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INFLUENCE OF ANTHROPOGENIC ACTIVITIES ON SEDIMENT CHARACTERISTICS AND HEAVY METAL CONCENTRATIONS IN LAKE BARINGO, KENYA

ABSTRACT
Lake Baringo waters and sediments are being impacted negatively by metal contaminants sourced from the lake’s watershed posing a human and environmental health concern. The main objective was to determine the concentration of heavy metals cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) in water and sediments, and to characterize sediments in terms of grain size and total organic carbon and relate them to the heavy metal levels encountered at the sampled sites. 5 sites were selected and samples collected over a period of six months. Water samples were collected in polypropylene bottles and acidified with ultra-pure HNO3 to pH < 2 and stored at 4oC prior to analyses. Sediments were collected using a grab sampler and analyzed for total extractable metals using the multi-acid digestion method. Particle size classification was done by standard method of analysis by sieving and organic carbon (OC) was estimated using the Loss on Ignition (L.O.I) method. Data obtained was tested for normality and homogeneity of variance. Heavy metal concentrations were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA) to test for differences among sites (α = 0.05). Pearson correlation was used to establish inter metallic relationships. Mean values of the physico-chemical parameters studied for all sites (pooled data) were as follows: E.C. 374.19±0.5μScm-1, pH 7.62±0.03, temperature 28.4±0.15°C, T.D.S. 373.6±0.5 and salinity 0.12±0.05%. There were significant differences between the sites for all parameters measured (p<0.05) except for percent salinity (p=0.739). The range mean concentrations of heavy metals in water were as follows Cu (0.4–0.7), Cd (0.6– 0.8) and Hg (0.003-0.005) ppb. The range of mean sediment concentrations (in mg/kg) were as follows: Cu (6.95-17.0), Cd (1.04–1.21), and Hg (0.18–0.27). Sites with higher percentages of silt and clay recorded a higher concentration of Cd and Cu same as to the percentage of TOC. Mean concentrations of heavy metals in water and sediments columns showed that a greater percentage of Cu (90.2 %) was retained in sediments while Cd and Hg released a greater percentage to the water column compared to what was in the sediment (36.8 % and 29.8%). Over 95% of the concentrations of Cd and Hg in water and sediments were significantly lower than those recommended by the WHO and USEPA as drinking water guideline values. The findings can be useful in policymaking with regard to environmental management and conservation of regional lakes facing similar challenges. Information on metal concentrations in the lake’s freshwater can also be used in protecting human health. Further research on metal partitioning in water and sediments is recommended.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background information
Management of natural resources such as water, soils and vegetation in semi-arid regions is an issue of concern in many countries. This is the case for Kenya where most of the population lives in the crowded areas of the country with moderate to high rainfall (Johansson and Svensson, 2002). In Kenya, arid and semi-arid land (ASAL) covers 80% of the country and around 30% of the population lives in those harsh ASAL areas (Johansson and Svensson, 2002). The rapidly growing human population has lead to the expansion of the agricultural activities to the semi-arid regions that are fragile and vulnerable to anthropogenic activities. The growing population, combined with limited land scarcity in the agriculturally productive highlands has led to increasing immigration to marginal areas in spite of their ecological limitations. But since those marginal and moisture deficit regions are vulnerable, to the increased population, the exerted pressure has often resulted in severe degraded land, soil erosion and sedimentation of open water bodies including lakes and rivers.

Lake Baringo is centred at 00°32'N 036°05'E and is Kenya’s third largest freshwater lake in Kenya. It is internationally recognized for its biodiversity Ramsar Site no. 1159 (www.ramsar.org). The larger part of Lake Baringo watershed is characteristic of semi- arid environment and faces many challenges among which soil erosion (Onywere et al., 2014) and water pollution is also high. These have deteriorating effects not only on the land resources, the soil productivity and the size of available agricultural land but also on open waters, as streams and lakes, through its detachment, transportation and deposition of sediments. The sediments and runoff by extension then become sources of contamination to most water bodies that serve as drinking water sources for many people living in the surrounding areas.

More recently there have been environmental impacts of far reaching dimension on both human and livestock health, brought about by an invasive plant species Prosopis spp. (Mathenge plant) introduced to the area to control erosion and provide fodder for livestock, the basis of livelihood in the area. The concerns on prosopis spp. are on lowered water table and a threat to the lake shoreline plants. In addition the area is a highly fragile ecosystem with impacts on water quality from geothermal manifestation. The drainage into Lake Baringo is via Molo River which collects water from the Mau Escarpment as far south as Elburgon Forest, and is structurally controlled, following the troughs between the fault scarps or the base of the fault scarps in its flow northward. It flows through the Loboi plain into the lake. Ndoloita hot springs are also controlled by the Ndoloita fault scarp, and take its waters into the Loboi Swamp on the northern end of Lake Bogoria. From the swamp the river flows north into Ngarua swamp where it joins the Molo, into Lake Baringo, 23 km north of Lake Bogoria. Perkerra River also provides significant recharge into the lake (Onywere et al., 2014).

The increase in human population in the drainage basin of Lake Baringo has exerted pressure on the available water resources which has led to a decline in the quality and quantity of water and other resources within the lake. The number and population of urban centres in the lake’s drainage basin have been on the rise over the years posing a threat to the lake’s survival. It is subject to direct deposits mainly from sources such as anthropogenic activities, runoff, the atmosphere and erosion due to its exposure. Studies have shown that water quality can be negatively impacted by such activities and thus rendered unsafe for aquatic life and human use (Oduor, 2003; Ogendi et al., 2007; Ogendi et al., 2014).

Previously published records of the lake Baringo levels show significant rise and flooding of the mudflats and the ring of acacia forest around the lakes in 1901 and 1963. The flooding being witnessed during this study suggested a return of a 50 year cyclic climatic event (Onywere et al., 2014). The increase in water volume has been significantly high and the input from the rivers recharging the lakes has been consistent, indicating that the flooded situation will not cease soon. The flooding has had immense and detrimental effects on the ecosystem, the settlements, the infrastructure and the biodiversity. Despite the recent rise in lake levels, some studies have shown that during the last decades both the depth and the area of Lake Baringo have decreased dramatically. For instance, a study by Johansson and Svensson (2002) reported that the shrinkage of the lake was due to both siltation and inadequate inflow of water volumes to the lake creating a negative water balance. The change in land-cover (for example deforestation) around the catchment area causes an increase erosion and sediment transport to the lake and changes in hydrologic pattern but that could be amplified by changed rainfall conditions. Deforestation in the catchment area is on the rise mainly as result of extensive overgrazing, charcoal burning and expansion of human settlements. The changed land cover is in many respects an effect of the increased population combined with the large social importance of livestock.

