the standards organization of Nigeria (SONs) need to monitor quality of locally produced clothing so that consumers within and without Nigeria are not disappointed. Finally, enlightenment campaigns and workshops must be conducted to train and reorientate both producers and consumers. Also research and development institute that will take care of this sector should be put in place or become more functional if it is already in existence.


The social construction of sales and usage of second hand clothing has been a contemporary issues in Nigeria which cannot be overemphasized. Secondhand clothing (SHC) traces their origin from wealthy westerners who contribute their obsolete clothing as donations to charity organizations (Dougherty, 2004; Slotterback, 2007). Larger charities first sort through the donations to add to their stock stores and then sell the surplus to secondhand clothing dealers to help generate funds towards assistance programs. Slotterback (2007) reported that about 80% of the donated clothing is usually sold to secondhand clothing merchants. The merchants sort the secondhand clothing by condition and then categorize in groups which they bundle in bales whose prices vary according to quality of the contents. Clothing merchants from the importing countries visit the offices of exporters to ascertain the quality, negotiate the price, pay for the bales and then ship the clothing to the country of origin (Olumide, 2011). It has been observed presently that Nigeria and Kenya is one of the largest importers of secondhand clothing (locally referred to as ‘Okirika, Benddown boutique and Tokunbo while Kenya called it “Mitumba’ meaning ‘onslaught’) in Sub Sahara Africa respectively.

Buying behaviour according to Dawson et al (2006), are set of attitudes that characterize the patterns of consumers' choices. Apart from the essential internal factors, which are recognized as influential to buying behaviour, there are a number of external situational contexts that affect consumer choices. Consumer behaviour is a combination of customers' buying consciousness and external incentives which are likely to result in behaviour remodeling. The society’s culture such as norms, philosophies, settlement, customs religion, festivity, class, lifestyle and other subculture influence how individual consumers buy and use secondhand products, and help explain how groups of consumers behave. There has been a current need for individuals and families to develop sustainable ways of living. One of the important areas of sustainable living is through maintainable clothing and textile consumption. Maintainable consumption is using resources in a way that minimizes harm to the environment, while supporting the well-being of people (OECD, 2008). Maintainable clothing or fashion consumption is the use of clothing for purposes beyond utilitarian needs which is achieved while enabling the future generations to meet their needs (Nordic Initiatives, Clean and Ethical (NICE, 2012). Secondhand Clothing trade (SHCT) represents an insignificant proportion of the total global trade in clothing (0.5%), more than 30% of the imports goes to the Sub Sahara African (SSA) countries (Baden & Barber, 2005). Despite being overtaken by imports from Asia to Africa, the use of Secondhand Clothing still significant. 

According to Mangieri (2006) and Slotterback (2007) opined that having increased drastically since 1990 the global Secondhand Clothing trade (SHCT) is worth more than USD 200 billion each year with almost all countries in the world becoming involved in it either as exporters, processors, re exporters or importers. Used clothing markets exist in over 100 countries globally (Slotterback, 2007). The United States, the Netherlands and Japan participate in SCHT as major exporters while the developing countries like Nigeria are the major importers and consumers of Secondhand clothing (Baden and Barber, 2005). 

The economic downturn of the past has affected nearly every segment of the Nigeria economy of the past has affected nearly every segment of the Nigeria economy .The sales and usage of secondhand clothing is one of the business, people are engaging themselves with and its increasingly gaining ground in Nigeria. The rapid increase of population unemployment is one of the major factors pushing many individuals to sell and buy secondhand clothing, all over the world. 

Nigeria as a country is posed with a lot of problems, which includes poverty ,unemployment, lack of resources, and low wage income are making individuals sell and use secondhand clothing. 

Typically, the importation of used clothes would result in a downward shift of the demand curve in the new apparel industry. According to studies (Slotterback 2007) many reasons accounts for the sales and usage of secondhand clothing. 

1 .Unemployment among individuals.
2..Poverty, both relative and absolute poverty.
3. Low wage income and lack of better job opportunities.

In this study, an attempt was made to provide answers to the following questions.

i.What are the meanings attached to the sales and usage of secondhand clothing by people?
ii.What are the reasons why people use and sale secondhand clothing?
iii.What categories of people use secondhand clothing?
iv.What are the business strategies involved in the sales of secondhand clothing?
v.What are the problems associated with the sales and usage of secondhand clothing?

The main objective of this study is to investigate social construction of sales and usage of second-hand clothing in Alimosho local government area of Lagos metropolis. This is however divided into the following sub objectives; 

i. To know whether there is any meaning attached to the sales and usage of second-hand clothing by people of Alimosho local government area of Lagos metropolis.
ii. To ascertain the reasons why people use and sell secondhand clothing
iii. To identify the categories of people that use secondhand clothing Alimosho local government area of Lagos metropolis
iv. To identify the business strategies involved in the sales of secondhand clothing.
v. To examine the problems associated with the sales and usage of secondhand clothing.

