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Several unripe fruits of Carica papaya drop in various orchards and farms hence contributing to environmental burden and wastage. The nutritive and ethno-medicinal potentials (proximate, mineral, vitamins and phytochemicals) of the unripe seed in livestock production were evaluated using AOAC methods. Data were analysed using means and standard deviation. The proximate evaluation of the unripe seeds of Carica papaya showed that it contained crude protein (8.90±0.28%), crude fibre (29.00±1.41%), crude fat (29.50±2.12%), ash (8.65±0.64%),

carbohydrates (23.95±4.45%) and moisture (5.45±0.21%). The mineral contents were calcium (0.39±0.00%), magnesium (0.13±0.00%), potassium (0.11±0.00%), sodium (0.04±0.00%), phosphorus (5.71±1.41 mg/kg), manganese (26.91±1.41 mg/kg) and iron (105±1.41 mg/kg). The vitamins contents obtained were 2162.50±1.41 IU/kg, 1.27±0.00 mg/100g, 0.64±0.00 mg/100g, 3.57±1.41 mg/100g, 1.94±1.41 mg/100g, 0.86±0.00 mg/100g and 8.99±1.41 mg/100g for Vitamins A, B1, B2, B3, B6, B12 and C respectively. The values of the phytochemicals were 7.42±1.41 mg/100g, 5.94±1.41 mg/100g, 0.31±0.00 mg/100g and 84.12±1.41 mg/100g for saponin, alkaloid, hydrogen cyanide and tannin respectively. Thus, the unripe seeds of Carica papaya could be a reliable source for minerals, vitamins, fibre, fat and carbohydrate with broader activity and higher potentials for therapeutic. Harnessing the results of this study may enhance the use of these samples in diets and phytobiotics to ultimately reduce their environmental burden.

The Carica papaya plant belongs to the Caricaceae family, it is commonly called papaya. This plant is also known in different part if the world as papaw, paw-paw, kapaya, lapaya, tapaya, papayao, papaya, papaia, papita, lechosa, fruta bomba, mamon, mamona, mamao and tree melon. It is native to the Caribbean Coast of Central America (Milind and Gurditta, 2011). Carica papaya is cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions of the world (Lavanya et al., 2018). Papaya is cultivated in the tropical and neo-tropical regions of the world between 32º North and South. Amongst the 31 species of the botanical family Caricaceae and the genera Carica, papaya specie is the most economically important and widely cultivated specie. Carica papaya is the most economically important and widely cultivated species amongst the 31 species of its botanical family (Nur, 2010).

During the early years of growth, papaya develops a single stem; with time in highly fertile soil, thereby promoting favourable growth condition, also heavy lateral branch develops. The leaves of a mature papaya plant are palmate with deep lobes, supported by smooth, hollow petioles (Nur, 2010). The stems, fruits and leaves contain copious amount of latex. It is crowded by terminal cluster of large and long stalked leaves, which rapidly grows and up to 20m of height (Banerjee, 1986).

Papaya species exist in three sex types: male, hermaphrodite and female. In commercial production, the hermaphrodite specie is most desired. A single gene having at least three alleles controls the sex of the plant; a dominant allele for male plants, another dominant allele for hermaphrodite plants and a recessive allele for female plants.

Ripe papaya fruits have slight resemblance with melons; they are rich in retinol and ascorbic acid. They are rich sources of β-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin A and vitamin E, which are highly potent antioxidants; they possess minerals such as calcium, zinc, magnesium, manganese, potassium and iron; they contain also the phytochemicals and the B vitamins (Aravind et al., 2013). Papaya is a good source of fiber. All the nutrients of papaya as a whole improve cardiovascular system, protect against heart diseases, heart attacks, strokes and prevent colon cancer and its enzymes are used in the treatment of arthritis (Milind and Gurditta, 2011). Papaya contains latex present in its unripe fruits as well the leaves and stems. Carica papaya contains biologically active compounds and enzymes (Tigist et al., 2016).

Enzyme benefits the human health. Enzyme was first named in the late 19th century by Wurtz and Bouchut (1945) who purified partially the product from the sap of papaya; it was recognized as a constituent in the latex of tropical papaya fruit when named. From papaya latex, the endolytic plant cysteine protease enzyme – papain and chymopapain is isolated (Amri and Mamboya, 2012). Latex of the papaya contains a sulfhydryl protease ‒papain and chymopapain (Lavanya et al., 2018). Papain (EC and chymopapain are the most common important enzymes of papaya (Milind and Gurditta, 2011). Papain is of vital importance in biological processes in living organisms, it belongs to the papain superfamily, as it is has inherent proteolytic properties (Tsuge et al., 1999). Papain basically is obtained by making incisions on the epicarp of unripe papaya, collecting and drying the latex which flows out. More active papain is gotten from a greener fruit (Amri and Mmaboya, 2012).

According to Menard et al., (1990), papain preferentially cleaves peptide bonds involving basic amino acids, particularly arginine, lysine and residues following phenylalanine. In the 1990s were the precursors and inhibitors of papain studied (Vernet, 1991). The functionality of papain is due to its unique structure which helps in the comprehension of the mechanism of the proteolytic enzyme and its usefulness for a variety of purposes (Amri and Mmaboya, 2012). Papain and chymopapain is soluble in water, their solution has good temperature stability; the solution stability has high dependence on the pH. Papain solutions are unstable under acidic condition such as pH 2.8 and will result in significant loss of activity; they are however stable at a between a pH of 5.5 - 5.9 (Nur, 2010).

Papain is utilized in food processing especially in the tenderization of meat. The protease has the ability to dissolve dead tissue without damaging any living cell; it is used as commercial meat tenderizers. Papaya fruit and papain are used in wound care. Papain is a digestive enzyme of papaya that effectively treats the causes of trauma, allergies and sports injuries (Tigistet al., 2016). Papain has high proteolytic activity and it is applied extensively in the fields of food and medicine. According to Chaudhari (1996), some studies indicate the enzyme helps in the prevention of diabetic-dependent-heart-disease. Papaya leaves traditionally are wrapped around meat and act a tenderizer. Due to the efficiency and less destructive nature of the proteolytic enzymes – papain and chymopapain, when compared to other proteases is the commonly used enzyme in cell isolation procedures on certain tissues (Nur, 2010). Papain is a constituent of contact lens solution. Papain is used in clarifying beer, synthesis of chewing gum and in pharmaceutical industry as digestive medicine. In a study by Huet et al., (2006), traditional medicine through the administration of papain and chymopapain extract from papaya leaves is shown to be effective against the nematodes as papain causes damage to the cuticles of the nematodes. The combination of papain with other proteolytic enzyme is useful in enzyme- therapy for cancer treatment.