The main town near the lake is Marigat, other smaller settlements include Kampi ya Samaki and Loruk. All these urban centres have contributed increased population density and enlarged spatial expansion over the last few decades. Lake Baringo contributes to the economy of the country as well as community livelihoods through tourism which is the major activity in this area and boating. The lake is threatened by irrigation activities through the abstraction of large volumes of water from both the lake and the inflowing rivers. For instance, Perkerra Irrigation Scheme utilizes over 70% of the Perkerra River water leaving 30% to flow into the lake (Oduor, 2003). Pastoralism and agro-pastoralism are also the major activities practiced by the residents including the Ilchamus, Rendille, Turkana and Kalenjin, threatening further the lake through sedimentation and increase in erosion. Lately the lake’s water level has steadily increased leading to submergence of some of the infrastructure on its shores, crop failure and mass displacement of people and livestock (Lake Baringo, 2012).

Studies by Johansson and Svensson (2002), report that anthropogenic activities on the shores as well as on the drainage basin of Lake Baringo have led to the degradation of the lake and the land-water ecotone in the recent past. The lake basin is shallow and has no known surface outlet. The waters are assumed to seep through lake sediments into the faulted volcanic bedrock therefore serving as a sink for the contaminants emanating from anthropogenic activities. Heavy metals constitute some of the contaminants that are of major concern to human health workers, tourist entrepreneurs, wildlife, fisheries managers, and conservationists owing to their ability to accumulate in the lake sediments. Pollutants in the surrounding and/or underlying environments enter into water bodies and have been shown to affect aquatic life depending on their chemical speciation, toxicity, bioavailability, rate of uptake and metabolic regulation by specific organisms.

Studies on basic physico-chemical characteristics carried out in various rivers and lakes have focused on the water quality parameters with little or no consideration given to the bottom or sediment characteristics. Sediment analyses are carried out to evaluate qualities of the total ecosystem of a water body (Nnaji et al., 2010). Studies point out that soils and sediments are repositories for physical and biological debris, and they are considered to be the ultimate sink for a variety of toxicants because pollutants may persist in sediments long after the original sources of contamination are eliminated. In the hydrologic systems, sediments serve as an indicator of contamination since it is a media for metal uptake and also due to their high sensitivity compared to water. Soares et al., (1999), reported that sediments have the capacity to accumulate and integrate low concentrations of trace elements in water over time allowing the possibility for metal determination even when levels in overlying waters are extremely low and undetectable.

Increased metal loads in lake water and sediments are a human health concern due to bio-magnification of metals along the aquatic and terrestrial food chains and food webs. Human health risks are primarily due to the elevated concentrations of copper, cadmium, lead and mercury in water and fisheries that are part of the local people’s diet. For instance, Cadmium has been linked to kidney and liver damage as well as osteoporosis and pulmonary emphysema as was the case in Japan where people consumed rice cultivated using cadmium-contaminated irrigation water (Dipankar et al., 1999). The goal of this study was to determine the physicochemical parameters of water and the characteristics of sediments. Additionally, the study sought to assess the sources and the concentration of heavy metals in water and sediments on a spatial scale on Lake Baringo.

Statement of the problem
The presence of inorganic and organic pollutants including heavy metals in Lake Baringo is an issue of concern as their presence impairs the water quality. This in turn affects the health of human who consume the metal contaminated water and fish. Communities that live within the basin of the Lake Baringo (Tugens, Pokots and Illchamus) depend on the lake as a source of water for various purposes (drinking, cooking and agriculture). Local regulations aimed at improving the quality of freshwater ecosystems have been important steps in achieving improved ambient water quality conditions. The area has been experiencing high rates of sedimentation caused by the increased soil erosion impairing sediment quality. However, the sediments of aquatic ecosystems have not received this same attention. This is surprising and unfortunate, as sediments and the associated benthic organisms are critically important in maintaining the health and productivity of aquatic ecosystems. In a healthy aquatic community, sediments provide a habitat for many organisms but with increased sedimentation, the interstices of gravel and cobble stream bottoms, greatly decreasing the spawning areas for many fish species and the habitat for macroinvertebrates, which serve as food for many fish species. Sediments carry along with them organic matter, animal or industrial wastes, nutrients, and chemicals. Due to the different land use activities carried out in the area, the sediments transported also may contain some toxic substances such as pesticides which may contain heavy metals and depending on their properties, such as toxicity, solubility and chemical breakdown rate they may pose a greater danger to aquatic plants and animals and eventually to human health. Presence of heavy metals in a water body affects the quality of water and sediments which therefore impact the aquatic organisms from the macroinverterbrates to fish of which through biomagnifications, the health of humans especially those who consume fish (food fish) are at risk.

Objectives 
Broad Objective
The overall objective was to investigate the influence of anthropogenic activities and sediment characteristics on water and sediment quality in Lake Baringo.

Specific Objectives
1. To determine the physico-chemical characteristics of water at selected sites of Lake Baringo.

2. To characterize the sediments (grain sizes) of lake Baringo study sites and total organic matter.

3. To quantify the concentration of selected heavy metals in lake water and sediments from selected sites of Lake Baringo (Pb, Cu, Cd and Hg) and compare with the recommended WHO/EPA values.

Hypotheses
1. There is no significant difference in physico-chemical variables of lake water irrespective of anthropogenic disturbance levels.

2. Sediment characteristics (grain size) and organic matter is the same among the selected sites.

3. There is no significant difference in the concentration of heavy metals in lake water and sediments collected from the different sampling points and their concentrations are within the range recommended by WHO/EPA.

Justification
Pollution in aquatic ecosystems by inorganic chemicals is a major threat to the aquatic organisms including fishes. Runoff water containing pesticides and fertilizers and effluents of industrial activities and sewage effluents have been cited as the main sources of heavy metals (Saeed and Shaker, 2008). The most common anthropogenic sources of metals are industrial, petroleum contamination and sewage disposal. As mentioned earlier, Lake Baringo is a fresh water lake which is important to the population of its drainage basin as a source of water for domestic use and for watering livestock, a source of fish (food fish) for the local community, a source of vegetation products which are used in boat construction and also of great economic value through tourism and the conservation of biodiversity. The high dependence on the water body has led to decline in the water levels as well as deterioration in water quality. Pollution in this lake is attributed to agricultural and horticultural as well as domestic and industrial activities in the lake’s catchment. The heavy metal pollution is exacerbated by the haphazard solid and liquid waste disposal practices from the surrounding urban centres.