This study will be of great importance to policymakers in the sense that it will be an assistance to make rightful and necessary policy that will encourage and favorable to Nigerian textile industry, individual have found that thrift stores often reflect the community in which they reside and quality clothing with the tags still in some wealthier neighborhoods. Also, Goodwill found to be expensive, as far as thrift store goods or cloth cheaper than new one. Their prices are definitely higher, but it does seem that they do a better job of filtering out junk, spouses often believe that the level of income determines the purchasing power, researchers and general public in the sense that it will assists them to know the adverse effect of social construction of sales of usage secondhand clothing, causes and solution to the consumption. 

The Nigeria Demographic Health Survey(NDHS) significantly emphases that an ideal vehicle for studying not only the linkages between secondhand clothing usage and health and demographic outcomes. This study will help to solve current or existing problem as it affect Textile Company in Nigeria. It will also help the government in terms of planning and budget revenue in the appropriate ways putting all things into consideration such as what the people so desire. This study would raise various suggestions and recommendations that will go a long way to minimize these problems and their attendance effects. Student writing their research project on similar topic will be guided as the finding and recommendations will be serve as a map, pointing them to the path to treat. Undertaken a study of this nature will expose the researcher to rigorous and challenging exercise of writing a project, which need a lot of concentration handwork and patience. 

The study is designed to investigate the social construction of sales and usage of second-hand clothing in Alimosho local government area, Lagos metropolis. Specifically, the scope covers social construction of sales and usage of second-hand clothing in Iyana-Ipaja, Egbeda and Ikotun area of Lagos State. This covers: 

a. Iyana Ipaja (Kantagwa Market)
b. Ikotun ( Ikotun Market)
c. Egbeda (Egbeda Market)

This study is utmost important simply because the researcher discovered that most of the people living in the aforementioned area prefers secondhand clothing to new one due to the presence of large markets in that area such as Ikotun BRT Terminal and Kontogora market. This research study, like any other research is bound to have limitations, through these limitations does not have significant effect on the validity of the study. This include:

Insufficient fund to carry out the study. It should be noted that money will be needed for transportation to the field, typing and printing etc. and shortage of it (money), may affect the proper scrutiny of this study. Also inadequate information from the respondents serves as another major factor that may affect this research exercise. More so, shortage or inadequate time to carry out the research work cannot also but mentioned among those other factors that serves as a constraints to this study.

For better understanding of the various terms related to and in this research project, it is necessary to briefly define these term m their general meaning and specific contextual application to the topic under discourse:

SALES: In general, a transaction between two parties where the buyer receives goods (tangible or intangible), services and/or assets in exchange for money.

SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION: This is perception of consumer towards any social phenomenon and the meaning attached to it. Social construction is something you might not be aware of. You are somewhat living in segregation depending on what gender, race and class you are. Race, class and gender don’t really mean anything. They only have a meaning because society gives them a meaning. Social construction is how society groups people and how it privileges certain groups over others.

SECONDHAND CLOTHING: Items of clothing that have been previously owned by someone else. Besides, second-hand or used good is one that is being purchased by or otherwise transferred to a second or later end user. A used good can also simply mean it is no longer in the same condition as it was when transferred to the current owner. When "used" means an item has expended its purpose (such as a useddiaper), it is typically called garbage, instead. Used goods may be transferred informally between friends and family for free as "hand-me-downs" or they may be sold for a fraction of their original price at garage sales or in church bazaarfundraisers.

USAGE: Usage is defined as the way that something is being used, or to the proper way to make use of something such as a word or phrase or tool.

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In the quest of come up with good and more conducive equipment for storing materials like shoes etc. we the researchers had to take on this important project. This will help in the proper storage of textiles materials, in the department and it’s also recommended for usage in our various homes. The important about this project is that its durable, that is to stay for a very long time without rusting because of the kind of materials its made of which fiber glass, fabric and weaving yarns. It’s therefore a total deviation from the usual shoe rack, batik and weaving.


The textile world is very broad and everyone is dependent on it. Nearly every aspect of our lives uses some form of textile. Imagine what would have happened, if all textiles were removed from our environment. In the home, most furnishings are enhanced with textiles, even woven mosquito net on the windows and around our beds are textile pieces. In the class-room, many books have some form of textile. The car not only has textile upholstery, but the wire in electrical system is insulated in woven cloth. Within the rubber of tyres is either woven steel or fibre glass cloth which gives it strength. Indeed textiles are ever present in our lives. 