Papain enzyme generally is a sulfylhudryl protease obtained from Carica papaya. Several research carried out on the enzymes of the papaya plant focus on its extraction and application. The enzyme functions in the tenderization of flesh and also enhances the healing of wound. For those who experience poor wound healing will not have to depend on other materials that are expensive, sophisticated which might not be readily available. There are a number of papaya trees on the campus of Mountain Top University (MTU). The present study focuses on the enzymes in the leaf of the tree on the campus.

The aim of this study is to extract, purify and characterize papain enzyme from the leaves of Carica papaya.

The specific objectives of this study are:
• To extract papain from Papaya leaves in MTU.
• To purify the extracted papain.
• To determine the papain concentration at each phase of purification.
• To determine the enzyme activity at each purification phase.
• To characterize the purified papain.

In order to achieve the objectives, the following procedure were taken:
• Grinding the leaves in a mortar with pestle followed by homogenization in a warring blender.
• Precipitation of the protein with 70% ammonium sulphate solution.
• Dialysis of the homogenate against distilled water.
• Passing the dialysate through DEAE-Cellulose column chromatography.
• Gel filtration of the fractions from DEAE-Cellulose column.
• Determination of the molecular weight, the effect of pH, temperature, substrate concentration and Mg2+ on the enzyme.

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The world has been shocked by the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic and no country is spared of the effects of the pandemic. The Internet has brought about the emergence of virtual markets with four primary distinct characteristics, which are real-time, shared, open and global. The growing rate of ICT utilization particularly the Internet has influenced at an exponential rate, online interaction and communication among the generality of the populace. The study examines the impact of ICT on E-commerce transactions in Nigeria. The study found out that virtually all organizations in Nigeria have online presence and Internet access. In fact, it is a status quo. Their goods and services are displayed online but no sales because of poorly embraced payment instrument and fear of scammers. Sales are still done the traditional way. Similarly, Internet access is fairly popular among the citizens, particularly for sending mails and sourcing for information. This is primarily due to the high number of cybercafés that offers Internet access to all and sundry for a fee. Therefore, it is recommended that government and private initiatives be encouraged to improve this sector of the economy. There is need for improved national image on the international arena and an appropriate legislation put in place to guide the operations of e-commerce.

• Background of study
Firms across sectors are looking to leverage new opportunities during the pandemic through e-commerce. New evidence in the paper using World Bank’s (2020) ‘Impact of COVID survey’ data from 1182 firms across four African countries- Niger, Togo, Zambia, Zimbabwe- shows that 266 firms (22.50%) of the sample report adopting a digital response to the pandemic. Over 70% of the firms with digital response (in manufacturing, retail and other services) report having adjusted or converted production, compared to roughly 40% of firms with no digital response, and over 50% of firms with a digital response report having started or increased delivery of goods and services, compared to less than 25% of firms with no digital response. A significantly higher share of firms with a digital response in manufacturing and retail sectors report witnessing an increase in demand for their goods and services and a higher share export over 10% of sales directly compared to firms with no digital response to the pandemic. Interestingly, 6.77% of firms in retail sector and 4% of firms in other services sectors report an increase in monthly sales compared to a year ago, with 3.5% of retail firms also reporting a permanent increase in employees. But e-commerce revenues remain relatively small in Africa, with physical retailers in low and middle- income countries faring better than pure-play e-commerce retailers (or e-tailers), which sell goods and services online through an online channel with no physical stores.

However, there exist significant differences across regions in B2C e-commerce, with Africa lagging behind the rest of the world, particularly in terms of delivery infrastructure. Supply-side shocks to e- commerce during the pandemic are making things worse; shortages of delivery workers due to sickness, delays in parcels due to cargo, air and transport disruptions, increasing air freight prices due to cancellation of flights etc. On the demand side as well, there exists significant differences in online buying across income status, gender, age and education. On average, 24% of the world’s population is engaged in online buying, but only 2-4% of the population in low and lower middle-income countries is buying online. While 57% of females in high-income countries are engaged in online buying, it falls to 1% in low-income countries. Similarly, over 60% of the youth in high-income countries is buying online, but this falls down to 44% in upper-middle income countries, 7% in lower middle-income countries and 3% in low-income countries. E-commerce in Nigeria has numerous challenges and these challenges have impacted negatively to the rapid growth of the economy. One of the major problems that have hindered the growth of e-commerce is the low broadband penetration in Nigeria most especially in the rural areas and this is supposed to be a high priority growth for the ICT industry in the country.

It has been reported that 97% of Nigerian firms experience power outages, and such outages lasts on the average for some 196 hours per month. As a result of this situation, 86% of Nigerian firms have their own generators which produce over half of their electricity needs. (Larossi, Mousley & Radwan 2009). Therefore, firms will have to incur extra costs in the consumption of petrol or diesel. One huge challenge is the low consumer confidence in using electronic payment means because of lack of diverse internet security and forensic intelligence to contain cybercrime in the country. There is the problem of high cost of accessing the web. Most Nigerians access the web through there mobile phones, meanwhile most of the e-Commerce website are configured for PCs. A critical challenge to e-Commerce growth is the issue of poverty in the country. A greater percentage of the population live on less than $1 hence, they see shopping online as a thing for the rich. The coming of e-Commerce in the country has only received awareness in few big cities such as Lagos, Abuja, and Port-Harcourt. There is the challenge of timely delivery of goods bought online to the customers. Hence, this study is timely and will provide insight on Impact of Information Communication Technology (ICT) on E-Commerce Transactions in Nigeria.

