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This study was designed to assess constraints on human resource development (HRD) in Technical vocational education. The study was designed to determine from technical teachers the extent to which they considered the constraints affecting HRD in TVE programmes. Simple descriptive survey design was used for the study. The population of this study consisted of all technical teachers in Anambra State. The instrument used in the collection of data was 70 item questionnaire validated by four experts in Vocational Education Department. The questionnaire elicited information from the technical teachers on five distinct areas considered constraints on HRD in TVE. One hundred and thirty (130) copies of the questionnaire were administered on the respondents but 102 copies of the questionnaire were completed and returned. The data collected were analysed using frequency count and mean to answer 6 research questions posed for the study. Four (4) research hypotheses were appropriately tested using ANOVA and t-test statistic tools at 0.05 level of significance. The results indicated that technical teachers considered non-availability of material resources, technical teachers’ inadequacy, inadequate human resource management, public misconception on the nature of TVE and financial constraints as constraints on HRD in TVE programme. Based on the conclusion, strategies that could improve HRD in TVE will be adopted to help to improve teaching and learning in TVE programmes.



Background of the Study
Human resource could be seen as people, who work in organizations, having certain qualities or abilities, talents, and attitudes; and who influence production, quality and profitability. They are people who could set out strategies and goals, design work systems, produce goods and services, monitor quality, allocate financial resources and market the products and services (Bratton and Gold, 1999). According to Eyiuche (2002), human resources make up the ultimate basis for the wealth of a nation. Human resources differ from other resources because of their ability to evaluate and to question management actions. For instance, capital and material resources are passive factors of production while human resources are the active agents that accumulate capital, exploit both natural and material resources, build social, economic and political organizations and cause national development enhancement. In the context of formal education, human resources have to be specifically educated in order to be able to carry out their professional responsibility (Oluremi, 2001). However, the problem here rests on the appropriate development of human resources.

As education is regarded as national investment, the most valuable of all capital is that invested in human beings. It appears that lack of adequate investment in human resources development has been responsible for the slow growth of the less developed countries in the world. Human resource development is a process of acquiring and increasing the number of persons who have skills, education and experience which are critical for economic and political development of a nation (Eyiuche, 2002). This implies that human resource development (HRD) involves acquisition of skills, knowledge and the application of knowledge and skills acquired. HRD according to Nwangwu (2007) is a process of staff improvement through strategies that foster self development, self actualization and self growth. Development involves all those activities that are geared towards the growth and improvement of skills, knowledge, abilities and attitudes of the staff of the system. A well planned and systematic HRD programme will enhance the performance of the TVE programmes in terms of increased productivity, and will reduce costs, as well as engender high staff morale and stability in the system. HRD is growth oriented that may require in-service programmes (Nwangwu, 2007).
It seems that a greater proportion of problems confronting the development of technical education in Nigeria currently are rooted in inadequate supply of technical teachers arising from inadequate HRD strategies. The peculiarities of inadequate supply of technical education teachers may include deficiencies in quality and quantity. Most technical teachers available appear to lack industrial experience, and pedagogical training. Also limited training facilities constitute the greatest bottle-neck for staff training and re-training (Olu and Beecroft, 1987). Eze (2007) stated that TVE teachers should be specialist in their trades because lack of adequately trained TVE teachers could affect students’ enlistment in TVE programmes. Eze emphasized that if people lack technical skill, knowledge and entrepreneurial consciousness, most of the constituents of the environment will be greeted with ignorance and there may not be any commitment to discover and tap the available resources because the knowledge may be lacking and the necessary technical skill may not be acquired. In a country where the technical staff and human resources available lack these abilities, it is assumed that such country might remain underdeveloped. It is also assumed that such country where the necessary human resources, lack adequate knowledge and the technical know-how for promoting economic development, advancement may not be foreseen and predicted.

The development of human resources has been the main focus of TVE because TVE objectives rest on skill acquisition and application of scientific knowledge in problem solving. It also involves practice, application of knowledge and manual inhibitions of mastery using the hands. TVE helps in meeting the manpower needs of the society and no country has ever been able to achieve and sustain any degree of technological development without a conscious and conscientious effort to develop its technical manpower. TVE ensures the production of adequate and appropriate productive manpower which leads to wealth creation, material progress, resource base development and national empowerment which accelerates economic growth, reduce inequality and eradicate absolute poverty.