The most common use of textiles are for clothing and containers such as bags and basket. In homes, they are used in carpeting, upholstered furnishing, window shades, towels, covering for tables, beds and other flat surfaces. In work places, they are used in industrial and scientific processes such as filtering; Miscellaneous uses include flags, backpacks, tents; Cleaning devices, such as handkerchiefs and rags; Transportation devices such as balloons, kites, sails and parachutes. Children can learn, using textiles to make collages, sew, quilt and toys. Textiles used for industrial purposes and chosen for characteristic other than their appearances include textile structure for aircraft and automotive applications; Medical textiles for example implants; Geotextiles. reinforcement of embankment; Agro textiles e.g. textiles for crop protection; Protective clothing e.g. Clothes worn against heat and radiation, fire fighting clothing, clothes worn against molten metals for welders, stab protection, and bullet- proof vests. 

This project therefore is aimed at helping the upcoming textiles students and those interested in textiles and its end products to appreciate the efforts of textile producers, and especially fabrics made in Nigeria. Fabrics have gained so much prominence so much so that its adaptation for interior and domestic usage has brought about great aesthetics and uniqueness. Although, dyed fabrics are generally used for clothing, they have of late become relevant in the area of interior decoration and other domestic usage like shoes, caps etc. 

Adaptation in textiles means to modify and suit a particular purpose. While dyeing is the complete immersion of the fabric into a solution containing dyes and chemicals. On the other hand, fabric is referred to as any material made through weaving, knitting, crocheting or bonding that may be used in the production of further goods like garments e.t.c. PH From the definitions of dyes and fabrics, the meaning of the term “dyed fabric” can now be easily understood. 

Therefore, the title adaptation of woven fabric on batik for personal clothing will no longer be strange. However, in this project the researchers have carefully researched and made successful attempts in the adaptation of woven fabrics on batik for personal use. 

As the title indicates “An adaptation of woven fabrics on batik for personal clothing” the following are the statement of the problem.

Transportation was also another problem encountered. So trips were made to Benin and Auchi anytime materials were needed coupled with the risk of carrying them.

The significance of this study is centered on enlightening the public on the possibility of the adaptation of woven fabrics on Batik to produce items like dresses, shoes, walking sticks, caps e.t.c. 

*To adapt other usage for textile materials for domestic and household end use
*To create a means for awareness and marketing for such end-use.
*To document our findings for future use
*To encourage new artist into the field of decoration. utilization and adaptation of fabric in other end use than the normal usage that we are used to.

The scope of this study is to see how woven materials or fabric can be adapted into end uses other than familiar usages.

At the end of the research, there will be an exhibition to show case all the beautiful works that were produced in the course of the research.

One of the problems encountered in the course of the research was time. The time was not enough considering the enormity of the project. The production of woven fabrics and it’s adaptation on batik, to produce the end-uses took a lot of time and energy.

Adaptation: The act of making or becoming suitable for new needs; to change so as to be suitable for new needs.

Batik: Batik is a fabric dyeing method using wax to create patterns and design.
Weaving: It is the inter-lacing of yarns to form a structure.
Yarn Yarns are unprocessed fibres.
Weft: Weft are those yarns that runs horizontally on the loom.
Warp: Warps are those yarns that are layed vertically on the loom.
Loom: A loom is a device used in weaving to help knit threads together to make a single piece of cloth.

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This study was designed to assess constraints on human resource development (HRD) in Technical vocational education. The study was designed to determine from technical teachers the extent to which they considered the constraints affecting HRD in TVE programmes. Simple descriptive survey design was used for the study. The population of this study consisted of all technical teachers in Anambra State. The instrument used in the collection of data was 70 item questionnaire validated by four experts in Vocational Education Department. The questionnaire elicited information from the technical teachers on five distinct areas considered constraints on HRD in TVE. One hundred and thirty (130) copies of the questionnaire were administered on the respondents but 102 copies of the questionnaire were completed and returned. The data collected were analysed using frequency count and mean to answer 6 research questions posed for the study. Four (4) research hypotheses were appropriately tested using ANOVA and t-test statistic tools at 0.05 level of significance. The results indicated that technical teachers considered non-availability of material resources, technical teachers’ inadequacy, inadequate human resource management, public misconception on the nature of TVE and financial constraints as constraints on HRD in TVE programme. Based on the conclusion, strategies that could improve HRD in TVE will be adopted to help to improve teaching and learning in TVE programmes.