The joint of Financial technology and E-commerce is becoming more of a reality. Both of them are dominant players in our technological world and they are going to reshape the traditional business and retail processes. The knowledge of this fast-moving world is a powerful advantage and the adaption of Financial technology in e-commerce can be characterized more than a revolution. It goes without saying that as the devices become more connected e-commerce will level up. Undoubtedly, there are numerous opportunities of this union and the possibilities for new e-commerce experiences will be endless. Initially, Financial technology can enhance e-business operations by tracking the customer‟s orders through RFID, balance the supply demand process and introduce new revenue streams by providing specialized e-services. In addition, the automation of smart devices can increase the customer satisfaction by the automated ordering of products that require consistent renewal. Moreover, connected products provide valuable data which can give useful insights for the customers‟ preferences and personalized information. In that way, retailers can influence customer decisions and customer‟s can receive customized experiences (Evans, 2017).

One of the biggest Financial technology innovations which is tightly connected to e-commerce is the Amazon Dash. At the touch of a button and with the help of wi-fi connection you can order specific products that need replenishment. The Financial technology technologies can also be used in order to boost the retail commerce. Smart shelves can be used in order to alert shop owners when the quantity of products runs out of stock and smart mirrors enhance the customer shopping experience by letting consumers virtually try on clothes. Finally, beacons and digital signage improve the retail process by sending targeted notifications on the mobiles phones and presenting targeted ads and prices to its customers when they visit their favourite store (Meola, 2016).

However things can go wrong with the Financial technology technology. Security is the major threat in such a technology and cyber criminals can exploit the vulnerable smart devices and have access to client‟s items. So, before an e-business decides to apply the Financial technology technology with the purpose of outstanding and attracting more customers, it must take a lot of things into consideration, in order to ensure the business and customers‟ safety.

• Problem of study
To determine the expected affection of Financial technology in business and e-commerce we followed a meticulous review of literature.

In order to complete our systematic literature review we identified two research questions. The research questions help us to determine the content of our literature, choose the right studies for our survey and create a frame which will aid in supporting our case study and our conclusions. The goal of this study is to discover how Financial technology could positively or negatively affect the retail businesses and by extension the retail e- commerce.

• Research questions
• How Financial technology could positively affect retail e- commerce?

• Which are the major challenges for businesses and consumers?

1.4 Research Objectives
1. to determine if Financial technology could positively affect retail businesses and retail e- commerce.

• To determine the major challenges for businesses and consumers.

1.5 Scope Of The Study
The main objective of this research is to introduce the relation between Financial technology and Electronic commerce and by extension with retail businesses. The overall objective is to analyze the role of Financial technology in the optimization of business and to explore how Financial technology can have a positive impact on e-retailing as well as the negative side effect of Financial technology. To achieve the aims of the study, a systematic literature review is followed. The final results of the research are presented in two matrix tables which analyze the opportunities and the challenges of Financial technology in e- commerce and businesses. The limitation of the study is that Financial technology is not analyzed from the technical point of view because of the lack of knowledge in this field. Moreover, out of scope are industries that are not affiliated to the retailing. Adequate in depth study was not possible due to time limitation. However, a future work, with an analysis of a case study regarding Jumia Company is going to be implemented in order to test the results of the literature review.

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Population growth and high demand of food has led to increases in the cultivated areas at the expense of restorative bush fallow. In the process, the resource base is depleted as many tropical soils are fragile, quickly losing organic matter and nutrients when intensively cultivated. Therefore there is an urgent need to replace this destructive cycle with economically and ecologically farming practices. It is justified that inorganic fertilizer has been responsible for sustained increases for food production. Organic inputs are needed to maintain the physical condition of soil (Hsieh and Hsieh, 1996). As soil fertility depletion is the single most important constraint to food security in Nigeria there is the need to adopt practices that can help sustain crop production while maintaining sol fertility.

The objective of the study was to find out the influence of Tithonia diversifolia, NPK fertilizer and poultry manure on the growth and yield of water melon. The treatments consisted of control, Tithonia diversifolia, NPK fertilizer and poultry manure. These were applied in sole applications as well as in varying combination of different treatment as shown in the table below.

One of the greatest challenges in agriculture is the need to develop viable farming for increase and sustained crop production with minimum soil degradation. For instance, in 1992 the population in Nigeria was 8million, and in 2000 it was 18.9 million later in 2010 it increased to 25million. Much of the agricultural land in developing countries used for traditional farming is based on shifting cultivation and bush fallow systems. This is a biologically stable system and with long fallow period, can sustain agricultural production for many generations (Kang and Wilson, 1987).

However, because of increasing land pressure resulting from rapid population growth and other uses, it is no longer possible in many areas to maintain the long fallow periods crucial for soil fertility regeneration. This has resulted in the breakdown of the natural soil fertility replenishment system, to the point where large tracts of land are becoming degraded and left out of cultivation. This has led to the practice of continuous cultivation on low fertile soils resulting in inadequate food production or decline in crop yield. This is because shorter fallow periods are less effective in restoring soil fertility (Ruthenberg, 1971).

The traditional system, which is known to be stable and biologically efficient, operates effectively only when there is sufficient land to allow for long fallow periods to restore soil productivity (Kang et al., 1989). Today, however, because of rapid demographic and economic changes, the cultivated area has expanded onto marginal land and fallow periods are being reduced, resulting in systematic reduction of major areas of land leading to declining yield (Matlon and Spencer, 1984). Research results obtained at International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) (1992) Ibadan, Nigeria and elsewhere indicate that soil degradation can be halted or retarded by maintaining a crop cover or continuous incorporation of organic residue on the soil surface. Soil fertility depletion is the single most important constraint to food security in West Africa. Though the use of organic resources such as farmyard manure and compost have been in use for several years for improving soil fertility (Sridhar and Adeoye, 2003) and more recently use of inorganic fertilizers, varying constraints still make the use of these traditional and conventional methods of soil fertility improvement inadequate to meet the challenges of soil fertility depletion in the region. Such constraints include high procurement cost for mineral fertilizer sources, insufficient quantities to meet farmers’ needs especially in less developed countries, and relatively low nutritive content of traditional crop residues or animal manure used for soil improvement.