TVE enhances the manual dexterity, technical skill and knowledge, and the entrepreneurial consciousness of the people with a view to improving the economic development of the country through human empowerment. Also the solution to underdevelopment in a country and to minimize economic backwardness and instill capacities and instruction to progress is to introduce and implant a robust and viable TVE system. However, the achievement of these good qualities of TVE programmes depends to a great extent on the development and proper utilization of human resources. TVE teacher as a key factor in human resources need to be adequately developed through training and effectively utilized for proper achievement of TVE objectives and also to enable them carryout their professional and administrative duties. The success and effectiveness of TVE depend on the quality and quantity of teachers available for the TVE programmes. That is to say the realization of educational goals of TVE programmes depend to large extent upon the quality and quantity of TVE teachers engaged in TVE system because the TVE teachers cannot give out what they do not have.

In developing TVE teachers as a key factor in human resource development there appears to be some constraints. This may be one of the reasons why most students do not study technical vocational courses in tertiary institutions in the state. The constraints may be in so many forms. It can be in form of lack of availability of adequate trained technical teachers, non-availability of material resources or inadequate human resources management. In order to make human resources productive and dependable, there should be adequate HRD strategies in TVE programmes. It is against this background that this study is designed to assess the extent of the constraints on human resource development and strategies for improvement in TVE programmes in Anambra State.

Statement of the Problem
Technical vocational education is a powerful vehicle for development and sustenance of competence, efficiency and effectiveness in graduates of technology education (Okoye, 2006). Unfortunately, the human resources development in this discipline appears to be seriously neglected by successive governments in Nigeria. For instance, early 80’s, the Federal Government made efforts to empower technical personnel in the country through Technical Teachers Training programme (TTTP) Over-seas, and subsequently in Indigenous Universities, the programme had since stopped due to the same negligence. Consequently, there has always been dearth of professionally trained technical instructors / teachers or practitioners, inadequate supply of training materials and facilities, and grossly inadequate funding. These shortcomings form constraints against adequate HRD in technological studies in Nigeria and Anambra State in particular. Admittedly Nwanoruo (2002) maintain that some of the constraints on HRD in Nigeria include lack of adequate funding, non-availability of instructional materials and lack of qualified technical manpower. The consequence is that the graduates of this programme are not adequately trained. As a result they appear to feel inferior and thus entertain some inferiority complex and incompetent amidst counterparts. Worse still, there has always been low regard for manual application which had always assumed greater proportion among TVE graduates (Okorie, 2002).

On the other hand, the learning environment appertaining to TVE programmes is nothing to write home about. For instance, Eze (2007) noted that poor training and learning environment in TVE workshops have resulted in production of incompetent vocational graduates who cannot adapt to changing economic situation in Nigeria. In this awareness, it becomes pertinent to organize a study in this category to assess the constraints that affect HRD and determine strategies that could improve HRD in TVE programmes.

Purpose of the Study
This study intends to assess some constraints on human resource development and determine strategies that could improve HRD in TVE programmes. Specifically, the study intends to assess the;

1.                 Extent to which non-availability of material resources affects HRD in TVE programmes.

2.                 Extent to which technical teachers’ inadequacy affects HRD in TVE programmes.

3.                 Extent to which inadequate human resource management affects HRD in TVE in Anambra State.

4.                 Extent to which public misconception of the nature of TVE programmes affects HRD in TVE in Anambra State.

5.                 Extent to which financial constraints affects HRD in TVE in Anambra State, and

6.                 Determine strategies that could improve HRD in TVE programme in Anambra State.

Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will be of benefit to technical vocational administrators, technical vocational teachers and students.

By this study, the extent to which the identified constraints affect HRD will be assessed. It is believed that the problematic issues that result in non-availability of material resources, public misconception of nature of TVE and financial constraints will be unveiled too. Consequently, the strategies for improvement will be determined and also implemented in TVE programmes. The assumption is that most of the students will shun inferiority complex and pick a vocation in TVE. In the long run many more intelligent and brilliant students will be attracted to enroll into TVE programmes with a willing intension to make enviable achievement and a competitive career for self reliance.

If constraints on human resource development in TVE programmes are adequately assessed as a result of the findings of this study, the perennial problem of inadequate supply of qualified technical vocational teachers in TVE will be solved. This is believed to bring job satisfaction among technical teachers which will make them also to impart the knowledge and skills needed. If adequate knowledge and skill are imparted to the students, it is deemed that students will become more productive and independent citizens.

If findings on the extent to which inadequate human resources management affect HRD in TVE programmes are discovered, it will help the TVE stakeholders to improve on human resource development in TVE programmes in Nigeria.