Background of the Study
Human resource could be seen as people, who work in organizations, having certain qualities or abilities, talents, and attitudes; and who influence production, quality and profitability. They are people who could set out strategies and goals, design work systems, produce goods and services, monitor quality, allocate financial resources and market the products and services (Bratton and Gold, 1999). According to Eyiuche (2002), human resources make up the ultimate basis for the wealth of a nation. Human resources differ from other resources because of their ability to evaluate and to question management actions. For instance, capital and material resources are passive factors of production while human resources are the active agents that accumulate capital, exploit both natural and material resources, build social, economic and political organizations and cause national development enhancement. In the context of formal education, human resources have to be specifically educated in order to be able to carry out their professional responsibility (Oluremi, 2001). However, the problem here rests on the appropriate development of human resources.

As education is regarded as national investment, the most valuable of all capital is that invested in human beings. It appears that lack of adequate investment in human resources development has been responsible for the slow growth of the less developed countries in the world. Human resource development is a process of acquiring and increasing the number of persons who have skills, education and experience which are critical for economic and political development of a nation (Eyiuche, 2002). This implies that human resource development (HRD) involves acquisition of skills, knowledge and the application of knowledge and skills acquired. HRD according to Nwangwu (2007) is a process of staff improvement through strategies that foster self development, self actualization and self growth. Development involves all those activities that are geared towards the growth and improvement of skills, knowledge, abilities and attitudes of the staff of the system. A well planned and systematic HRD programme will enhance the performance of the TVE programmes in terms of increased productivity, and will reduce costs, as well as engender high staff morale and stability in the system. HRD is growth oriented that may require in-service programmes (Nwangwu, 2007).
It seems that a greater proportion of problems confronting the development of technical education in Nigeria currently are rooted in inadequate supply of technical teachers arising from inadequate HRD strategies. The peculiarities of inadequate supply of technical education teachers may include deficiencies in quality and quantity. Most technical teachers available appear to lack industrial experience, and pedagogical training. Also limited training facilities constitute the greatest bottle-neck for staff training and re-training (Olu and Beecroft, 1987). Eze (2007) stated that TVE teachers should be specialist in their trades because lack of adequately trained TVE teachers could affect students’ enlistment in TVE programmes. Eze emphasized that if people lack technical skill, knowledge and entrepreneurial consciousness, most of the constituents of the environment will be greeted with ignorance and there may not be any commitment to discover and tap the available resources because the knowledge may be lacking and the necessary technical skill may not be acquired. In a country where the technical staff and human resources available lack these abilities, it is assumed that such country might remain underdeveloped. It is also assumed that such country where the necessary human resources, lack adequate knowledge and the technical know-how for promoting economic development, advancement may not be foreseen and predicted.

The development of human resources has been the main focus of TVE because TVE objectives rest on skill acquisition and application of scientific knowledge in problem solving. It also involves practice, application of knowledge and manual inhibitions of mastery using the hands. TVE helps in meeting the manpower needs of the society and no country has ever been able to achieve and sustain any degree of technological development without a conscious and conscientious effort to develop its technical manpower. TVE ensures the production of adequate and appropriate productive manpower which leads to wealth creation, material progress, resource base development and national empowerment which accelerates economic growth, reduce inequality and eradicate absolute poverty.

TVE enhances the manual dexterity, technical skill and knowledge, and the entrepreneurial consciousness of the people with a view to improving the economic development of the country through human empowerment. Also the solution to underdevelopment in a country and to minimize economic backwardness and instill capacities and instruction to progress is to introduce and implant a robust and viable TVE system. However, the achievement of these good qualities of TVE programmes depends to a great extent on the development and proper utilization of human resources. TVE teacher as a key factor in human resources need to be adequately developed through training and effectively utilized for proper achievement of TVE objectives and also to enable them carryout their professional and administrative duties. The success and effectiveness of TVE depend on the quality and quantity of teachers available for the TVE programmes. That is to say the realization of educational goals of TVE programmes depend to large extent upon the quality and quantity of TVE teachers engaged in TVE system because the TVE teachers cannot give out what they do not have.

In developing TVE teachers as a key factor in human resource development there appears to be some constraints. This may be one of the reasons why most students do not study technical vocational courses in tertiary institutions in the state. The constraints may be in so many forms. It can be in form of lack of availability of adequate trained technical teachers, non-availability of material resources or inadequate human resources management. In order to make human resources productive and dependable, there should be adequate HRD strategies in TVE programmes. It is against this background that this study is designed to assess the extent of the constraints on human resource development and strategies for improvement in TVE programmes in Anambra State.