Inorganic fertilizer has been the major means of achieving higher yield of crop. Even though Government subsidizes the cost of fertilizer, these inputs have become so expensive that small scale farmers who constitute about 80% of the farming population cannot buy and apply them. Though inorganic fertilizer contributes largely to soil fertility, it does not improve soil physical properties, such as soil structure, water retention capacity and aeration for crop production. Many legume species, both herbaceous and shrubs are well adapted to the infertile soil of the tropics and therefore, their ability to improve the soil fertility status needs to be investigated.

There is, therefore, the need to develop alternative or integrated low input soil fertility management strategies based on maximum use of local biological nutrient sources and supplementation with chemical input when available.

Inorganic nitrogen compounds tend to increase the leaf, stem and the roots. The higher the rate of application of nitrogen to a plant, the more rapidly will the synthesized carbohydrate be converted to proteins. Leaves which are low in nitrogen often have a pale yellow or light green colour. However when nitrogen is present in excess, it increases the growing periods and delays maturity of fruits (Akinyosoye, 1985). The ripening of grain for instance is retarded by too great a proportion of nitrogen in the medium of growth. In addition to nitrogen, phosphorus is an essential component in the reaction of carbohydrate synthesis and also for carbohydrate degradation enabling energy to be liberated. When a crop such as water melon is deficient in phosphorus, growth is retarded and the formation and, ripening of seeds may be retarded, plants develop a stunted root system and leaf development is reduced.

Potassium is absorbed in fairly large quantities by plants. The response of plants to potassium intake depends on the concentration of nitrogen and phosphorus present in the soil. Potassium starvation becomes obvious, usually resulting in the premature death of the leaves. Fruits and seed become poor in quality and of reduced size and weight (Akinyosoye, 1985). All crops which produce large quantities of carbohydrate use fairly high levels of potassium.

In addition to inorganic fertilizer use, another means of improving soil fertility involves incorporating green manure into the soil. This releases nutrients and provide farmers with viable and ecologically sustainable alternative to shifting cultivation. Green manuring supplies nutrients and organic matter from the decomposing material (Lal, 1975) and may be useful for farmers where external inputs for crop production are less likely to be available and the cost exceeds farmers cash on hand.

Nitrogen is the most limiting nutrient in crop production in tropical Africa. The inclusion of nitrogen-fixing leguminous species in the production system can help to meet the nitrogen requirement for crop production. In addition to a greater capacity to fix nitrogen in soil, legumes to be used should have large mass of tissue and high nitrogen concentration. Kang (1988) estimated the effective nitrogen contribution from Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium pruning to alley cropped maize to be about 40 kg N/ha. Mulongoy and Vander der Meerch (1988) reported a lower nitrogen levels of 4.4 – 23.8 kg N/ha from L. leucocephala pruning to the associated maize crop, the nitrogen contribution representing less than 30% of nitrogen yield of the pruning. This low efficiency in the crops use of N from pruning probably results from the lack of synchronization between release from the pruning and nitrogen demand, volatilization of nitrogen from pruning, and leaching, (Mulongoy and Akobundu, 1990).

In addition to inorganic fertilizer as a method to regenerate soil fertility and improve productivity, poultry manure is an excellent source of nutrients and can be incorporated into most fertilizer programmes. It is therefore, used as an alternative method of improving soil and crop yield besides the conventional inorganic fertilizer that has become expensive.

Legume species can also be used in cropping system to improve soil fertility in Nigeria Legumes used as green manure can,

• Provide biologically fixed nitrogen
• Increase soil organic matter.
• Provide protection against soil erosion.
• Improve soil structure.
• Make other nutrient such as phosphorus, calcium more available.

Among the various shrubs and forage, legumes used as a biological nitrogen fixation for soil productivity, Tithonia diversifolia, a legume shrub, has been selected as an alternative option for improving agriculture productivity (Jama et al., 2000). Tithonia mulch, apart from being rich in nutrients including calcium, nitrogen and phosphorus can also increase the soil moisture retaining capacity (Jama et al., 2000).

Research further indicates that the ability of Tithonia to decompose quickly makes it the best way to replenish soil fertility. However long term benefits of the organic matter storage can be achieved only when there is continuous application of the organic resource. Liasu and Atayese, (1999) reported that, the concentration of nutrients in Tithonia is highest in young plants and before the plant flowers. It is further reported that Tithonia has shown a great improvement in crop yield of 46 farms in western Kenya where the yield of green beans increased when the biomass was applied (Liasu and Atayese, 1999).

Tithonia has also been reported as a nutrient source for maize in Kenya, Malawi and Zimbabwe (Jama et al., 2000). Stems and leaves of Tithonia have been reported to contain sesquiterpene lactones such as tagitinins that prevent attack by termites, and possess antimicrobial properties (Adoyo et al., 1997).

• WATER MELON (Capsicium fructescens) USED AS TEST CROP
The crop selected as the test crop for the study is hot water melon (Capsicium fructescens). Water melon is one of the most widely used foods in the world. Hot water melon, a member of the family solanaceae is more important as a spice than a vegetable in the tropics. It originated from Mexico and Central America. Christopher Columbus encountered water melon in 1943 and because of its pungency, thought it was black water melon, Piper nigrum which is actually a different genus. He introduced the crop to Europe and it subsequently spread into Africa and Asia. The bulk of water melon produced in countries such as U. S. A is sweet water melon but hot water melon dominates in other countries such as Nigeria. Water melons are important crop for Nigerian farmers, but successful water melon production is not easily achieved. However water melon production has increased in recent years partly because of its high consumption rate by most people and for its nutritional value.

Water melon production requires highly intensive management and marketing skills. Per- acre cost of production is high and yield can be severely limited by pest problem or environmental problems. A phenolic compound called capsicin is responsible for pungency in hot water melon, and various cultivars markedly differ in their content of this chemical. Water melon is a herbaceous perennial plant and will survive and yield for several years in the tropical climate provided there is moisture in the soil.

The crop can withstand temperatures as high as 38 °C but cannot withstand low temperature below 18°C. The ideal temperature range for good plant growth is 18°C - 32°C. Fruit set is greatly influenced by low humidity and high temperature. These conditions of very low humidity and very high temperature results in poor fruit set due to dropping of flower buds.