Pastoralists in the area also keep large herds of cattle which overgraze the catchment vegetation leading to enhanced runoff, soil erosion and sedimentation in streams and the lake. The sediments are considered to be the ultimate sink for a variety of heavy metals and other toxicants which can affect the survival of aquatic organisms.

Elevated heavy metal levels can cause adverse effects not only to aquatic organisms but also terrestrial organisms like humans that utilize water and food items from the lake. Heavy metals from the sediments make their way into the food chain, accumulating in fish, water birds and other wildlife. The fact that human and environmental health is likely to be negatively affected through consumption of heavy metal-contaminated fish justifies this study. We need to have adequate information on the levels, sources and likely effects of heavy metals in the lake. The study specifically identified the potentially toxic metals; quantified their concentrations in the water and sediments at some selected sites in the lake and related them to the WHO/EPA guidelines.

The information obtained can be used by relevant institutions such as NEMA, KMFRI, WRMA, MoH and managers of the lake among others in the management and conservation of such water bodies, and in issuing fish and water consumption advisories and therefore preventing humans from the adverse effects of consuming heavy metal-contaminated water and fish. Such information can also greatly contribute to a comprehensive environmental policy for water bodies receiving metal pollutants from adjacent areas.

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IMPACT OF ANTHROPOGENIC ACTIVITIES ON BACTERIOLOGICAL WATER QUALITY OF NYANGORES RIVER, MARA BASIN-KENYA

ABSTRACT
The Mara River basin is the lifeline to Maasai Mara Game reserve in Kenya and the Serengeti National park in Tanzania. Its major perennial tributaries are Nyangores and Amala both originating from Mau Escarpment. Unprecedented evidence on change of land use for development purposes in the upper catchment has affected the water quantity, quantity and the environmental sanitation in general. In addition, the municipal town of Bomet situated close to Nyangores River lack adequate sanitation facilities, these might have greatly degraded the water quality through discharge of raw faecal matter into the river. Another notable area of concern is the nearby Tenwek Mission Hospital whose waste water lagoons are located close to the bank of the same river with their waste effluents being directly disposed to this river. Such waste disposal methods create point and non-point sources of pollution with different degrees of pollution. This study investigated the effect of human settlement and development on the microbial water quality of Nyangores River at various points along its river channel based on the intensities of human settlement and development. To establish the microbiological water quality, the study involved the use of Membrane Filtration Technique (MFT) to determine the densities of total coliforms, Escherichia coli, intestinal enterococci, Clostridium perfringens and Salmonella spp. followed by plating on selective differential media for the bacteria being sought. Pollution with easily biodegradable organic wastes was detected by Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC) procedures and BOD5 determination. Physico-chemical parameters; temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), conductivity, turbidity, total dissolved solids and pH of the water at the sampling sites were also measured at the time of sampling using appropriate measuring meters. The collected data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17 software with a confidence level of 95%. The results indicated spatial and temporal variation in the densities of faecal contamination indicators P<0.05. Indicators of contamination with easily degradable organic matter (BOD and HPC) also showed significant spatial and temporal variations, P<0.05. All the sites studied except site 1 at Kiptagich were found to be contaminated with Salmonella spp. Physicochemical parameters studied also showed significant spatial variation except DO, P<0.05. In conclusion, the presence of anthropogenic activities along Nyangores River have impacted negatively on quality of its water and therefore appropriate corrective mechanisms are necessary to help improve or restore its water quality so as to uphold its ecological integrity and be safe for domestic use.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background information
Mara basin is a trans-boundary water catchment tower comprising of various small rivers, streams and their tributaries that merge together to form the great River Mara. The River Mara is shared between Kenya and Tanzania and drains its water into Lake Victoria. It flows through open savannah grasslands and eventually into Maasai Mara Game Reserve and Serengeti National Park, an important tourist destination in Africa famous for the seven big animals and the spectacular wonders of the annual wildebeest migration. The main tributaries of Mara River are Amala and Nyangores Rivers which are both under serious threat as a result of change in land use to accommodate various purposes like human settlement and urbanization among others in the catchment. This has eventually led to drastic reduction in forest cover which has hampered the recharge of the river with faster surface runoff leading to the degradation of the water quality and quantity (Mati and Mutunga, 2005).

Human development which entails land clearing, urbanization and poor waste disposal measures along the tributaries of most rivers as in the case of the Mara River has significantly degraded the biological and chemical quality of its water. The consequence of this is to trigger the occurrence of point and non-point sources of pollution which have been found in other rivers too (Yillia et al., 2009). Several other studies have also shown that increased intensity of human activities such as arable farming, livestock keeping, mining, industrial activities and urban settlement adjacent to river water bodies as in the case of Mara basin often impacting negatively on the quality and quantity of water (Mokaya et al., 2004). River Nyangores originates from Mau forest and flows through an area with intensive anthropogenic activities (Mati and Mutunga, 2005) (Plate 1). Human activities such as settlement, urbanization and poor farming methods have not only been perceived to be the major cause of degradation to the quality of water in this river, but also to both River Mara and Lake Victoria where water from the tributary is emptied (Dadwell, 1993). Faecal pollution to water sources is a serious threat to the quality of water with a negative impact on the integrity of aquatic ecosystems and therefore is a risk to the health of the community consuming water from such sources. It is believed that 80% of all diseases in the world are caused by inadequate sanitation, polluted water or unavailability of water (WHO, 2002). Both direct contact and consumption of water contaminated with faeces of ill individuals can lead to human illness and even death (United State Environmental Protection agency (USEPA), 1995).