Statement of the Problem
Technical vocational education is a powerful vehicle for development and sustenance of competence, efficiency and effectiveness in graduates of technology education (Okoye, 2006). Unfortunately, the human resources development in this discipline appears to be seriously neglected by successive governments in Nigeria. For instance, early 80’s, the Federal Government made efforts to empower technical personnel in the country through Technical Teachers Training programme (TTTP) Over-seas, and subsequently in Indigenous Universities, the programme had since stopped due to the same negligence. Consequently, there has always been dearth of professionally trained technical instructors / teachers or practitioners, inadequate supply of training materials and facilities, and grossly inadequate funding. These shortcomings form constraints against adequate HRD in technological studies in Nigeria and Anambra State in particular. Admittedly Nwanoruo (2002) maintain that some of the constraints on HRD in Nigeria include lack of adequate funding, non-availability of instructional materials and lack of qualified technical manpower. The consequence is that the graduates of this programme are not adequately trained. As a result they appear to feel inferior and thus entertain some inferiority complex and incompetent amidst counterparts. Worse still, there has always been low regard for manual application which had always assumed greater proportion among TVE graduates (Okorie, 2002).

On the other hand, the learning environment appertaining to TVE programmes is nothing to write home about. For instance, Eze (2007) noted that poor training and learning environment in TVE workshops have resulted in production of incompetent vocational graduates who cannot adapt to changing economic situation in Nigeria. In this awareness, it becomes pertinent to organize a study in this category to assess the constraints that affect HRD and determine strategies that could improve HRD in TVE programmes.

Purpose of the Study
This study intends to assess some constraints on human resource development and determine strategies that could improve HRD in TVE programmes. Specifically, the study intends to assess the;

1.                 Extent to which non-availability of material resources affects HRD in TVE programmes.

2.                 Extent to which technical teachers’ inadequacy affects HRD in TVE programmes.

3.                 Extent to which inadequate human resource management affects HRD in TVE in Anambra State.

4.                 Extent to which public misconception of the nature of TVE programmes affects HRD in TVE in Anambra State.

5.                 Extent to which financial constraints affects HRD in TVE in Anambra State, and

6.                 Determine strategies that could improve HRD in TVE programme in Anambra State.

Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will be of benefit to technical vocational administrators, technical vocational teachers and students.

By this study, the extent to which the identified constraints affect HRD will be assessed. It is believed that the problematic issues that result in non-availability of material resources, public misconception of nature of TVE and financial constraints will be unveiled too. Consequently, the strategies for improvement will be determined and also implemented in TVE programmes. The assumption is that most of the students will shun inferiority complex and pick a vocation in TVE. In the long run many more intelligent and brilliant students will be attracted to enroll into TVE programmes with a willing intension to make enviable achievement and a competitive career for self reliance.

If constraints on human resource development in TVE programmes are adequately assessed as a result of the findings of this study, the perennial problem of inadequate supply of qualified technical vocational teachers in TVE will be solved. This is believed to bring job satisfaction among technical teachers which will make them also to impart the knowledge and skills needed. If adequate knowledge and skill are imparted to the students, it is deemed that students will become more productive and independent citizens.

If findings on the extent to which inadequate human resources management affect HRD in TVE programmes are discovered, it will help the TVE stakeholders to improve on human resource development in TVE programmes in Nigeria.

Research Questions
The following research questions are posed to guide the study

1.                 To what extent does non-availability of material resources affect HRD in TVE programmes?

2.                 To what extent does technical teachers’ inadequacy affect HRD in TVE programmes?

3.                 To what extent does inadequate human resource management affect HRD in TVE in Anambra State?

4.              To what extent does a public misconception of the nature of TVE affect HRD in TVE in Anambra State?

5.                 To what extent does a financial constraint affect HRD in TVE programmes?

6.          What strategies could improve HRD in TVE programme in Anambra State?

The following hypotheses were formulated and were tested at 0.05 level of significance.

Ho1:  There is no significant difference among the opinion of technical teachers of NAU,Awka; FCE(T),Umunze and Technical Colleges in Anambra State on the extent to which non-availability of material resources affect HRD in TVE.

Ho2: There is no significant difference between mean responses of technical teachers in FCE(T),Umunze and Technical Colleges in Anambra State on the extent to which technical teachers’ inadequacy affect HRD in TVE programmes.

Ho3: There is no significant difference between the opinion of technical teachers of NAU,Awka and FCE(T),Umunze in Anambra State on the extent to which inadequate human resource management affect HRD in TVE in Anambra State.

Ho4:  There is no significant difference between the mean responses of male technical teachers and female technical teachers in TVE on the extent to which public misconception of the nature of TVE programmes affect HRD in TVE in Anambra State.

Scope of the Study
This study is delimited to an assessment of constraints on HRD in TVE and strategies for improving HRD in Anambra state.

This study was limited to some influential factors such as: which non-availability of material resources; technical teachers’ inadequacy; inadequate human resource management; public misconception on the nature of TVE programmes and financial constraint that could affect HRD in TVE. This study focuses on technical teachers’ in NAU, Awka; FCE (T) and technical colleges in Anambra State that offer technical courses. The technical teachers in private establishments that offer programmes in TVE were not covered in study.