Water melon can be produced on a wide variety of soil types but it grows best in deep, medium textured sandy loam and well-drained soils. It grows well in soil within the pH range 5.0-7.0.

Soil rich in organic matter tends to promote excessive vegetative growth resulting in poor yield of the crop. The nursery period may range from 4 – 6 weeks depending on the fertility of the nursery soil. Compound fertilizer (N.P.K, 15-15-15) applied at the rate of 250 kg/ha 10 days after transplanting and top dressed with sulphate of ammonia at the rate of 60 kg/ha two weeks after first application is recommended. The ideal time of planting is about mid or latter part of the rainy season, that is minor season, so that harvesting period falls in the dry season.

Water melon requires about 75 days from transplanting to first harvest and can be harvested for several weeks before production wanes. The potential for extending the duration of fruiting period in order to improve yield output lies generally on genetic quality of plant but most importantly in soil conditions, as early growth termination is often caused by soil nutrient depletion, moisture stress, pest and diseases and root infection resulting from buildup of soil pathogens (Muller-Saman and Kotschi, 1994a).

To help the plant support continuous fruiting it is advisable to give a top dressing of compound fertilizer (NPK 15-15-15 or 20-20-0) as soon as the first flowers open, using 15 g per plant in a ring of 15 cm from the stem.

Inorganic fertilizer use has been the major means of achieving higher crop yield. They are fast acting and effective. However, with the removal of subsidy in agricultural inputs these inputs have become so expensive that small scale farmers cannot afford to buy and apply them. Hence the need to develop alternative farming systems, which could build up organic matter levels to improve the physical conditions of soil and at the same time supply the essential plant nutrients for sustainable agriculture at affordable cost. Organic manuring seems to provide a possible solution to this problem.

Water melon responds to both organic and inorganic fertilizer. But the high cost of inorganic fertilizer that limits affordability has made water melon production less encouraging among Nigerian farmers. It is therefore necessary to explore other sources of material for use to regenerate soil fertility to improve crop production.

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This study investigates the role of value addition in enhancing productivity within the context of rice production and processing, with a specific focus on the Adani community in the Uzo-Uwani Local Government Area of Enugu State. The research aims to explore how value addition strategies can contribute to increasing productivity levels in the rice industry, thereby fostering economic growth and development in the region. Employing both qualitative and quantitative research methods, the study will assess current practices, challenges, and opportunities associated with value addition in rice production and processing. Data will be collected through surveys, interviews, and field observations, and analyzed using appropriate statistical and qualitative analysis techniques. The findings will provide valuable insights for policymakers, agricultural stakeholders, and local communities to formulate strategies and interventions aimed at optimizing productivity and enhancing the competitiveness of the rice sector in Adani and similar agricultural regions.

1.1 Background of the Study
The struggles of Nigeria farmers in finding ways to increase farm income, interest in “adding value” to raw agricultural products has grown tremendously. The value of farm products can be increased in endless ways: by cleaning and cooling, packaging, processing, distributing, cooking, combining, churning, culturing, grinding, hulling, extracting, drying, smoking, handcrafting, spinning, weaving, labeling, or packaging. According to (Kaplinsky, 2010) value addition means adding value to a raw product by taking it to at least the next stage of production. This can be as simple as retaining ownership of your calves and wintering them on wheat pasture or placing them in a feedlot. Value can be added through membership in a cooperative that processes your products, such
as a cooperative cotton gin. Or, adding value may be as elaborate as going all the way to the consumer with a “case-ready” food product. Hence rice farmers have keen interest in adding value to their rice production and processing so as to enhance the product.

Rice is an important staple food in Nigeria. Many Nigerians have developed tastes for polished and size-sorted medium to long-grained rice. Local production of rice has been increasing over the years. Besides offering a higher return, value addition on rice production and processing can open new markets, create recognition for a farm, expand the market season, and make a positive contribution to the community like in the case of Adani in Uzo-Uwani Local Government Area of Enugu state of Nigeria. Though, value addition will enhance productivity in rice production and processing in the area but it is a long-term approach, not a “quick fix.” It requires the willingness and ability to take on risk, as well as adequate capital, management skills, and personal skills such as the ability to interact with the public to succeed (; Kaplinsky and Morris, 2000).

Production is the process of transforming certain goods and services known as inputs into other goods and services known as products (Akubiloet al., 2007). It implies a series of processes, techniques, activities or procedures involved in combining resources of land, labour, capitals, water and management to generate useful effect or products. Value on the other hand implies worth, Benefits price or measure of importance. It is a factor of utility. Value can also be seen as the monetary term in which the utility of a product or an item can be explained.

Therefore, value addition in the production and processing of rice implies all the activities, processes or strategies and distribution of rice which in one way or the other contribute to benefit/utility maximization (Owoh, 2008). It seeks a careful exploration into all the activities, processes or strategies of operation carried out in the production, processing, packaging and distribution of rice which contribute to the maximization of profit or utility derived from rice.

1.2 Problem Statement
Neglect of agricultural activities has been a very serious problem affecting both producers and marketers of agricultural produce in the country.

This situation appears to be aggravated by government and policy makers who have not considered production and marketing of food crops as serious problems to the economic development of the nation. Nigeria has great potential to greatly enhance productivity in rice production and processing. Nigeria is one of the largest rice producing country in Africa. Though the rice locally produced and processed do not compare the foreign rice product in the market and this has made Nigeria the second world largest importer of rice. This is as a result of poor production and processing of locally produced rice. The application of value addition to rice production and processing will enhance the product. Therefore, the basis for value addition is a necessity for enhancing productivity of rice production and processing.

1.3 Objectives of the Study
Based on the aforementioned, the study seeks to answer the following research questions:

• what are the personal and socio-economic characteristics of rice processors in Minna metropolis?

• what are the levels of awareness and sources of awareness of value addition in rice production by the processors?

• what is the level of adoption of the technologies?

• what are the factors influencing the adoption of improved rice technologies in the study area?

• what are the constraints associated with the adoption of improved technologies in the study area?

