Welcome to ProjectReserve.com

Best Online Research Platform since 2015 with Thousands of Final Year Project Topics & Complete Project Materials (i.e Chapter 1-5):: Tel: +2348066484965, Email: admin@projectreserve.com
  • Check Topics by Department

    • Click here to start Downloading Free Project Topics and Materials in Various Departments at all Levels of Study
  • Testimonies

    • Like to check on our goodwill? Click here to see what our clients have to say about our services Read More
  • Hire a Writer

    • We write on Research Project, Term Paper, Research Proposal, Assignment, Essay, etc in no-time. See details here!
  • Contact Us

    • Need to reach us directly on Phone, Mail or WhatsApp? Our Support Service is online 24/7, Click here to get in touch now!

APPLICATION OF NATURAL COAGULANT (BANANA PEEL) FOR WASTEWATER TREATMENT

ABSTRACT 
Coagulation is an effective, simple and widely practiced water treatment method. However, the usage of chemical coagulant pose detrimental effect on living organism and human health as well as producing large amount of toxic sludge. This study describes the utilization of banana peel as a natural coagulant for the treatment of household wastewater. The natural coagulant extracted from banana peel was prepared by using simple extraction method. wastewater was used in this study to imitate the medium strength household wastewater. The parameters investigated in this study were pH of wastewater, coagulant dosage, and solvent of extraction. The application of the natural coagulant was evaluated based on the reduction of turbidity during the treatment process. The treatment of wastewater using banana peel coagulant was found to be the most effective at pH 1 and dosage of 100 mg/l whereas the most effective solvent to extract this type of fruit waste is sodium hydroxide (NaOH). In present work, it can be concluded that the banana peel coagulant was highly feasible in removing turbidity of the wastewater with removal efficiency of 88% under optimum condition 

CHAPTER ONE 
INTRODUCTION 
1.1 Background information 
Water is one of the key factors for economic development worldwide as it is widely used in different productive sectors including industry, agricultural production, livestock and urban supply. The fastpaced industrialization, economic growth and population growth in developing countries has implicated in unpredicted water requirement in cities. In the last few decades, the water used capacity and wastewater production in domestic sectors has increased remarkably [1]. Wastewater treatment is a crucial process in sanitation system. Effective municipal wastewater resource treatment and contamination control are necessary to ensure compliance to environment compliance and reutilization of resources. 

Amongst the wide range of existing methods accessible for wastewater treatment, coagulation and flocculation process is the most preferable. This treatment is commonly being practiced as it is cost effective, reliable, simple and best regarded as low-energy consuming process [2]. This established physical-chemical process removes colloidal, suspended and soluble particles efficiently by prompting aggregation of macro and micro particles into larger size proceeded by sedimentation [2]. In conventional treatment processes, various types of coagulants are often used depending on chemical traits of the contaminants present in the wastewater. The inorganic and organic polymer coagulants include alum, ferric chloride, calcium carbonate as well as polyaluminium chloride were generally used in the wastewater treatment [3]. Despite that, such treatment leads to disposal problems as the sludge obtained after the treatment using aluminium salts risks accumulation in the environment [4]. At the same time, organic polymers like acrylamide possess carcinogenic and neurotoxic effects [5]. The alternative solution to these problems is replacement of metal and coagulants with natural coagulants which are more environmental friendly. 

1.3 Problem statement and justification 
Pollution of water sources due to dumping of untreated wastewater and chemical wastes directly into rivers, lakes and drains has been of great concern over the last few decades (Feng and Guo, 2012). Unlike organic wastes, heavy metals are non-biodegradable and they can be accumulated in living tissues, causing various diseases and disorders such as cancer; therefore the need for their removal before discharge (Liang et al., 2009). Decontamination of toxic pollutants from water poses a challenging problem, and therefore a wide range of approaches have been explored for their removal (Jaramillo et al., 2009). Bio-adsorption has shown promising results in removal of toxic ions from water (Babel and Kurniawan, 2002). 

The adsorption properties of biological waste materials such as peat, wood, pine bark among others leaves have been mainly reported for carbonized samples (Pino et al., 2006). Activated carbon which is widely used adsorbent in treatment of wastewater is not affordable and there is need for alternative cheaper methods (Babel and Kurniawan, 2002). 