Research Questions
The following research questions are posed to guide the study

1.                 To what extent does non-availability of material resources affect HRD in TVE programmes?

2.                 To what extent does technical teachers’ inadequacy affect HRD in TVE programmes?

3.                 To what extent does inadequate human resource management affect HRD in TVE in Anambra State?

4.              To what extent does a public misconception of the nature of TVE affect HRD in TVE in Anambra State?

5.                 To what extent does a financial constraint affect HRD in TVE programmes?

6.          What strategies could improve HRD in TVE programme in Anambra State?

The following hypotheses were formulated and were tested at 0.05 level of significance.

Ho1:  There is no significant difference among the opinion of technical teachers of NAU,Awka; FCE(T),Umunze and Technical Colleges in Anambra State on the extent to which non-availability of material resources affect HRD in TVE.

Ho2: There is no significant difference between mean responses of technical teachers in FCE(T),Umunze and Technical Colleges in Anambra State on the extent to which technical teachers’ inadequacy affect HRD in TVE programmes.

Ho3: There is no significant difference between the opinion of technical teachers of NAU,Awka and FCE(T),Umunze in Anambra State on the extent to which inadequate human resource management affect HRD in TVE in Anambra State.

Ho4:  There is no significant difference between the mean responses of male technical teachers and female technical teachers in TVE on the extent to which public misconception of the nature of TVE programmes affect HRD in TVE in Anambra State.

Scope of the Study
This study is delimited to an assessment of constraints on HRD in TVE and strategies for improving HRD in Anambra state.

This study was limited to some influential factors such as: which non-availability of material resources; technical teachers’ inadequacy; inadequate human resource management; public misconception on the nature of TVE programmes and financial constraint that could affect HRD in TVE. This study focuses on technical teachers’ in NAU, Awka; FCE (T) and technical colleges in Anambra State that offer technical courses. The technical teachers in private establishments that offer programmes in TVE were not covered in study.

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Contemporary Nigerian dances are as diversified as the culture from which they emerge. This project is an exploration of the use of semiotics in contemporary Nigerian dance. Contemporary Nigerian dance is deeply rooted in the semiology of images because it is not merely an agglutination of symbols, but symbols contained in the language content of any given society. The place of semiotics in this instance dance, becomes an expression of linguistic pattern of a choreographed contemporary Nigerian dance. Semiotics interpretation is a concept that would help in the understanding of meaning-making inherent in activity. Semiotics involves the interpretation of signs, a study of how meaning is derived from both simple and complex knowledge of images, sounds, words gestures and objects. “The place of semiotics in contemporary Nigerian Dance” is thus, aimed at educating choreographers and dance scholars on how semiotics can aid the understanding of a dance through the appropriate channel of interpretation. It is a conscious call to the realization of the role of semiotics in understanding life, where culture codes form a basis of communication. This project has been able to establish an understanding of the way semiotics operates as an interpretive connecting rod between thought, ideas and impressions.


1.1      Introduction and Background to the Study
Dance is an ageless art from the history of creation. Dance made its debut into the theatre as embellishment for formal drama, opera and musicals. Dance is a primordial art which was used in rituals, hunting, communication, mock-fight, war, festival and initiation. According to Sarrel. “The dance of primitive societies is always serious because it is religious in a self expressive and communication sense” (7).

In every work of art, especially, dance, what makes it more effective is its ability to follow a particular rhythm. So the rhythmic nature of African dance or any other culture is ever-green in the minds of its people. Dance in every community is appreciated, because of its aesthetic appeal as well as its religious and sacred significance. According to Ejike;

Sacred dance is the only effective means of communication between the ancestral spirit and the living and also the easiest way to awaken them from slumber, especially with the ageless movement accompanied with the Iroko drums. (4)

Dance as an art uses non-verbal forms to communicate with its audiences. The non-verbal form always comes in form of gestures, movement and mine. In non-verbal communication rhythm and movement are important. The rhythm in every dance in Africa tells us the situation of event at a particular time. Dance rhythm in Africa in not static, it changes. With the dancers movement, the difference between ritual dance and social dance can be highlighted.

In ritual dances, symbols, metaphors, music and sometimes silence may be used to highlight the essence of worship and reverence for the presence of gods. Social dances on the other hand are less serious in content and form. Although they also have specific occasions in which they are performed. Some of these social dances are purely celebrative in nature. Dancers are free to add or subtract from the known movement to the unknown movements, but the movements have to be creatively and aesthetically beholding. This way the dancers are part of the religious worship to evoke and worship the gods and goddesses who are the guiding fathers or mothers of certain cults within any given society. Ritual dances are serious, for they have specific movements, rhythm and pattern to the dances. Also the occasions for performances are fixed by the chief priest of the gods after due consultations and the reasons for the ritual dance must be relevant to the community. Usually it is for burial of the dead, the evocation of the favor of the gods, the ancestral deification of the dead to the world of the spirits, or the cleansing of the society of the ills that hamper their progress. Some of the ritual dances are accompanied by ritual sacrifices and songs. Dance experience of a given society uses human body to produce action and passion in the dance. Dance in the primordial era is used to highlight the experience of the community at any point in time. This can be fully portrayed in the songs, costumes and movements.