To test for the microbial quality of any water source, faecal contamination indicator organisms are preferred as the approach is fast and cheap (APHA, 2005). While a variety of pathogenic indicators have been proposed, the mostly commonly used estimator of faecal pathogenic bacteria presence is faecal coliforms and faecal streptococci abundance (Dadwel, 1993, Ford and Colwell, 1996). Traditionally, indicator micro-organisms have been used to suggest the possibility of presence of pathogens (Berg and Metcalf 1978). A direct epidemiological approach could be used as an alternative or adjunct to the use of index micro-organisms. However epidemiologic methods are generally too insensitive and miss the majority of waterborne disease transmissions (Frost et al. 1996). Other useful indicators include intestinal enterococci and Clostridium perfrigens. Organic matter loading from catchment activities results in vigorous consumption of oxygen attributable to large oxygen requirement by heterotrophic microbes in oxidative degradation processes. High Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) is experienced in such systems and oxygen deficit is greatly increased often leading to destruction of other aquatic organisms. Thus BOD5 is used as a measure of oxygen consumption and aerobic heterotrophic activities (Rheinheimer, 1991). Inorganic nutrients (PO4 and NO2) from agricultural activities also affect microbial flora of streams (Yuan et al., 2001).

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CARBON STOCKS OF THE MANGROVE FOREST IN MWACHE CREEK, MOMBASA, KENYA

ABSTRACT
It is generally accepted that escalating concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) are driving changes in climate patterns. Policy mechanisms such as ‘Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation’ (or REDD+) aim to reduce CO2 levels in the atmosphere through compensating landowners to manage their land as carbon sinks. However, for such a scheme to succeed accurate quantification and reporting of the sequestered carbon must be conducted using verifiable methodology. Vegetated coastal habitats, such as mangrove forests, provide an opportunity to develop a carbon offset project.

In Kenya, mangroves face a myriad of human and natural induced stresses ranging from over-exploitation of resources, conversion pressure, and sea level rise. The degradation presents an opportunity for engaging in carbon markets through rehabilitation, conservation and sustainable utilization of mangrove resources. This study at Mwache creek, in Mombasa, aimed at estimating total mangrove carbon stocks in the area; in order to provide baseline information in which future offset projects could be based. Systematic stratified sampling technique was used in the study. Three carbon pools were considered, viz: Above ground, below ground (root) and soil carbon pools. Soil cores were collected at the center of 10 x 10 m2 plots laid 100 m apart along transects. For each soil core, four sub-samples; viz., 0-15; 15-30; 30-50; and 50-100 cm were extracted for analysis of soil structure, bulk density and carbon concentration. Wet sieving was used to determine soil structure; whereas organic matter and carbon concentration were determined using loss on ignition (LOI) and the colorimetric methods. The study results indicate a statistical difference (p<0.05) in the vertical distribution of soil organic carbon but no statistical difference (p>0.05) in the horizontal distribution along the sea-land transects. A statistical difference (p<0.05) in the soil carbon was observed across degradation gradients with less degraded sites exhibiting higher concentrations. Above and below ground biomass was obtained using published allometric equations (230.6 and 82.7 Mg ha-1, respectively) and used to determine associated carbon. The derived above and below ground carbon was added to the soil carbon to obtain total mangrove carbon of the area. The total mangrove carbon in Mwache was estimated at 388.92 Mg C ha-1 of which 63% was soil carbon, 28% above ground carbon, and 9% below ground carbon. These findings provide a good baseline data for establishment of a small scale blue carbon project in the area.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background information
A continuous cycle of carbon between earth, atmosphere and ocean exists. There is evidence that man has largely influenced this cycle leading to increased carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration into the atmosphere; and hence climate change (IPCC, 2007). It is estimated that tropical deforestation contributes approximately 18% emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere (IPCC, 2007); much of which is CO2. For this reason, the role of forests in mitigating climate change effects is recognised by the Land Use and Land Use Change and Forestry (LULUC-F) sector of United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) (Brown et al., 1999); as forests sequester CO2 during the process of photosynthesis.

Carbon emission avoidance practices are encouraged to conserve existing carbon pools in forest vegetation and soil through options such as controlling deforestation or logging and other anthropogenic disturbances. A set of policies known as ‘Reducing emissions from avoided deforestation and forest degradation’ or REDD+ were introduced during the 11th session of the UNFCCC, in December 2005, and won support from almost all Parties, intergovernmental organizations and non-governmental organizations. REDD+ is concerned with both reducing emissions and enhancing carbon stocks through actions that address deforestation, forest degradation, forest conservation and sustainable forest management. The basic idea behind REDD+ is that countries that are willing and able to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation should be compensated for doing so (Angelsen, 2008).

A key challenge for successfully implementing any REDD+ project is the reliable estimation of biomass carbon stocks in forests. Lack of information and inaccurate quantification of total sequestered carbon has made it difficult to establish the potential value of the ecosystems in global estimates and in trading of carbon credits in carbon financing programs such as REDD+. The deficiency is worse in mangrove forests owing to the logistic difficulties of working in the wetland ecosystem (Tamooh et al., 2008). While several studies have been published on above ground carbon stocks in the forests around the world, there is quite limited data on below ground carbon and particularly the soil carbon (Dargusch et al., 2010; Kauffman and Donato, 2012). Quantification of carbon storage in the mangroves has primarily been based on extrapolation from only a few forest surveys and inventory data (Komiyama et al., 2008). The present study aimed to complement global initiatives of determining carbon stocks of coastal wetlands, commonly referred to as “Blue Carbon”. The study focused on mangrove forests with an aim to provide baseline data for future engagement in carbon offset projects.

Statement of the problem
Considering the threats posed by climate change, particular interest needs to be given to cheaper ways of removing excess CO2 from the atmosphere. Despite occupying around 2% of the seabed area, vegetated ecosystems including mangroves, seagrass beds and salt marshes transfer 50% of carbon from the ocean to sediments which mostly build up continuously while storing the carbon (Crooks et al., 2010). However, these ecosystem are threatened by both human and natural induced stresses including, overexploitation of resources, conversion pressure and sea-level rise. Between 1980 and 2000 for instance, 35% of mangroves were lost globally (Giri et al., 2011). In Kenya, losses of mangroves from 1985 to 2010 has been estimated at 18% (Kirui et al., 2013); with peri-urban systems of Mombasa recording up to 86% cover loss (Olagoke, 2012; Bosire et al.,2013). Degradation of mangroves leads to loss of ecosystem services; and discharge of previously buried carbon from the mangrove ecosystems.

Despite the potential role of mangroves as carbon sinks large uncertainties exist regarding the amount of carbon stored in the forests and particularly in their soils. Further, their variability in relation to their positioning- fringing, riverine or estuarine, basin, over-wash islands or dwarf mangroves- brings about variations in their capacity to capture and store carbon consequently leading to difficulties for a general approach in quantification. This hence calls for site-specific studies of the carbon stocks and sequestration, which would matter greatly in forest conservation and in the issues of spatial and temporal change. This study was thus undertaken to accurately quantify the Mwache Creek mangrove forest carbon stocks as a precursor for a carbon offset project for the area.