The search for low cost and easily available adsorbents has led to investigation of agricultural waste materials as potential adsorbents (Hossain et al., 2012). Cactus mucilage from cactus a plant that can thrive in extremely dry environments have been found to possess the ability to remove turbidity, heavy metals and bacteria from contaminated water. However, no work has been reported on its dry mass and derivatives (Mane et al., 2011). 

Therefore, this study sought to investigate the application of Banana peel Coagulant and its combusted products on removal of colour, turbidity and selected heavy metals from contaminated water. This is expected not only develop cheaper materials for water treatment but also use natural coagulants that are locally available, abundant and inexhaustible to provide a solution to the need for clean water in the rural communities. 

1.4 Objectives 
1.4.1 General objective 
The general objective was to investigate adsorption capacity and application of Banana peel Coagulant and its combusted products in removal of colour, turbidity and selected metal ions (Cd2+ and Pb2+) from contaminated water. 

1.4.2 Specific objectives 
i. to investigate the application of banana peel as a potential coagulant to reduce turbidity of wastewater by varying different pH of wastewater, dosage of coagulant and types of solvents for extraction. 

ii. To conduct the standard jar test for determining the performance of extracted banana peel with respect to its coagulation activity 

1.6 Significance of the study 
The purpose of this study was to develop an alternative and cheaper natural coagulant of cleaning contaminated water using locally available materials Banana peel.

For more Water Resources & Environmental Engineering Projects Click here
==================================================================
Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 33 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
==================================================================

Share:

E TOURISM IN NIGERIA: AN EXAMINANTION OF INTERNET AS A TOOL FOR TOURISM MARKETING IN THE COUNTRY

ABSTRACT 
The study was an assessment of the e-tourism in Nigeria with focus on examining internet as a tool for tourism marketing in the country. The study sought to determine the significant relationship between website and tourism product awareness; and also evaluate the extent social media marketing affect the level of patronage of tourism products in Cross River State. The area of study was Cross River State, while the study frame were tourism stakeholders, tourism managers/staff and both local and international tourists found in the twelve (12) tourism destinations selected for this study. The sample size of the study was 120 and primary data were obtained using a structured questionnaire. The instrument was content-validated, while the Cronbach Alpha coefficient was used to confirm the reliability. Data analysis was done electronically by the use of Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 21. Among the findings were that the website marketing did not have any significant relationship on the level of awareness of tourism products in Cross River State. Also, social media marketing did not significantly affect the level of patronage of tourism products in Cross River State. It is then recommended that the website and other internet tools should be efficiently handled preferably by experts to generate and maintain interest and level of patronage of Cross River State’s tourism products. 

CHAPTER ONE 
INTRODUCTION 
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY 
Tourism is a rapidly growing phenomenon and has become one of the largest industries in the world. The impact of tourism varies extremely. On one hand, it plays an important and certainly positive role in the socio economic and political development in destination countries by, for instance, offering new employment opportunities. Also, in certain instances, it may contribute to a broader cultural and understanding by creating awareness, respecting the diversity of cultures and ways of life. On the other hand, it is a tool to create jobs. Tourism has been a major driver of socio-economic development in Western society; it is an alternative strategy for sustainability and diversification of economy for important policy of a good government. 

In recent times, tourism is one of the largest industries that have contributed to the socio-economic growth of many countries especially countries where tourism is the mainstay of her economy, World Tourism Organization (WTO, 1998; cited in Ejaetal, 2012 and Ojo, 2014). Despite the fact that that industry is a vehicle for promoting cultural exchange that enhances international understanding and goodwill among the diverse peoples of the world, it is also a catalyst for enhancing many country destination employment opportunities, foreign exchange and infrastructural facilities (ESCAP, 2002; cited in Ejaetal, 2012). 