The environment plays a vital role in the art of dancing. It has much influence on the dance steps, songs, instruments, costume and make-up. Dance as an art belongs to the community in which the culture is embodied based on how they move their bodies majestically. Rhythm and movement are indispensable in African dances. According to Primus;

“Dance in African context translates every day experiences of Africans into movement” and therefore concluded that dances in Africa is totally of African life.

Dance cannot communicate effectively without the dancers. In African dances, the dancers are the mediators between the dance leader and the audience. The dance leader in African dance always emerges as a performer who showcases great artistic tendency to make him a leader. Those qualities may be that of a good drummer, singer or a good dancer. He directs dance movements on stage. His work can also be compared with that of a choreographer in the modern theatre. The dance leader uses his body to pass the effective message to the audience.

Dance is always colorful and enjoyable when performed with the actual costume and make-up which may suit the dance objective at that particular moment. With the right costume and make-up, the audience will be able to appreciate and understand the dance fully. But in a situation where there is no costume and make-up in a dance performance that may not only be able to engender aesthetic appeal but its interpretative discuss, then the dance may not be well appreciated.

Dance in the modern theatre is not just a pastime engagement, it also boosts the economy of both the dancers and their managers. Dance makes statements about the society that owns it. Dance may have fast rhythm or slow rhythm depending on its message. For instance in ceremonial occasions, the rhythm of the dance movement is always slow, to signify the majestic nature of the ceremony at that particular time. Rhythm of dance movement in modern theatre determines and interprets the choreographer’s inmost ideology while creating the dance movement.
The movements in African dances are very communicative in nature. Movements in dances vary, depending on the peoples culture. In every dance movement, its rhythmic nature concentrates more on those parts of the body that serve as the communication point. For instance, in Ohofia war dance, the rhythm is always fast and the concentration is on the chest and shoulder. In Onitsha, for instance, the occasional dance movement is always slow and same as the rhythm. The movement depends on individual dances. African traditional dances can be loosely classified into two major categories; ritual and social dances. The origins of the dances are embedded in legends, and folklore. The description of the myths or folklores formed the context of the dance performance. Music and dance are regarded in most communities as gifts from the gods, to allow man to survive and enjoy the mystery of life. Ritual dances are deeply rooted in the religious sphere, and in most cases, the dancers are involved in authentic spirit possession on initiation into esoteric religious societies or cults to become members and dancers of the cults. Dance is an ephemeral art. It is an art that takes shape at the moment of performance. Thus, as one of the most direct artistic forms, dance affords its observers an immediacy of perception unlike any of the other art forms.

The realities are dictates of isolated realities, which mean that each dance exists within its own ritual origins, social milieu, and its performative functions and objectives within a given location. Dance is as old as the Nigerian man or indeed, the African man or better still man himself whether white or black. Dance starts with the notion of crawling as a child or of walking as a man. For both activities, “rhythm” is the keyword here.

In Africa, each dance has a context, a story within the performance. The context is the meaning of a particular dance. Whether it is a ritual dance or ceremonial dance, the context of the dance is most important because it guides the dancer on the tempos, the mood and even the images and metaphors. The dance must reflect the process of performance. Malborg states that;

The meaning of dance should be interpreted in its context, that context denotes not only historical, social or cultural context which are extrinsic. But also an intrinsic context that exists as intention on the part of dancer.(27)

The body of a dancer is an instrument of expression based on the mood required for the dance performance. Dancer are taught to use their bodies in the following ways; to tell the story in all African dances whether social or ritual. They are usually taught to be part of a bigger picture. The chief priest may be the star dancer while the other dancers dance in unison to form part of the total evocation. The body becomes the silent musical instrument which is used to form the wider rhythm or picture of the images which the dance is supposed to create. The traditional dancer is taught how to create mood, some dances have fast tempo and some are slow. The agility of the dancer in reacting to the rhythm of the music, the songs and the sounds of the drums often dictate the tempo of the dance. The dancers are also taught how to arrange symbols in an order that will make meaning to the original owners of the dance. Since it is emerging from their cultural consciousness and is also an aesthetic whole when danced. The processes of the arrangement of symbols allow the dancer to tell the complete story of a particular dance. Whether it is Bata dance of the Yoruba, Atilogwu of the Igbo people, or Korotso dance of the Hausa. The key ideology is that dancers are taught the primary use of the body, as a process of highlighting the specific aspects of the body in order to speak the language of the culture of the particular ethnic group.