Broad objective
To assess the total organic carbon in mangroves of Mwache Creek, Mombasa; in order to provide baseline data for future engagement in carbon offset projects.

Specific objectives
i. To determine horizontal and vertical distribution of soil organic carbon along sea-land transects in Mwache Creek.

ii. To correlate soil organic carbon with mangrove degradation gradient in Mwache Creek.

iii. To use the data to estimate ecosystem carbon stocks in Mwache Creek.

Hypotheses
H01 There is no change in levels of soil organic carbon along the sea-land transects in Mwache Creek.

H02 There is no change in the quantity of soil organic carbon with an increase in depth in Mwache Creek.

H03 There is no variation in the quantity of soil organic carbon across a degradation gradient in Mwache Creek.

Justification of the study
Vegetated coastal ecosystems (mangroves, seagrass beds, and salt marshes) contain substantial quantities of “blue carbon” which can be released to the atmosphere when these ecosystems are degraded. For instance, mangroves contain large per-hectare carbon stocks (global stocks approximately 8 Pg C (1 Pg=1015 grams)) but due to their degradation they contribute approximately half the estimated total blue carbon emissions annually (0.24Pg carbon dioxide) (Donato et al., 2012; Pendleton et al., 2012). Indications of the capabilities of mangroves as major carbon sinks are clear, setting them apart from other coastal habitats (Donato et al., 2012). Despite their immense values, mangroves throughout the world continue to be abused, removed and degraded (FAO, 2007). Climate change impacts further threaten the existence of mangroves from the face of the earth (Gilman et al., 2008). Global loss of mangroves from 1980 to 2005 reduced mangrove area by 20% (Spalding et al., 2010). This loss has negatively affected peoples’ livelihoods, particularly communities along the coast who largely depend on mangrove products and services (IUCN, 2006).

Due to the values and the threats to mangroves, it is of interest to know the size of these carbon pools, which could lead to improvements of quantification of the global carbon stock and the sequestration capacity in different mangrove forest types. Also, in creating a baseline, carbon dynamics could determine long-term changes associated with climate change and/or land management in the mangroves (Chmura et al., 2003; Ray et al., 2011). Amid the threat of losing the ecosystem services from mangroves, an opportunity presents itself where avoiding deforestation and conservation of the carbon stocks can offer substantial benefits through climate change mitigation projects.

The present study complements previous work that aimed to determine standing biomass of mangroves of Mwache. By combining below and above ground carbon estimates, results of this study could serve as an important baseline upon which a future carbon off-set project for the area can be based along with providing an opportunity to restore the forest, ease poverty, enhance ecosystem services and also present new arguments for the conservation strategies. The study results also contribute to Kenya’s REDD readiness required to support REDD implementation by providing options for REDD+ activities. The study made use of methodologies detailed in the 2013 supplement to the 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories: Wetlands. That way, the study may be used to inform the country’s National Inventory Submissions (NIS) to UNFCCC as well as providing country’s options regarding Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions (NAMAs).

Assumptions
Due to the absence of site and species-specific allometric equations on mangroves of Kenya, generic allometric equations developed in Asia were applied in deriving above and below ground biomass. Specific wood densities developed for the mangrove in Zambezi Delta,

Mozambique (Bosire et al., 2012) were used in the general formulae assuming similarities of the mangroves in the Western Indian Ocean region.

Scope of the study
The study was carried out in the mangrove forest of Mwache Creek. The area was chosen considering its geographical location and pressures; being a peri-urban forest where human disturbances are considerably higher compared to other remotely situated forests, and having been negatively impacted by extreme events (El nino). The forest was categorized into five sites depending on structure and location; KPA, Bonje, Mwakuzimu, Mashazani and Ngare. KPA represented islands within the creek which have resulted from accretion. KPA has young over- wash forest of Sonneratia alba. Given their location, the islands were less degraded compared to the rest of the sites. Mwakuzimu and Ngare were moderately impacted sites of mixed species stands while Mashazani and Bonje were highly impacted sites. Field sampling was done for a period of two months while laboratory analysis was carried out for a period of three months.

Limitations of the study
During the study duration, a number of limitations were encountered. There was lack of past data and a detailed vegetation map of the area that would have enabled precise temporal comparison in the biomass and carbon stock dynamics. There was also lack of an elemental analyzer for the carbon analysis which necessitated the use of a semi-quantitative method (colorimetric method) in deriving the conversion factor from organic matter to organic carbon. The absence of local factors also necessitated the adoption of specific wood densities from Mozambique, generic allometric equations from the Americas and Asia, and wood carbon concentrations from Mexico.

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CARBON EMISSIONS FROM DEGRADED MANGROVES OF TUDOR AND MWACHE CREEKS, MOMBASA, KENYA

ABSTRACT
Mangrove deforestation and degradation through anthropogenic activities accelerates climate change process. Carbon capture and storage in mangroves is about 3-5 times more per unit area than any vegetated ecosystem. Studies which experimentally determine differential emissions are globally limited and completely non-extent in Kenya. This study sought to establish the contribution of human activities on carbon emissions from mangrove ecosystems along the Kenyan coastline using two heavily impacted peri-urban creeks: Tudor and Mwache in Mombasa Kenya as a case study. Anthropogenic and natural drivers have subjected mangroves to wanton degradation. Stratified random sampling along intertidal transect with 10x10m plots laid 100m apart were used to collect vegetation and soil data.