Hypotheses of the Study
The following null hypotheses (Ho) were to be subjected to empirical validation:

• There is no significant relationship between the personal and socio-economic characteristics of women rice processor such as age, experience, labour availability, education, extension contact, income, access to credit and the rate of adoption of value addition in rice production

• There is no significant difference between income realized by women before and after adoption of improved rice processing of technologies.

• Objectives of the Study
The general objective of the study was to determine the level of adoption of value addition in rice production by women in the study area. The specific objectives were to:

• describe socio-economic characteristics of the processors

• describe the level of awareness of the technologies by the women and identify the sources of awareness of value addition in rice production

• determine the level of adoption of the technologies

• determine the factors influencing adoption of value addition in rice production in the study area

• identify constraints associated with adopting the technologies

1.6 Significance of the study
From all indication the rate of rice importation is high due to insufficient production and lack of value addition to enhance the productivity of the rice production and processing. The result of this study will enable researcher, government and policy makers to know the problems and constraints that have hindered adequate local rice production, as this will help them to make policies that will tackle this problem.

Also the result of this study will educate farmers on the importance of value addition on rice production and processing in order to improve productivity.

Furthermore, this study will serve as a useful tool in guiding policy makers and to students who intend to carryout a research on related topic.

1.7 Limitation of Study
This project is centered on value addition as a basis for enhancing productivity in rice production and processing. However, the scope will be limited to Adani, Uzo-Uwani Local Government Area of Enugu state.

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Agricultural activities account for 14% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and they are the primary cause of deforestation and land degradation, which accounts for an additional 17% of GHG emissions. Although a greater knowledge of the factors that influence the adoption of climate smart agricultural practices is necessary to guide policies aimed at supporting successful climate change adaptation measures, little information on the diverse methods used by smallholders exists. The goal of this study was to look at the factors that influence the adoption of climate-smart agriculture techniques in Kebbi, Nigeria. It explains how social variables like age, gender, and education, as well as economic and institutional factors like access to extension services and weather forecasting, impact the adoption of climate wise farming practices. Simple random selection was used to choose 3 Villages out of 11 based on the 30% criteria. Second, a method of systematic random sampling was used. A total of 228 people were questioned utilizing a standardized questionnaire. The information gathered was analyzed using a mix of descriptive and inferential statistics. Farm size (0.0293**, p 0.05) and noticing of unpredictable temperatures (-0.1643***, p 0.001) were found to have a statistically significant negative impact on the adoption of soil fertility management practices in Kebbi State, while income (0.0002**, p 0.05) had a statistically significant positive impact. Access to extension services (0.0792*** p 0.001) had a statistically significant beneficial impact on the adoption of better crop and animal breeds as a climate change and variability adaptation response. (-0.0020* p 0.05) Age. More integration amongst extension partners should be investigated, according to the report. Improved land security is important because it enhances the chance of farmers embracing Climate Smart Agriculture. Policies and strategies should focus a greater emphasis on bolstering the existing agricultural extension service and promoting proven technologies including soil fertility management, better crop and animal breeds, agroforestry, and water harvesting and management. Climate wise farming methods require increased capacity, including access to meteorological information tailored to farmers' requirements.

1.1 Background of the Study
Climate change is one of the most pressing issues facing the planet in the twenty-first century. Climate change, according to the FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization), has caused food security issues in most nations. Various stakeholders believe that keeping temperature rise below the 2°C mark is now impossible, and that the world population will have to deal with the consequences (IPCC, 2014). Agricultural productivity is affected by rising temperatures and changing rainfall patterns, with considerable decreases in crop and livestock production (Sharma & Ravindranath, 2019). Following this, agricultural production systems are projected to provide food for the world's population, which is expected to reach 9.1 billion by 2050 and more than 10 billion by the end of the century (World Bank, 2011). Branca and colleagues.

Africa's temperatures have risen by 0.5 degrees Celsius over the previous century, according to the IPCC (2014), and are expected to rise by 1.5 to 4 degrees Celsius by 2099. According to the World Bank (2011), this makes Africa the most vulnerable continent. The evidence of climate change in Nigeria is undeniable, according to the Nigeria National Climate Change Strategic Plan (GOK, 2010). The temperature has climbed across the country. Rainfall has grown more sporadic and unexpected, and when it does rain, it rains harder. In Nigeria, extreme and terrible weather has become the norm.

This has had an influence on the agriculture sector, which has been affected by climate change-related extreme weather events such as drought, flooding, high winds, and landslides, as well as seasonal weather changes.

As a result, climate smart agriculture is required in Nigeria and other Sub-Saharan African nations to resist the consequences of climate change (Kabubo-Mariara & Kabara, 2021). Climate smart agriculture is a revolutionary word that attempts to integrate climate change into agriculture, allowing agriculture to adapt to climate change and minimize greenhouse gas emissions (or mitigation). Climate smart agriculture, according to FAO (2010), is agriculture that I increases productivity in a sustainable manner, ii) reduces climate change vulnerability (enhance adaptation), iii) reduces emissions that cause climate change (mitigation), iv) protects the environment from degradation, and v) improves food security and improved livelihood of a given society.

CSA techniques to deal with climate change, according to FAO (2010), include agroforestry and carbon trading, as well as raising knowledge about rainwater collecting and water management practices. Crop diversification, the adoption of drought/pest resistant crop varieties and seeds, the shift to bio-fuels for domestic and industrial use, sustainable land use, and encouraging mitigation through non-forestry activities like fuel switching and energy efficiency at the community level, as well as the use of bio-fuels, have all been heavily promoted. Finally, environmental and climate change education, as well as agribusiness and value addition development, are all important (Lukano, 2013). El- Fattal (2012) adds to the list by emphasizing the adoption of better agricultural technology such as enhanced water management techniques, improved animal breeds, and crop types that are more drought resistant.

Integration of climate-smart agricultural methods into a single farming system will give various benefits, including increased revenue and improved lifestyles. However, certain methods cannot be integrated because they have an influence on other aspects of the farming system at the same time. Maintenance expenses or significant investment, for example, may surpass impoverished farmers' asset capabilities; the timing and intensity of a practice may result in labor restrictions; and competition for crop leftovers may limit biogas output and animal feed. Identifying these limits in advance of adoption is necessary for developing commercially appealing and ecologically sustainable management practices. (Neufeldt et al, 2011).