The Igbo world view contributes a lot in shaping African traditional dances. Anthropologists inform us that an Igbo man is a story telling creature. The Igbo culture recognizes the need for imaginative development through creative storytelling. Storytelling in Igbo culture holds a preeminent place among the people and affords them the best chance to define and enhance their humanity. Storytelling has many uses in Igbo life and culture. First and foremost, it fosters the continuity of the cultural heritage through what is generally designated as akuko-ala (stories about the earth) which encompass what in western categories are called myths and legends. In addition ‘akuko-ala’ explains the mysteries of life and death, of the visible and invisible world, of gods, spirits and ancestors, of the origin of things, their relationships and underlying unities. It describes essential beliefs, philosophical ideas, social codes and approved modes of action. Storytelling tells of the human community in its confrontation with its environment and its adventures of human neighbours, highlighting all the time, the qualities of courage, endurance, heroic self-sacrifice of those whose actions gave shape and solidity to the community. Storytelling goes beyond tales of exemplary courage meant to inspire people in the present through an appeal to hero-worship. It more significantly, erects communal icons which are the permanent benchmarks in the existence of those gods like ancestral heroes which give credence to the received code of social conduct with its myriad injunctions and prohibitions known as Omena-ala (people’s culture).

In Igbo world view, the myth of origin and creation explains significant phenomena in the Igbo culture. The myth consolidates realities which have already been entrenched in culture and history giving them imaginative anchorage for easy assimilation by the memory and transmission from generation to generation. The Igbo oral stories about myths and legends are important for use in educating the Igbo child into the culture of the people and -into the ethical principles and moral values of Igbo society and in addition to providing recreation and entertainment. Chinua Achebe is of the opinion that; “It is the story that outlives the sound of war-drums and the exploits of brave fighters… The story is our escort, without it we are blind”. (124)

Although many Igbo people are now Christians, traditional Igbo religious practices still abound. The traditional religion includes an uncontested general reverence for Chukwu ala (earth goddess), beliefs and rituals related to numerous male and female deities, spirits and ancestors who protect the living descendants. The claim that the Igbo acknowledge a creator God or Supreme-Being, Chukwu or Chineke is however contested. Omenala encapsulates both politics and religion in Igbo society by fusing together space, custom and ethics as constitutional deity of the

Igbo. The living, the dead and the unborn, in Igbo world view form part of a continuum. The living pays tribute to their ancestors by honoring them through sacrifices. Dance as an art encapsulate the totality of African lifestyle and experiences and celebrates the ritualistic nature of African experiences. This work, therefore, studies, Jigawa States Farmers’ Dance and Harvest of Good Wil,l which are core contemporary Nigerian dances.

Semiotics, the science of signs in human society has a significant impact on conventional approaches to the analysis of body movements and communication systems. It has proved a special instrument in non-verbal communication studies, especially, in the area of dance where it provides a crucial theoretical basis for the analysis and examination of the structure and production of meaning. Saussure is of the opinion that:

A semiotic landmark in understanding how human beings communicate is based on relationship between the sign, either verbal or non-verbal or both and the object it designates or refers to. (24)

The link between the sign and its object is the concept. Semiotics may be the link between a scientific discipline and a world view but it is always well constructed. The word semiotics come from the Greek word Seemeiotikee (sign) which denotes the study of signs; what they represent and interpret. The study of semiotics in dance is based on the notion that the human body can communicate message through movements, especially in dance that has traditionally been located in the Humanities and Social Sciences. In the field of dance, Rudolf Laban’s approach is the semiotic study of dance through the analysis of human movements, which he considers basic and essential both to daily activities and the ability of human beings to express themselves. Laban states that “dance has undoubtedly re-entered the realms of the arts” (27). Semiotics in dance serves as mental interpretive tools in the minds of the choreographers. Drewal explains the relationship of mind to body saying:

In dance the vehicle of aesthetic expression is physical movement, so the importance of being clear about the relation of mind to body, of how mental things can be expressed physically is directly apparent. (34)

Semiotics elicits in the minds of the dancers not the final signified object, but a mediating thought that promotes understanding. Pierce states that:

A sign is something which stands to somebody for something in some respect. It creates in the mind of that person an equivalent sign or perhaps a more developed sign” (46).