The data was analyzed using EXCEL and STATISTICA version 8.0 software. The statistical analyses included descriptive data analysis, linear comparisons, ANOVA, and means comparisons using Tukey test. There were significant differences in ecosystem carbon (p=0.005) between highly degraded and less degraded sites within the creeks. Carbon emissions were estimated at 261.96t.ha-1yr-1 and 335.13t.ha-1yr-1 CO2 equivalents for Mwache and Tudor respectively. The unprecedented high degradation rates, which exceed by far the national, mean and probably the global mean shows that the mangroves are highly threatened due to the discussed pressures. There is need to strengthen the governance regimes through enforcement and compliance and more capacity in mandated institutions e.g. NEMA, KFS, and community involvement e.g. CFAs to curb illegal logging and distilleries. Initiating restoration activities where natural regeneration has failed, providing residents with alternative and cheap sources of energy and building materials and enforcing a complete moratorium on wood extraction will allow recovery.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background Information
Mangrove ecosystems are located at the sea – land interface. Globally, there are at least 68 species of mangroves restricted to approximately 25°N and 25°S of equator and estimated to cover an area of between 180,000 and 200,000 km2 (Spalding et al.,2010; Giri et al., 2011). Although spatially limited, (covering 0.7% of the total tropical forests of the world) (Giri et al., 2011), mangroves are keystone coastal ecosystems. They offer a considerable array of ecosystem goods and services. They offer critical ecological functions (Duke et al., 2007), are centers of rapid C cycling (Bouillon et al., 2008; Kristensen et al., 2008) and have recently been found to rank among the most C-dense forests in the tropics due to deep organic-rich soils (Donato et al., 2011; Kauffman et al., 2011).According to Alongi (2012), mangroves sequester 14% of C in the oceans despite occupying less than 0.5% of the coastal ocean. This is mainly captured in the above ground and below ground vegetation components.

The biggest part which is up to 90% is captured and stored in the sediments (Bouillon et al., 2008; Donato et al., 2011; Kauffman et al., 2011) showing that mangrove sediments have carbon storage potential. The rate of C storage in the sediments is approximately 10 times the rate observed in temperate forests and 50 times the rate observed in tropical forests per year (Laffoley, 2009). Overall, mangroves have a far greater capacity (per unit surface area) than terrestrial habitats to achieve long-term C sequestration in sediments, arising in part from the extensive below ground biomass burying approximately 18.4 Tg C per year (Laffoley, 2009).

Mangroves are being degraded at rapid rates globally with 1-2 % per year loss (Duke et al., 2007; FAO, 2007). Primarily this degradation is due to over-exploitation and land conversion affecting organic soils to deep layers. As land use affects soils to deeper layers, the large C stores generate large GHG emissions when disturbed (Donato et al., 2011).Since reducing C emissions will be a global concern for centuries, long-term C sequestration capacity must be accounted for in the benefits associated with mangrove restoration and protection.The large C- stores of mangroves end up generating large amount of GHGs (Donato et al., 2011). Improved estimates of mangrove C storage have recently been obtained at global scales (Donato et al., 2011; Kauffman et al., 2011), but to date estimates of C emissions following degradation in Kenya are less studied hence the need for this study.

Despite its relatively small overall concentration in the atmosphere, CO2 is an important component of Earth's atmosphere because it absorbs and emits infrared radiation thereby playing a role in the greenhouse effects. Naturally CO2 in the atmosphere is re-absorbed by vegetation and therefore deforestation and land conversion reduces the valuable natural C sinks which helps to maintain a balance in the Earth's atmosphere. According to IPCC (2007), about 20% of global C emissions is directly contributed by deforestation and since mangroves store about 3-5 times more C per unit area than all known forest ecosystems, their continued degradation whose rates far exceeds that of tropical rainforests significantly contributes to elevated C emissions.

The effect of all this extra CO2 in the atmosphere is that the overall temperature of the planet is increasing (global warming) on a day-to-day basis but the climate is changing in unpredictable ways (from floods and hurricanes to heat waves and droughts). Rising CO2 concentrations are also likely to have profound direct effects on the growth, physiology, and chemistry of plants, independent of any effects on climate (Ziska, 2008). According to UNEP- WCMC (2006), 35% loss of mangroves over the past two decades resulted in release of large quantities of C aggravating global warming phenomenon. Unfortunately, studies monitoring C losses over longer periods, or the emission of other GHGs, are lacking (Bouillon, 2011).The forecasted consequences of climate change on ecosystems will be more severe if conservation is not given an upper arm as a strategy to mitigate GHGs emissions.

In Kenya, nine (9) identified mangrove species (Spalding et al., 2010), distributed in six families and eight genera occur along the coastline (Kirui et al., 2012). This is only 3% of the forest area in Kenya, or 1% of the total area of the country; which makes mangroves a scarce and very valuable resource (Kokwaro, 1985; Dahdouh-Guebas et al., 2000).Over the years, Kenyan mangroves have been subjected to ever-increasing human population and economic pressure and degradation, which are directly reflected in increased coastal erosion, shortage of building material and firewood and reduction in fisheries (Kairo et al., 2001). As forests are removed, the organic C built up over decades to millennia is subject to increased re-mineralization and erosion, and therefore to release to the atmosphere as CO2 (Bouillon, 2011).

Recent detailed studies have indicated that some mangrove forests have suffered the highest ever-recorded losses of mangroves globally. Specifically, Mombasa mangroves comprising of Tudor and Mwache Creeks have suffered between 46 and 87% cover loss between 1992 and 2009 translating to annual loss rates of 2.7 – 5.1% (Adewole, 2012; Bosire et al., 2014;

Kaino, 2012) far exceeding the global mean of 1 – 2%.The high degradation rates documented for Mombasa mangroves provided an opportunity to quantify C emissions due to unprecedented cover loss.

Statement of the problem
Mangroves sequester 14% of C in the oceans despite occupying less than 0.5% of the coastal ocean in the world. However, they are being deforested and degraded at rapid rates globally with 1-2% per year loss. Primarily this degradation is because of over-exploitation and land conversion which disturbs and exposes carbon stored in sediments leading to generation of large quantities ofGHGs.Information on deforestation, degradation, land-use change, and how they contribute to global anthropogenic CO2 emissions is available. Past studies quantified total ecosystem C stocks but did not specifically assess the impact of deforestation on C emissions. Carbon emissions from these ecosystems are uncertain; due to lack of broad-scale data on C emissions thus the need for this study.The study sites (Tudor and Mwache) are facing pressures due to increased population and dependence on mangroves for life sustenance and effects of climate change, which have led to some of the highest globally recorded rates (2.7 – 5.1% p.a.) of mangroves loss.

Broad objective
To estimate C emissions from mangrove forests resulting from degradation in Tudor and Mwache creeks for mangroves management and conservation.

Specific Objectives
1. To estimateC stocks resulting from mangrove degradation within and between the two creeks.

2. To estimate C emissionsfrom mangrove degradation in Tudor and Mwache creeks.
Hypotheses

Ho1: There is no significant difference in C stocks within and between Tudor and Mwache creeks.

Ho2: There is no significant difference in C emission due to mangroves degradation in Tudor and Mwache creeks.