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Item Type: Postgraduate Material  |  Attribute: 106 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.



Contemporary Nigerian dances are as diversified as the culture from which they emerge. This project is an exploration of the use of semiotics in contemporary Nigerian dance. Contemporary Nigerian dance is deeply rooted in the semiology of images because it is not merely an agglutination of symbols, but symbols contained in the language content of any given society. The place of semiotics in this instance dance, becomes an expression of linguistic pattern of a choreographed contemporary Nigerian dance. Semiotics interpretation is a concept that would help in the understanding of meaning-making inherent in activity. Semiotics involves the interpretation of signs, a study of how meaning is derived from both simple and complex knowledge of images, sounds, words gestures and objects. “The place of semiotics in contemporary Nigerian Dance” is thus, aimed at educating choreographers and dance scholars on how semiotics can aid the understanding of a dance through the appropriate channel of interpretation. It is a conscious call to the realization of the role of semiotics in understanding life, where culture codes form a basis of communication. This project has been able to establish an understanding of the way semiotics operates as an interpretive connecting rod between thought, ideas and impressions.


1.1      Introduction and Background to the Study
Dance is an ageless art from the history of creation. Dance made its debut into the theatre as embellishment for formal drama, opera and musicals. Dance is a primordial art which was used in rituals, hunting, communication, mock-fight, war, festival and initiation. According to Sarrel. “The dance of primitive societies is always serious because it is religious in a self expressive and communication sense” (7).

In every work of art, especially, dance, what makes it more effective is its ability to follow a particular rhythm. So the rhythmic nature of African dance or any other culture is ever-green in the minds of its people. Dance in every community is appreciated, because of its aesthetic appeal as well as its religious and sacred significance. According to Ejike;

Sacred dance is the only effective means of communication between the ancestral spirit and the living and also the easiest way to awaken them from slumber, especially with the ageless movement accompanied with the Iroko drums. (4)

Dance as an art uses non-verbal forms to communicate with its audiences. The non-verbal form always comes in form of gestures, movement and mine. In non-verbal communication rhythm and movement are important. The rhythm in every dance in Africa tells us the situation of event at a particular time. Dance rhythm in Africa in not static, it changes. With the dancers movement, the difference between ritual dance and social dance can be highlighted.

In ritual dances, symbols, metaphors, music and sometimes silence may be used to highlight the essence of worship and reverence for the presence of gods. Social dances on the other hand are less serious in content and form. Although they also have specific occasions in which they are performed. Some of these social dances are purely celebrative in nature. Dancers are free to add or subtract from the known movement to the unknown movements, but the movements have to be creatively and aesthetically beholding. This way the dancers are part of the religious worship to evoke and worship the gods and goddesses who are the guiding fathers or mothers of certain cults within any given society. Ritual dances are serious, for they have specific movements, rhythm and pattern to the dances. Also the occasions for performances are fixed by the chief priest of the gods after due consultations and the reasons for the ritual dance must be relevant to the community. Usually it is for burial of the dead, the evocation of the favor of the gods, the ancestral deification of the dead to the world of the spirits, or the cleansing of the society of the ills that hamper their progress. Some of the ritual dances are accompanied by ritual sacrifices and songs. Dance experience of a given society uses human body to produce action and passion in the dance. Dance in the primordial era is used to highlight the experience of the community at any point in time. This can be fully portrayed in the songs, costumes and movements.

The environment plays a vital role in the art of dancing. It has much influence on the dance steps, songs, instruments, costume and make-up. Dance as an art belongs to the community in which the culture is embodied based on how they move their bodies majestically. Rhythm and movement are indispensable in African dances. According to Primus;

“Dance in African context translates every day experiences of Africans into movement” and therefore concluded that dances in Africa is totally of African life.

Dance cannot communicate effectively without the dancers. In African dances, the dancers are the mediators between the dance leader and the audience. The dance leader in African dance always emerges as a performer who showcases great artistic tendency to make him a leader. Those qualities may be that of a good drummer, singer or a good dancer. He directs dance movements on stage. His work can also be compared with that of a choreographer in the modern theatre. The dance leader uses his body to pass the effective message to the audience.

Dance is always colorful and enjoyable when performed with the actual costume and make-up which may suit the dance objective at that particular moment. With the right costume and make-up, the audience will be able to appreciate and understand the dance fully. But in a situation where there is no costume and make-up in a dance performance that may not only be able to engender aesthetic appeal but its interpretative discuss, then the dance may not be well appreciated.