For Pierce, the sign has a triadic relation among object and interpretant. He also said that a sign includes the idea or interpretant to which it gives rise. In turn, this interpretant becomes a sign which is open to the same interpretive process of unlimited semiosis. Eco opines that:

The object of representation can be nothing but a representation of which the first representation is the interpretant. But an endless series of representations, each representing the one behind it, may be conceived to have an absolute object as its limit. (67)

Kinesithetics in semiotics is a comprehensive analysis of the various and specific body gestures which take a composite and all-encompassing approach to the whole body as a communication medium. Birdwhistell states that: “Kinesic is the study  of  body  motion  as  related  to  the  non-verbal  aspects  of  interpersonal communication” (12).

The semiotic of kinesic takes a truly structural approach to the analysis of body codes and a comprehensive examination of various body expressions and their inter-relatedness. In contemporary dance, it emphasizes greatly on semiotic implication of dance movements as a mode of communication. The core communicative semiotic elements in contemporary dance are; symbolic gestures, mime, props, mask, costumes and body painting. The use of semiotics in analyzing contemporary dance emphasizes critical examination of the various parts of the body like the upper body, torso, feet or different body parts and intricate actions such as fact rotation, ripples of the body as well as variation in dynamics, levels and use of space. As a primordial art form dance is used in rituals, hunting, communication, mock-fight, war, festivals and initiations. According to Doubler;
The semiotic dance movement of the primitive era, is religious and self expressive and communicative. It is social because it is an integrated part of the life. (10)

Semiotics in contemporary dance is treasured, because it is very significant to life and understanding of the dance movement. Semiotics in contemporary dance is an art form which is inculcated into the child from birth. It follows a process of imbibing the culture of his fathers, and training during rehearsal for a festival or ceremony. The art of semiotics in contemporary dance involves exercises such as shaking of the waist, shaking of the body, as well as shuffling of legs. Sometimes it may also include jumping and rolling. Semiotics in contemporary dance fosters mutual understanding among individuals living together in a given society. Even at times communities with diverse cultures are united by dance. Hence according to Fonteyn; “the practice of dancing brings people together in a friendly spirit”. [87]

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In this project entitled statistical analysis on education trust fund allocation to tertiary institutions in six geo-political zones of Nigeria, the average allocation to zones, method of distributions, extraction of principal components, classification of the components into factors and to test if there is any significant difference in the allocation among the zones was carried out using principal components analysis, factor analysis, normality test just to mention but a few. The average allocation to all the zones within the period under review was #14,605,429,76. The allocation to zones was normally distributed indicating unbiasedness in the allocations. University allocation is the principal factor component in the ETF allocation among the institutions revealing high contribution of university with 0.201 in the first component, followed by monotechnics, polytechnics and colleges of education. With little difference in the allocations among polytechnics, monotechnics and colleges of education, they were grouped into one factor and university in another factor. Based on the results obtained; no zone is more favored and their distribution is unbiased.

In Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Factor Analysis (FA) one wishes to extract from a set of P variables a reduced set of M components or factors that accounts for most of the variance in a P variables in other words, we wish to reduce a set of P variables to a set of M underlying super ordinate dimensions.

These underlying factors are inferred from the correlations among the P variables. Each factor is estimated as a weighted sum of the P variables. The factor is thus;

F1 = W1X1 + Wi2X2 + W1pXp+ K.

One may also express each of the P variables as a linear combination of the M factors,

Xj = Aij F1 + A2j F2 + Amj Fm + k+ Uj

Where Uj is the variance that is unique to variable j, variance that cannot be explained by any of the common factors. Principal component analysis is a variable reduction procedure which provides guidelines regarding the necessary sample size and number of items per component. It also shows how to determine the number of components to retain, interpret the rotated solution, create factor scores and summarize the results.

It is appropriate when you have obtained measures on a number of observed variables and wish to develop a smaller number of artificial variables called Principal Components that will account for most of the variance in the observed variables. The principal components may then be used as predictor variables in subsequent analysis.

Principal component is defined as a linear combination of optimally weighted observed variables. The “linear combination” here refers to the fact that scores on a component are created by adding together scores on the observed variables being analyzed and “optimally weighted” refers to the fact that the observed variables are weighted in such a way that the resulting components account for a maximal amount of variance in the data set.

Factor analysis is a mathematical tool which can be used to examine a wide range of data sets. It is the most familiar multivariate procedure used in the behavioral sciences; it includes both component analysis and common factor analysis. In factor analysis, you need only the correlation or covariance matrix not the actual scores. The purpose of factor is to discover simple patterns in the patterns of relationship among the variables. In particular, it seeks to discover if the observed variable can be explained largely or entirely in terms of a much smaller number of variable called factors.