Justification
Mangroves offer a considerable array of ecosystem goods and services and critical ecological functions. Mangroves sequester 14% of C and store 3 – 5 times more C than any vegetated ecosystem. Mangroves have experienced the highest degradation rates, which are times more than the tropical forests. Globally mangroves are degraded at 1 – 2% p.a. whileTudor and Mwache creeks have recorded the highest degradation rates of 2.7 – 5% p.a. (Adewole, 2012; Kaino, 2012). Carbon emissions from land-use change in mangroves are also not well understood. The fate of the below ground C is also understudied.While data exists on C stocks for different sites globally (Donato et al., 2011; Kauffman et al., 2011) and for the study sites (Adewole, 2012; Kaino, 2012; Mwihaki, 2012), data on differential emissions due to severe degradation is very limited and completely lacking in the Kenyan situation. The rate of C emissions following mangrove degradation will elucidate the impact of this loss in aggravating global warming and associated climate change effects. Estimating C emission is paramount as it gives a detailed analysis of C emissions and shows a linkage between anthropogenic activities, C emissions and climate change. The information is useful to mangroves managers, conservationists, and climate change experts, among others. It assists in forecasting and predicting the trends and addressing adverse environmental challenges facing the world concerning GHGs.

Scope and Limitations
The study was carried out in the mangrove forests of Tudor and Mwache creeks. The sites were selected based on the presence of widespread mangroves, die back areas due to natural process like El-Niño and high anthropogenic pressures due to the ever-increasing population from the adjacent informal settlements. The study focused on the assessment of the differences in C stocks in three carbon pools between the highly degraded and relatively less degraded sites and consequently estimated Cemissions. Although there was limited access to equipment for accurate field assessment of CO2 emissions, general standardized protocol were used in estimation of CO2 emissions.

Definition of terms
Anthropogenic – the human impact (influences) on the environment. It is the effect or the object on the environment resulting from human activity (IPCC, 2003).

Carbon sink – this is a natural or an artificial reservoir that accumulates and stores some carbon containing chemical compounds for an indefinite period.

Deforestation- The conversion of forest to other land uses, e.g. agriculture, and typically involves release of GHGs from loss of biomass and disturbance of the soil, dead wood and litter (Dargusch et al., 2010).

Degradation - refers to changes within a forest, which negatively affect the structure or function of the forest, and its GHG storage capacity. Forest degradation practices include unsustainable commercial logging and over-harvesting of fuel wood and degradation is commonly a precursor to deforestation (FAO, 2006).

Global warming - the rise in the average temperature of Earth's atmosphere and oceans mainly by increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases produced by human activities such as the burning of fossil fuels and deforestation.

Greenhouse effect- a phenomenon whereby atmospheric gases with special physical properties (like carbon dioxide, methane and water vapour) help trap heat received from the sun, making the earth to be warmer than it could be otherwise.

Highly Degraded - The changes within the forest which negatively affect the structure or function of the stand or site, and thereby lowering the canopy to less than 40% (FAO, 2009) Relatively Less Degraded - The changes within the forest which negatively affect the structure or function of the stand or site, and thereby lowering the canopy to about 80% (FAO, 2009).

Peri-urban- according to Hartel (2005), this is the transition zone, or interaction zone, where urban and rural activities are juxtaposed, and landscape features are subject to rapid modifications, induced by anthropogenic activities.

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ASSESSMENT OF WATER AND SANITATION ACCESSIBILITY AND PREVALENCE OF WATER-RELATED DISEASES IN BARINGO COUNTY, KENYA

ABSTRACT
Accessibility to potable water is a fundamental right for dignity and well-being. In spite of this observation, over 1.1 billion people lack access to safe drinking water. This is particularly true in the Sub-Saharan Africa and South East Asia regions. The main aim of this study was to Assess Water and Sanitation Accessibility and Prevalence of water-related diseases in Marigat town Baringo County, Kenya. The study employed a Cross-sectional household survey. Stratified random sampling method was used to select household respondents. A structured questionnaire was administered to households’ heads to elicit information relating to objectives of the study. Samples of drinking water were collected from water sources (boreholes, rivers, and springs) and at point of use (households) and analyzed for Escherichia coli and Total coliform bacteria using the Most Probable Number method. In situ measurements of PH and temperature were carried out using a Wagtech International portable meter. Clinical health records from the local health centres were also reviewed to assess the Prevalence rates of some of the water-related diseases. The study findings indicated that there was a significant association between level of education and covering of water storage container (P< 0.05). There were significant differences among water sources in terms of E. coli (F (2, 21) = 3.629, p < 0.05) and Total Coliform (F (2, 21) = 4.041, p < 0.05) during dry season. Similar observations were made during the Wet season for E. coli (F (2, 21) = 4.090, p < 0.05) and Total Coliform (F (2, 21) = 1.893, p < 0.05). Further, there were significant interactions between the water sources & season E. coli (F (2, 42) = 7.66, p < 0.01) and Total Coliform (F (2, 42) = 5.494, p < 0.05). Drinking water in large plastic storage containers (herein referred to as skyplast) had the highest E. coli and Total Coliform concentrations. Typhoid was the most prevalent water-related disease during the dry season (10%) while Diarrhea (3%) most prevalent during the wet season. All drinking water at abstraction and point of use for Marigat residents are microbiologically contaminated and therefore pose serious health risks to consumers of such water. Thus there is need for Public health awareness campaigns on household water management to curb incidences of water- related diseases. Public health practitioners at county and national levels need to ensure that households have adequate access to potable water and improved sanitation.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background Information
Water and sanitation are essential elements for human survival and well-being (Ahiablame et al, 2012). Water and sanitation significantly affect women and children, with children having the highest susceptibility to illness. Poor sanitation and water quality contribute to approximately 1.5 million annual deaths in children below 5 years of age worldwide. This has been observed especially in urban areas where millions of urban poor women lack access to adequate water and sanitation even though this is considered a basic human right (WHO, 2014). About 1 billion people throughout the world don’t have access to improved drinking water supplies and 2.5 billion people live without adequate sanitation facilities. In 2012, worldwide, the percentage of those with an adequate supply of water and sanitation was found to be 89% and 86% respectively in urban areas (World Bank, 2015)