While farmers seek to adapt via innovation, research by Rao et al., (2011) and Pettengell, (2010) found that they have little capacity to respond successfully to these quick and overwhelming changes outside of their regular experience. Farmers' efforts to fight climate change in Nigeria have so far been minimal (Mutinda et al., 2010). In Nigeria, low adoption has been linked to a variety of reasons in different locations and agro-ecological zones (Ogada et al., 2014). Farmers' adoption of biodiversity conservation was hampered by the lack of technology in local agro stores, according to a survey conducted by Mutsotso et al. (2011) in Embu and Taita, Nigeria. Mugwe et al. (2009) conducted another research that looked at small-scale farmers' use of soil fertility management strategies. Ogada et al. (2014) found that low adoption of fertilizers and improved maize varieties in the Kiambu, Embu, and Coastal lowlands was due to climatic conditions, high input and labor costs, limited access to extension services, unavailability of inputs in agro shops, gender, and low financial endowments. According to surveys (Jones et al., 2010), better educated and knowledgeable farmers are always at the forefront of new technology uptake. Despite the importance of knowledge in decision-making and innovation adoption, research (Dzanku et al., 2011) reveal that small-scale farmers are frequently cut off from information. Even while knowledge is considered a prerequisite for adoption, it is not sufficient.

Climate change is clearly visible in Kebbi State, with considerable implications on crop and livestock output (GOK, 2010). It has contributed to Kebbi State's high poverty rate. Loss in quality and quantity of natural biodiversity, as well as soil erosion, are important repercussions of climate change, according to the Kebbi State Government. Rainfall patterns have changed, affecting land preparation and agricultural production, resulting in decreased yields (Lukano, 2013). Similarly, temperature fluctuations impair soil moisture retention, causing crop withering and decreased yields, adding to food poverty. The early termination of the protracted rains has resulted in below-average maize and other crop output in the state, according to the State Government. As a result, climate change adaptation is critical. To that end, agricultural production has attracted a number of institutions and/or organizations, all with the goal of improving agricultural efficiency and conditions through a variety of interventions such as farmer capacity building, improved inputs, onfarm demonstration plots of new agricultural technologies, remedial or mitigation measures for degraded soils advocacy, and so on. One Acre Fund, Conservation Agriculture for Sustainable Agriculture for Rural Development (CA SARD), Syngenta, and Kick Start are just a few examples.

1.2 Statement of the Problem
The agriculture industry in Nigeria is experiencing instability due to climate changes. According to the Nigeria Meteorological Department (NMD), rising temperatures and rainfall may cause broad regions that were previously good for agriculture to become unsuitable. This is due to growing rates of emerging crop diseases such as Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease and frequent floods (MLND). Small-scale farmers frequently lack understanding of existing and emerging solutions for adapting their agricultural systems to climate change. They also have limited resources and risk-taking capabilities when it comes to technology and financial services (FAO, IFAD, & UNICEF, 2020). This is due to the fact that the majority of the planned CSA methods have aided farmers in coping with the consequences of climate change rather than adapting to them. Other farmers have not embraced similar approaches owing to site-specific social, economic, and institutional considerations.

Several research in the field of climate smart agriculture, such as Amin, Mubeen, Hammad, and Jatoi (2021), focused on climate smart agriculture for long-term food security. McCarthy, Lipper, and Branca (2011) focused their research on climate smart agriculture on the impact of institutions in improving CSAs. Crouch, Lapidus, Beach, Birur, Moussavi, and Turner (2017) emphasized on the function of economic modeling as a policy to boost CSA in their study on establishing Climate-Smart Agriculture Policies. A modest in-depth research on the adoption of climate smart agriculture among smallholder farmers is now underway. This study intended to determine the factors influencing the adoption of CSA practices among smallholder farmers in Kebbi State.

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Ogun State Agricultural Development Programme works to achieve a food secure and prosperous Africa through the promotion of rapid, sustainable agricultural growth based mechanisms on smallholder farmers. In implementation of its vision, OGADEP has faced a multitude of challenges in empowering the community. The purpose of this research study was therefore to determine influence of training of extension personnel on farm productivity. The population under study was OGADEPs‘ extension personnel and the extension support staff, Ogun State who were 38 in total. This was a descriptive study in nature and it worked to find out the influence of training on farm productivity. A questionnaire was used as the main tool of data collection. The research was essentially qualitative and the researcher administered questionnaires. Interviews were used as well. The quantitative data will be analyzed using SPSS version 18. On the other hand, the qualitative data was organized in an on going process according to the themes, sub-themes, categories and sub-categories and presented in narrative forms. This study found that training of extension personnel affects farm productivity. The study further revealed that mode of training of extension personnel affects farms productivity to a great extent (81.1%). The mode of training mostly used to train extension personnel in training sessions was participation followed by paternalism and persuasion. On the influences of the level of training of extension personnel on farms productivity, the study concludes that the level of education affects farms productivity to a great extent. This study therefore recommends that OGADEP should increase the frequency of training of the extension personnel so as to equip them with information useful to the farmers which can subsequently lead to increase in farm productivity.

The study also recommends that extension personnel should also seek more information from agricultural extension programs through their websites, that OGADEP should recruit qualified extension personnel and that further research studies should be carried out, in the area of challenges facing agricultural extension personnel in Nigeria.

• Background of the Study
According to the World Bank (2006), three out of every four poor people in developing countries live in rural areas – 2.1 billion living on less than $2 a day and 880 million on less than $1 a day - and most of them depend directly or indirectly on agriculture for their livelihoods. In much of Sub-Sahara Africa, agriculture is a strong option for spurring growth, overcoming poverty, and enhancing food security. This means that agricultural productivity growth is vital for stimulating growth in other parts of the economy. However, Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) currently faces a serious challenge of producing enough food for its rapidly growing population (Dr Namanga - OGADEP, 2010). Agricultural productivity growth and rural development is core to changing this dire prediction, as these would improve food supply, benefiting farmers who are food net sellers, as well as benefiting consumers who are food net buyers (Dr Adesina - OGADEP, 2010).