Onyeagu (2003) explained the difference between factor analysis and principal component analysis. Factor analysis is covariance (or correlation) oriented. In principal component analysis, all components are needed to produce an inter-correlation (covariance) exactly. In factor analysis, a few factors will reproduce the inter-correlations (covariance) exactly.

Wang (2007) differentiate the principal component analysis and factor analysis as in principal component analysis the major objective is to select a number of component that will express as much of the total variance in the data as possible.

However, the factors formed in the factor analysis are generated to identify the latent variables that are contributing to the common variance in the data. A factor analysis attempts to exclude unique variance from the analysis; whereas a principal component analysis does not differentiate common and unique variance. PCA analyzes variance while FA analyses covariance.

The PCA and FA have some similarities such as their measurement scale is interval or ratio level, linear relationship between observed variables, normal distribution for each observed variables. Each pair of observed variables has a bivariate normal distribution and lastly PCA and FA are both variable reduction techniques. If communalities are large, close to 1.00, results could be similar.

The literacy and educational characteristic of population aged 6 years and above were enumerated in 1991 population census. The literacy was 60% for males and 40% for females. The literacy level in the country appears to have improved over years, while the sex differential on literacy among persons in the age group 35-39 was almost twice as high for male (68.3%) and female (35.8%). In contrast, the age group 10-14, literacy rate among male (76.6%) is higher than the corresponding rates for females (74.7%) by barely 2%. This pattern did not vary among the States, which indicates that there was increase awareness in all the States, that education of the female child is desirable as that of a male child even for heads of households.

Among the population aged 15 years and above literacy rate was found to be 44.3% at the national level. Adult literacy rate was lowest in Lagos State (19.8%) and River State (20.3%) and highest Yobe State (68.6%). Very high adult literacy rates were recorded also in Niger State (61.8%), Taraba (64.4%), Sokoto (64.5%), Kebbi (66.1%) and in all 46% have no education. Such high illiteracy rate has serious implication for schools, social and economic development. Similarly more males than females attained either primary, secondary or tertiary level of education and these situations may have resulted from long neglect of women’s education needs and lack of funds to our educational system.

The education trust fund (ETF) was established under Acts No7 of 1993 and amended by the act No 40 of 1998 with project management to improve the quality of education in

Nigeria. To enable the ETF achieve the above objective, Act No 7 of 1993 as amended imposes a two percent (2%) education tax on the assessable profit of all registered companies in Nigeria. The Federal Inland Revenue Service (FIRS) is empowered by the Act to access and collect the education tax. The fund administers the tax imposed by the Act, and disburses the amount to educational institution at Federal, State and Local Government levels. It also monitors the projects executed with the funds allocated to the beneficiaries for effective and efficient realization of mandate, implementation of its function and general organization of work, the fund is structured into two segments below:-

1.     The Board of Trustees, and

2.     The Secretariat.

The Board of Trustees
The funds are managed by eleven member board of trustees headed by Chief (Mrs.) Olutoyin Olakunri, OFR, with members drawn from the six geo-political zones of the country as well as representatives of the Federal Ministry of Education, Federal Ministry of Finance and Federal Inland

Revenue Service. The board of trustees has the following responsibilities as stated in the Acts:
Monitor and ensure collection of tax by the Federal Inland Revenues Service and ensure transfer of the collected funds; Disburse the tax to appropriate ministries responsible for collection of the tax; Receive requests, approve admitable project after due consideration; Ensure disbursement to various level and categories of education; Update the federal government on its activities and progress through annual audited reports; review Progress and Suggest improvement within the provision of the acts; Invest funds in appropriate and state securities.

The Secretariat
The secretariat is headed by the chief executive Secretary, who is the chief executive and accounting officer of the funds. Director and Heads of Department and unit, assist him in the day to day running of the offices of the fund. The departments are:

1.                  Administration and procurement;

2.                  Finance and Account ;

3.                  Operation ;

4.                  Planning Research and Assessments;

5.                  The Specializations Units;

6.     Information and Communication Technology, Inter Audits;

7.                  Legal services and board secretariat servicom. Education Trust Fund has developed a culture of
accountability and transparency in its operations over the years. These qualities are very entrenched in all its policies and programmes in the areas of intervention in the sector. The Education Trust Fund in promoting the twin qualities of transparency and accountability ensures that education tax collection by the Federal Inland Revenue Services are monitored and reconciled periodically. The board also ensures that disbursement of funds to the beneficiary educational institutions are use for the restoration, rehabilitation and consolidation of education in the country.