Drinking water quality is still an issue of concern for human health in developing and developed countries worldwide. According to the report by WHO, (2014) every year, 4 billion cases of water-related diseases causes at least 3.4 million deaths worldwide, making it one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Most of the victims are children under the age 5 of years, that die of illnesses caused by organisms that thrive in water sources contaminated by raw sewage (WHO, 2014). Inadequacy of water and sanitation and water- related disease prevalence are wide spread especially in Sub-Saharan Africa where utilities lack efficient and transparent management system. The principal challenge for Africa in the urban sphere is to address how its cities respond to the enormous challenges of rapid development, urban expansion, increased demand for services, threats to supply of water, constrained and failing urban planning systems, and institutional practices. The sustainability of human urbanization and growth in economy is threatened by the growing scarcity of water (Vaziri & Tolouei, 2010)

Poor quality of drinking water is associated with the spread of water-related diseases such as cholera, dysentery and Haemolytic Uremic Syndrome (Montgomery & Elimelech, 2007). These diseases are commonly reported in low-income countries as provision of safe water, sanitation and hygiene is sub-optimal (Rana, 2009). In developing countries, accessibility of safe drinking water is still a problem and most people use the available unimproved water sources such as dams and rivers often microbiologically unsafe as a result, the most well-known water-related diseases such as cholera, amoebic dysentery and typhoid are reported from majority of the African countries especially in tropical areas of the region including Rwanda (WHO, 2010).

In Kenya, 80% of the residents live in arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs). The provision of safe drinking water and sanitation are some of the major challenges the livelihoods in the ASALs face and have been recognized as some of the major developmental challenges the country is facing towards the realization of the vision 2030 (GoK, 2007) and in meeting the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals 3 and 6 respectively (WHO, 2016). Approximately, 80% of Kenyans continue to have inadequate access to water, drink unsafe water, and spend much time and money trying to acquire it. As a result, most people suffer and die due to water-related diseases which account for 60% of all diseases in Kenya (Kandji, 2006). On water access, in urban areas, only about 40% of the habitants have direct access to piped water (Herrero et al., 2010). The rest obtain water from kiosks, vendors, illegal connections or from wells. Only about 40 % of those with access to piped water receive water daily (Nyangeri & Ombongi, 2007)

According to a report by National Drought Management Authority, (2014) water sources currently in use in Baringo County include water pans, dams, natural rivers, traditional river wells, springs, boreholes and lakes. Water shortage is prevalent with 76.5 % of the people in Baringo County using unimproved water source (KNBS & SID, 2013). This is caused by the low rainfall received and cyclic droughts and that have hindered development of livestock and farming activities, as people spend many hours daily looking for water. A report on water and sanitation in Kenyan counties revealed that 2.0% of the human population in Marigat sub-counties depend on boreholes, ponds and dams for their domestic water uses (KNBS & SID, 2013). However, these water sources are categorized as unimproved (WHO, 2008). Most of the population does not have access to good sanitation and 5% of the population has access to improved sanitation and this poses a major health hazard among the residents of Baringo County. It is against this background a study was conceived to assess water and sanitation accessibility and prevalence of water-related diseases in the study area.

Statement of the Problem
Water-related diseases are among the major public health problems in developing countries, Kenya not being an exceptional. Continuous use of unsafe water from unprotected sources such as streams likely to be contaminated coupled with low education awareness has contributed to the escalation of water-related disease prevalence that could lead to high morbidity and mortality in all age groups particularly in children under 5 years of age. Thus this study tried to establish whether there was a link between household hygiene practices, seasonality, and level of education to influence prevalence of water-related diseases in the study area.

Objectives
General objectives
To assess water, sanitation accessibility and prevalence of water-related diseases in Marigat town, Baringo County during wet and dry season

Specific objectives
1. To determine household access to sources of water and sanitation facilities in the study area

2. To evaluate household water management practices in the study area

3. To determine the occurrence and concentrations of microorganisms in water samples at the source and point of use in the study area in the dry and wet season

4. To characterize the prevalence of water-related diseases in the study area in the dry and wet season

Research Questions
1. How accessible is water and sanitation and which are the most common sources of water and sanitation facilities in the study area?

2. How do households in the study area manage water and is water in the households contaminated with pathogens?

3. What is the prevalence of water-related disease in the study area?

4. Is there any relationship between water sources, season, point of use and microbial density?

Justification of the Study
Accessibility to adequate water and sanitation and prevalence of water-related diseases in the urban areas has been a major issue of concern. This study was in line with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal three, which is geared towards ensuring healthy lives and well-being for all and goal six, whose aim is to ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all. This study was also in line with the Kenyan constitution article 42 that states that everyone has a right to a clean and healthy environment which includes the right to have environment protected for the present and future generations through legislative and other measures especially those contemplated in article 69 and have obligations to the environment. This study contributes to the African vision 2025 which ensures equitable and sustainable use of water for socioeconomic development. This study also contributes to the social pillar on water and sanitation target of Kenya’s Vision 2030, which aims at ensuring improved water sources in both rural and urban areas. Data from this study is beneficial to the residents within Baringo County, Ministry of Health, and policy makers in addressing water sanitation and accessibility in the urban areas of the county.

Scope of the Study
The study was confined in Marigat urban centre. The town is located in Baringo County which is an ASAL area. The study was carried out using a cross-sectional survey. There have been reports on the out breaks of water-related diseases such as typhoid and diarrhoea in study area. The study focused on water and sanitation accessibility and Prevalence of water- related diseases (Typhoid and Diarrhoea) during wet and dry season in Marigat Sub-County Health Centres. The study also involved analysis of microbial quality of the drinking water that determined concentration of microorganisms in water samples from both the source and the point of use in the wet and dry season.

Limitation of study
The limitations were as follows:
1. Language barrier from the respondents this limitation mitigated by use of locally educated persons to interpret what the local respondents were saying.

2. Some respondents were unwilling to participate in filling the questionnaires, but this limitation was mitigated by use of the local chiefs to talk to them on the importance of this research to them. The types of questionnaires were designed in such a way to build their confidence.

3. Owing to relatively high illiteracy levels documented in drylands especially in the study area, some respondents faced a challenge while filling in questionnaires this limitation was mitigated by training locally educated people that filled in the information provided by these respondents.

Assumptions of the study
The study assumed that:

1. Households selected provided a true representation of water and sanitation accessibility and prevalence of water-related diseases in the study area.

2. Water-related disease prevalence was explained from the clinical health records reviewed from the health centres within the study area.

3. There was a relationship between independent (Sources of water and sanitation accessibility, microbial quality of the water and household water management practices) and dependent variable (water-related disease prevalence).

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