Dance in the modern theatre is not just a pastime engagement, it also boosts the economy of both the dancers and their managers. Dance makes statements about the society that owns it. Dance may have fast rhythm or slow rhythm depending on its message. For instance in ceremonial occasions, the rhythm of the dance movement is always slow, to signify the majestic nature of the ceremony at that particular time. Rhythm of dance movement in modern theatre determines and interprets the choreographer’s inmost ideology while creating the dance movement.
The movements in African dances are very communicative in nature. Movements in dances vary, depending on the peoples culture. In every dance movement, its rhythmic nature concentrates more on those parts of the body that serve as the communication point. For instance, in Ohofia war dance, the rhythm is always fast and the concentration is on the chest and shoulder. In Onitsha, for instance, the occasional dance movement is always slow and same as the rhythm. The movement depends on individual dances. African traditional dances can be loosely classified into two major categories; ritual and social dances. The origins of the dances are embedded in legends, and folklore. The description of the myths or folklores formed the context of the dance performance. Music and dance are regarded in most communities as gifts from the gods, to allow man to survive and enjoy the mystery of life. Ritual dances are deeply rooted in the religious sphere, and in most cases, the dancers are involved in authentic spirit possession on initiation into esoteric religious societies or cults to become members and dancers of the cults. Dance is an ephemeral art. It is an art that takes shape at the moment of performance. Thus, as one of the most direct artistic forms, dance affords its observers an immediacy of perception unlike any of the other art forms.

The realities are dictates of isolated realities, which mean that each dance exists within its own ritual origins, social milieu, and its performative functions and objectives within a given location. Dance is as old as the Nigerian man or indeed, the African man or better still man himself whether white or black. Dance starts with the notion of crawling as a child or of walking as a man. For both activities, “rhythm” is the keyword here.

In Africa, each dance has a context, a story within the performance. The context is the meaning of a particular dance. Whether it is a ritual dance or ceremonial dance, the context of the dance is most important because it guides the dancer on the tempos, the mood and even the images and metaphors. The dance must reflect the process of performance. Malborg states that;

The meaning of dance should be interpreted in its context, that context denotes not only historical, social or cultural context which are extrinsic. But also an intrinsic context that exists as intention on the part of dancer.(27)

The body of a dancer is an instrument of expression based on the mood required for the dance performance. Dancer are taught to use their bodies in the following ways; to tell the story in all African dances whether social or ritual. They are usually taught to be part of a bigger picture. The chief priest may be the star dancer while the other dancers dance in unison to form part of the total evocation. The body becomes the silent musical instrument which is used to form the wider rhythm or picture of the images which the dance is supposed to create. The traditional dancer is taught how to create mood, some dances have fast tempo and some are slow. The agility of the dancer in reacting to the rhythm of the music, the songs and the sounds of the drums often dictate the tempo of the dance. The dancers are also taught how to arrange symbols in an order that will make meaning to the original owners of the dance. Since it is emerging from their cultural consciousness and is also an aesthetic whole when danced. The processes of the arrangement of symbols allow the dancer to tell the complete story of a particular dance. Whether it is Bata dance of the Yoruba, Atilogwu of the Igbo people, or Korotso dance of the Hausa. The key ideology is that dancers are taught the primary use of the body, as a process of highlighting the specific aspects of the body in order to speak the language of the culture of the particular ethnic group.

The Igbo world view contributes a lot in shaping African traditional dances. Anthropologists inform us that an Igbo man is a story telling creature. The Igbo culture recognizes the need for imaginative development through creative storytelling. Storytelling in Igbo culture holds a preeminent place among the people and affords them the best chance to define and enhance their humanity. Storytelling has many uses in Igbo life and culture. First and foremost, it fosters the continuity of the cultural heritage through what is generally designated as akuko-ala (stories about the earth) which encompass what in western categories are called myths and legends. In addition ‘akuko-ala’ explains the mysteries of life and death, of the visible and invisible world, of gods, spirits and ancestors, of the origin of things, their relationships and underlying unities. It describes essential beliefs, philosophical ideas, social codes and approved modes of action. Storytelling tells of the human community in its confrontation with its environment and its adventures of human neighbours, highlighting all the time, the qualities of courage, endurance, heroic self-sacrifice of those whose actions gave shape and solidity to the community. Storytelling goes beyond tales of exemplary courage meant to inspire people in the present through an appeal to hero-worship. It more significantly, erects communal icons which are the permanent benchmarks in the existence of those gods like ancestral heroes which give credence to the received code of social conduct with its myriad injunctions and prohibitions known as Omena-ala (people’s culture).