Education Trust Funds intervention in educational sector in Nigeria covers Federal ministry of education, its agencies and parastatals, unity and technical schools. Thirty six States plus FCT Primary Education Boards, and thirty six States plus FCT ministries of education for secondary school education.
All National and State Libraries;

All Federal and State Universities;

All Federal and State Polytechnic, Monotechnics; All Federal and State Colleges of Education;
The main activities undertaken by Education Trust Funds includes:-

1.                  Liaising with Federal Inland Revenue Service to monitor the collection of education tax;
2.                  Providing pro-active support for education tax collection by federal Inland Revenue Service;

3.                  Embarking on periodic tax tour to mobilize education tax;

4.                  Embarking on joint reconciliation visit to area offices of the Federal Inland Revenue Services;
5.                  Receiving proposal on areas of intervention from beneficiaries;

6.                  Receiving proposal by professionals to assess their relevance to improving the quality of teaching and learning;

7.                  Organizing  periodic  workshops/seminars  across  the country to enable stakeholders and beneficiaries make input into future intervention policies.
The challenges before Education Trust Fund are as flows:-

1.                  Boasting the confident of stakeholders in funds by maintaining high standard of transparency as well as efficient and effective operations;

2.       Ability to enhance and boast teachers’ morale to such a high level and to positively rekindle interest in teaching and learning in Nigeria schools;

3.                  Ability to sufficiently sensitize and collaborate effectively with the Federal Inland Revenue Service to expand the funds revenue base;

4.                  Encouragement  of  information  centre  technology  to

enhance teaching and learning in Nigeria schools. However, Education Trust Fund has the following stated goals:

1.                  To continuously improve education tax revenue by ensuring that all such taxes are collected and made available to Education Trust Fund intervention.

2.                  To promote cutting edge technologies ideas and organization skills in education and ensure that projects are forward-looking as well as responding to present needs;

3.                  To ensure the prompt, effective and successful completion of intervention projects in accordance with the most pressing needs of beneficiary institution;

4.                  To form a viable and enduring partnership between the ETF and all bodies and institution interested in the qualitative improvement of education in Nigeria;

5.                  To create a cohesive and solid organization characterized by commitment principles, loyalty to organization and the nation, adequate capacity to accomplish set task with a learning structured cooperation among the level of the organization and within each levels, institutional periodic consultant among all levels and arms of the organization;

6.                  To manage education tax in a way that is most beneficial to the Nigeria people;

7.                  To deliver appropriate and adequate intervention programmes to sensitize various groups and individuals in the country.

The study sought to examines the series of questions related to Education Trust Fund funding to education. Is the funds normally distributed among the six geo-political zones? Is any zone more favored? These with some other questions about Education Trust Fund serve as the basis for which this research will be carried out.

The purpose of this study is to examine how the Education Trust Fund disburses funds to tertiary institution among the six geo-political zones in Nigeria.

This study is going to contribute significantly to educational development in Nigeria. It will help statisticians in understanding the mechanism of Educational Trust

Funds, funding to tertiary institution and its impact on educational development.
Last but not the least; it will create an interest among the new researchers to employ such techniques in their inter-disciplinary approach of research and literature review.

The study will consider only the Educational Trust Fund funding to Tertiary Institution in the six geo-political zones in Nigeria, from 1999-2007.

The specific aims and objective of this study are as follows:-

1.                  To extract the first factor principal component between the tertiary institution under study;
2.                  To classify the components into factors;

3.                  To know if the distribution is normally distributed;

4.                  To know which of the zones is favored by this distribution;

5.                  To know the distribution of ETF allocation to Tertiary Institution in Nigeria.

Ho: There is no significant difference in the allocation of ETF funding to tertiary institution in the six geo-political zones. Hi: There is a significant difference in the allocation of ETF funding to tertiary institution in the six geo-political zones.

Communality – Denoted by h2. It is the proportion of the variance of an item that is accounted for by the common factors in a factor analysis.

The unique variance- of an item is given by 1− h2.

Eigen value - The standardized variance associated with a particular factor. The sum of the eigenvalues cannot exceed the number of items in the analysis, since each item contributes one to the sum of variances.

Eigen vector are weights in a linear transformation when computing principal components scores.

Factor: A linear combination of items (in a regression sense, where the total test score is the dependent variable and the items are the independent variables).

Principal Component- is a linear combination of observed variables that explain a maximal amount of variance in the data.

The factor loading expresses the correlation of the item with the factor.

The square of this factor loading indicates the proportion of variance shared by the item with the factor.
Scree plot: A plot of the obtained eigenvalue for each factor.

(A paper by Diana D.S on Principal component Analysis Vs Exploratory Factor Analysis.)

P.A. - Principal Analysis

F.A. - Factor Analysis

C.O.E. - College of Education

Univer - University

Poly - Polytechnic

Mono - Monotechnic

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