Tourism is a viable factor in the World economy. The rise of travel and tourism has shown significant resilience globally. Despite slow economic growth in advanced economies and geopolitical tensions in some regions, the Travel and Tourism sector still accounts for a large part of the global economy (estimated to be approximately 9% of global GDP or US$ 7 trillion) and employment, while the number of international travellers continue to increase. According to the World Travel & Tourism Council (WTTC, 2015), the travel & tourism sector is forecast to continue growing at 4% annually—faster than financial services, transport and manufacturing (Crotti and Misrahi, 2015). Meke (2008) notes that over the past six decades, tourism has witnessed progressive growth and diversification which has made it one of the leading, largest and fastest growing economic sectors of the world. For instance, in 2012, tourists from China spent $102 billion (U.S.) on international travel. According to the UN World Tourism Organization, this figure for the first time ranks China top among spenders in international tourism—ahead of Germany and the United States. International tourists from each of these two countries spent about $84 billion (U.S.) (Awake!, 2014). 

In Nigeria, Tourism has significantly contributed to the nation’s development in various ways such as generation of employment opportunities, enhanced brand image, income generation and solving the problem of balance of payment deficit, boosting Gross Domestic Products and increasing the nation’s per capita income (Egbaji, 2007). The World Development Indicators (2002) cited in Esu, Arrey, Basil and Eyo (2011) reports that Nigeria tourism demand growth will be $3.30 million (U.S.), accounting for 7.70 percent of the world market share and its contribution to job creation, projected at 6.40 percent in the national economy per annum between 2006 and 2015. However, according to the Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Report (2015), the World Economic Forum Opinion Survey rates the effectiveness of Nigeria’s marketing to attract tourists at 3.3 out of a 7-point scale (1 being the worst score and 7 being the best score). It is also important to note that Nigeria is ranked 141th position in the Travel and Tourism Competitiveness Index. Hence, it is obvious that in as much as tourism has assumed an increasing growth potential and is important in the sociocultural and economic development of Nigeria, there is need for improvement of the effectiveness of tourism marketing in the nation. 

Nigeria, the giant of Africa, has enormous tourism potentials and marketable tourism products ranging from diverse species of wildlife and aquatic creatures, appealing sandy beaches, beautiful green vegetation of her mangrove forest, unique cultural dynamics, beautiful hotels and restaurants, enticing parks and very friendly and hospitable people (Egbaji, 2007). Most of these inexhaustible tourism products can be found across the three senatorial districts which comprise of the eighteen local governments in Cross River State. Little wonder it is referred to as the ‘Tourism Hub of the Nation’. The state’s tourism products consist of wildlife species, mountain climate, alluring hills, fascinating waterfalls, beautiful parks, rich cultural heritage, welcoming hotels, appetizing dishes, Africa’s biggest street party- Calabar Carnival, the list is endless as some of these sites are yet to be discovered. 

For a state like Cross River full of natural and inexhaustible tourism resources yet with limited industrial capability, it is undeniable that tourism remains a very important source of internally generated revenue (Egbaji, 2007). This gives indication that the tourism products of Cross River State would require effective and sustainable marketing strategy to boost its sales and consumption. It is to this end that this study is poised to assess the internet as a tool for tourism marketing in Cross River State. 

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 
Although tourism plays an important role in the economy of some countries, tourism in Africa continent is yet to reach its full economic maturity (Nwosu, 2002). It has been observed that tourism in Nigeria still suffers from neglect because the local, state and federal governments of Nigeria are still indifferent to tourism development despite the preferred status accorded the accorded the sector (Edun, 2009). Based on this, Nigeria as a country has several potentials that have not been given attention.However, the State’s tourism potential has been underdeveloped as there are a relatively large number of sites which have not been visited due to inadequate or lack of promotion, as such, these sites are not generating sufficient revenue for the state. In as much as the products, price and distribution are in order, the promotional strategies pose a challenge, hence, the need for the appraisal of a promotional strategy whose reach extends to the international or global community, and that is internet marketing. 

Research Objectives 
The broad objective sought was to assess the extent internet could serve as a strategic tool for tourism marketing in Cross River State, Nigeria. The specific objectives were: 

i. To determine the impact of website in promoting tourism products awareness in Cross River State. 

ii. To ascertain the relationship between social media marketing and the level of tourism products patronage in Cross River State. 
Research Hypotheses 

The following null-hypotheses were tested: 

i. Ho: Website marketing has no significant impact in promoting tourism product awareness in Cross River State, Nigeria. 

ii. Ho: There is no significant relationship between social media marketing and level of patronage of tourism products in Cross River State, Nigeria. 