In Igbo world view, the myth of origin and creation explains significant phenomena in the Igbo culture. The myth consolidates realities which have already been entrenched in culture and history giving them imaginative anchorage for easy assimilation by the memory and transmission from generation to generation. The Igbo oral stories about myths and legends are important for use in educating the Igbo child into the culture of the people and -into the ethical principles and moral values of Igbo society and in addition to providing recreation and entertainment. Chinua Achebe is of the opinion that; “It is the story that outlives the sound of war-drums and the exploits of brave fighters… The story is our escort, without it we are blind”. (124)

Although many Igbo people are now Christians, traditional Igbo religious practices still abound. The traditional religion includes an uncontested general reverence for Chukwu ala (earth goddess), beliefs and rituals related to numerous male and female deities, spirits and ancestors who protect the living descendants. The claim that the Igbo acknowledge a creator God or Supreme-Being, Chukwu or Chineke is however contested. Omenala encapsulates both politics and religion in Igbo society by fusing together space, custom and ethics as constitutional deity of the

Igbo. The living, the dead and the unborn, in Igbo world view form part of a continuum. The living pays tribute to their ancestors by honoring them through sacrifices. Dance as an art encapsulate the totality of African lifestyle and experiences and celebrates the ritualistic nature of African experiences. This work, therefore, studies, Jigawa States Farmers’ Dance and Harvest of Good Wil,l which are core contemporary Nigerian dances.

Semiotics, the science of signs in human society has a significant impact on conventional approaches to the analysis of body movements and communication systems. It has proved a special instrument in non-verbal communication studies, especially, in the area of dance where it provides a crucial theoretical basis for the analysis and examination of the structure and production of meaning. Saussure is of the opinion that:

A semiotic landmark in understanding how human beings communicate is based on relationship between the sign, either verbal or non-verbal or both and the object it designates or refers to. (24)

The link between the sign and its object is the concept. Semiotics may be the link between a scientific discipline and a world view but it is always well constructed. The word semiotics come from the Greek word Seemeiotikee (sign) which denotes the study of signs; what they represent and interpret. The study of semiotics in dance is based on the notion that the human body can communicate message through movements, especially in dance that has traditionally been located in the Humanities and Social Sciences. In the field of dance, Rudolf Laban’s approach is the semiotic study of dance through the analysis of human movements, which he considers basic and essential both to daily activities and the ability of human beings to express themselves. Laban states that “dance has undoubtedly re-entered the realms of the arts” (27). Semiotics in dance serves as mental interpretive tools in the minds of the choreographers. Drewal explains the relationship of mind to body saying:

In dance the vehicle of aesthetic expression is physical movement, so the importance of being clear about the relation of mind to body, of how mental things can be expressed physically is directly apparent. (34)

Semiotics elicits in the minds of the dancers not the final signified object, but a mediating thought that promotes understanding. Pierce states that:

A sign is something which stands to somebody for something in some respect. It creates in the mind of that person an equivalent sign or perhaps a more developed sign” (46).

For Pierce, the sign has a triadic relation among object and interpretant. He also said that a sign includes the idea or interpretant to which it gives rise. In turn, this interpretant becomes a sign which is open to the same interpretive process of unlimited semiosis. Eco opines that:

The object of representation can be nothing but a representation of which the first representation is the interpretant. But an endless series of representations, each representing the one behind it, may be conceived to have an absolute object as its limit. (67)

Kinesithetics in semiotics is a comprehensive analysis of the various and specific body gestures which take a composite and all-encompassing approach to the whole body as a communication medium. Birdwhistell states that: “Kinesic is the study  of  body  motion  as  related  to  the  non-verbal  aspects  of  interpersonal communication” (12).

The semiotic of kinesic takes a truly structural approach to the analysis of body codes and a comprehensive examination of various body expressions and their inter-relatedness. In contemporary dance, it emphasizes greatly on semiotic implication of dance movements as a mode of communication. The core communicative semiotic elements in contemporary dance are; symbolic gestures, mime, props, mask, costumes and body painting. The use of semiotics in analyzing contemporary dance emphasizes critical examination of the various parts of the body like the upper body, torso, feet or different body parts and intricate actions such as fact rotation, ripples of the body as well as variation in dynamics, levels and use of space. As a primordial art form dance is used in rituals, hunting, communication, mock-fight, war, festivals and initiations. According to Doubler;
The semiotic dance movement of the primitive era, is religious and self expressive and communicative. It is social because it is an integrated part of the life. (10)

Semiotics in contemporary dance is treasured, because it is very significant to life and understanding of the dance movement. Semiotics in contemporary dance is an art form which is inculcated into the child from birth. It follows a process of imbibing the culture of his fathers, and training during rehearsal for a festival or ceremony. The art of semiotics in contemporary dance involves exercises such as shaking of the waist, shaking of the body, as well as shuffling of legs. Sometimes it may also include jumping and rolling. Semiotics in contemporary dance fosters mutual understanding among individuals living together in a given society. Even at times communities with diverse cultures are united by dance. Hence according to Fonteyn; “the practice of dancing brings people together in a friendly spirit”. [87]

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 72 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.


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