In Nigeria, it is not strange to find a woman bent under the sun, weeding maize in an arid field with a hoe and a child strapped on her back –this is a vivid image of rural poverty. For her large family and millions like her, the meager bounty of subsistence farming is the only chance to survive. While the worlds of agriculture are vast, varied, and rapidly changing, with the right policies and supportive investment at local, national, and global levels, today‘s agriculture offers new opportunities to hundreds of millions of rural poor to move out of poverty (World Bank, 2008). Agriculture is a vital development tool for achieving the Millennium Development Goal that calls for halving by 2015 the share of people suffering from extreme poverty and hunger (UN, 2000).

Evidence suggests that a viable extension system is critical to raising the productivity of the staple food crops and offers the best opportunity for lifting millions of people out of poverty (Evenson, 2001; Gautam, 1999).

Agricultural extension personnel are men and women who assist farmers by helping them identify and analyze their agricultural production problems and become aware of the opportunities for improvement (Picciotto, 1997). The birth of the modern extension service has been attributed to events that took place in Ireland in the middle of the 19th century. Between the years 1845–51 the Irish potato crop was destroyed by fungal diseases and a severe famine occurred. As a result, the British Government arranged for "practical instructors" to travel to rural areas and teach small scale farmers how to cultivate alternative crops. This scheme attracted the attention of government officials in Germany, who organized their own system of traveling instructors. By the end of the 19th century, the idea had spread to the rest of the world and is extensively being used in the present day world (Nahdy, 2003). In Nigeria, the agricultural extension dates back in 1900s, but its only notable success was in the dissemination of hybrid maize technology in the late 1960s and early 1970s. The goal was to develop a cadre of well-informed, village-level extension personnel who would visit farmers frequently and regularly to provide relevant technical messages, and bring farmers‘ problems to the attention of researchers (Gautam, 1999).

Experiences and lessons documented in the World Development Report (WDR, 2008) indicate that an organized extension system capable of catalyzing uptake of technologies adapted to Africa‘s diverse agro-ecological conditions, and supported by institutionally enabling environment is critical to achieving a uniquely African green revolution. One example of these organizations is OGADEP. OGADEP works to achieve a food secure and prosperous Africa through the promotion of rapid, sustainable agricultural growth based on smallholder farmers. Smallholders--the majority women--produce most of Africa's food, and do so with minimal resources and little government support. OGADEP‘s aims to ensure that these smallholders have what they need to succeed: good seeds and healthy soils; access to markets, information, financing, storage and transport; and policies that provide them with comprehensive support. Through developing Africa's high-potential breadbasket areas, while also boosting farm productivity across more challenging environments, OGADEP works to transform smallholder agriculture to be highly productive, efficient, sustainable and competitive system, and do so while protecting the environment (Nahdy, 2003).

Although extension programmes have many different goals, most of them fall into one of two basic categories which include systems of communication that aim to change the behavior of rural people and systems of communication that aim to change the knowledge of rural people (MAAIF 2000). A close relationship between knowledge and behavior is thought to exist and hence changes in the former often lead to a change in the latter. If farmers and other rural people direct the extension towards their own needs, then the purpose of extension is changing knowledge. This knowledge helps rural people make their own decisions regarding farming practices. This approach to extension is closely related to non-formal education and concretization (MAAIF 2000). One such methodology of communication is training. This study aims to establish whether training of the extension has any impact on the farming productivity.

• Statement of the Problem
Many government pro-poor objectives fail to be met due to inadequate extension strategies to interface between technical service providers and the implementing community. The mandate of OGADEP is therefore to enable poor and vulnerable communities to create hybrid and sustainable food crops. In order to achieve set out targets, the community extension personnel are charged with a responsibility to pass on scientifically tested, approved knowledge to the farmers. According to Ols, (1995), this initiative has been faced by a myriad of challenges that range from poor training opportunities offered to the community extension personnel. Constant advancement in technology and scientific discoveries has also meant that prior training is always rendered redundant and farm productivity is therefore adversely affected by the level of training of extension personnel, the mode of training used and the type of training offered. Therefore, this study seeks to investigate if the training of extension personnel has any influence farming productivity.

• Research Objectives
The general objective of this study was to establish training needs among agricultural extension personnel. This was guided by the following specific objectives:

• To determine the extent to which training of extension personnel influences farm productivity in Ogun State.

• To determine the extent to which the mode of training employed in training extension personnel has influences farming productivity in Ogun State.

• To determine the extent to which, the level of training of extension personnel influences farm productivity in Ogun State.

• Research Questions
To help the researcher achieve the above objectives, the following research questions were used:

• How does training of extension personnel affect farm productivity in Ogun State?

• To what extent does the mode of training employed in training extension personnel influence farm productivity in Ogun State?

• How does the level of training of extension personnel influence farm productivity in Ogun State?

• Significance of the Study
The finding of this study if found to be positive, shall be of great importance to the programme managers in coming up with practical ways in which OGADEP can adopt to enhance farm productivity. Moreover, the study finding will help the extension personnel by enabling them understand the various training options and communicating with their supervisors on their training needs. Further, the study findings provided more insight to the field of research especially in the field of human resource management. Finally, the study finding was expected to enable the government, policy-makers, project managers and researchers direct the topics addressed in training and projects undertaken on purpose of extension to not only change behavior but also enhance productivity.

• Scope of the Study
The study targeted OGADEP which is an NGO and works to achieve a food secure and prosperous Africa through the promotion of rapid, sustainable agricultural growth based on smallholder farmers. However, the study focused on Abeokuta LGA, Ogun State. All the stakeholders ranging from OGADEP top management, the farmers and extension personnel were included in the study. The study also involved the human resource department who gave an insight on what procedures they use to decide the training materials.

• Limitations of the Study
This study anticipated some challenges which ranged from the mode of data collection. A questionnaire was essentially used as the primary data collection tool. This brings about a challenge since the research had to rely on self-reporting of the sample population. The self-reporting would result in inaccurate data because the respondents may give society desirable responses instead of the true scenario. Personal interviews were also employed alongside the questionnaire to triangulate the survey findings. Availing documents particularly dealing with the training and farm productivity was a big challenge. However, good interpersonal approach during the face to face encounter with the respondents and emphasis on the value of the study impressed upon them to respond objectively.

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