Significance of the Study 
This study will be of immense benefit to all the stakeholders of tourism development in Cross 

River State and Nigeria at large. It will help the Tourism Development Commission, the Tourism Bureau and the government of Cross River State to effectively strategize on the use of the internet to increase the state tourism market reach, enhance communication with existing and potential customers, provide accessible information and develop the state tourism brand image, thus, rejuvenating Cross River’s tourism growth potentials and increase its contribution to the economy. 

Scope of the Study 
The study encompassed the overview of tourism, the tourism potential of Cross River State, tourism products, internet marketing, social media tools, customers’ patronage of tourism products, tourism product awareness and the implications on tourism business in general. The study frame consisted of local and international tourists as well as management, staff and indigenes of select destinations in Cross River State, Nigeria. 

LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview). 

Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

For more Tourism Projects Click here
==================================================================
Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 31 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
==================================================================

Share:

CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF EXTRA MARITAL AFFAIRS; A STUDY OF AKU IN IGBO ETITI LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ENUGU STATE

ABSTRACT 
Every society has its norms and values about sex in marital relationship. Extra marital affair in marriage is a social issue various society, religion, and age frown at. Married women are known to be chaste and faithful to their marital vows. This practice is gradually waning. This study examined the causes and effects of extra marital affair among married women in Aku in Igbo etiti local government area, Enugu State. The stated research questions formed the basis for data analysis. The data were collated and analyzed using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) software version 20. 

The findings, among other things, show that majority of the respondents were aware that married women engage in extra marital affair. 77.6% agreed to sexual extra marital affair as the most common form of extra marital affair, and 28.5% agreed to economic support as the major reasons why women engage in extra marital affair through. Religious opposition and customs were found to have a significant influence on the attitude towards extra marital affair in Aku in Igbo etiti local government area. The researcher therefore suggests a need to educate the people on the health challenges and other problems associated with extra marital affair. 

CHAPTER ONE 
INTRODUCTION 
1.1 Background of the Study 
Marriage is one of the oldest institutions associated with human society. It is one that has repeatedly been emphasized in every society and constitutes the yardstick for the determination of responsibility in the families. Ofoegbu (2002) defined marriage as an arrangement of social structure which results in the establishment of a relationship of a legal customary or religious bond between a man and his wife for the propagation of the family root through procreation and sharing of various types of other acceptable relationship norms. Marriage of some kind is found virtually in every society. But throughout the centuries, marriage has taken many different forms. Understanding of marriage contrasts greatly from culture to culture, some view the institution as endogamous (men were required to marry within their social group, family, clan or tribe), exogamous (marrying outside the geographical region or social group) or polygamous (allowing people (both men and women) to take more than one partner. 

Denga (1990) as cited in Yahaya, Esere, Ogunsanmi&Onye (2008) states that marriage is a partnership contract without escape clauses because it connotes a lifelong arrangement where the couple should permanently survive a multitude of demanding situations such as illness, financial constraints and so on. At any given time in human history, a family comes into existence each time a marriage is successfully contracted. The family is the most important primary group and the smallest social unit in any particular society. Family setting is universal because the human society exists or has existed with some form of family organization. Akubue&Okolo, (2008) referred to family as any group of people who interact and communicate with each other such as husband, wife and children in organizational settings. In the Nigeria context, because of the phenomenon of the extended family system, the family is made up of married people, their off springs and immediate kith and kin and other dependents (Onwuasonya, 2006). 

From creation, every society has its traditional practices such as loving one’s spouse, having sex only with ones partner among others, which are pronounced during marriage ceremonies are expected of couples to boost the image and self-esteem of their partners. Some partners deviate from these norms and exhibit it outside their marital homes. This has been a source of marital dispute and instability among couples. The negative outcome of this often times impacts the children psychologically and socially (Fernando, 2013). Contemporary society is bedeviled with marital problems which are not in accordance with the standards, norms and values of traditional society. 

Marital fidelity has been known not only to keep a family together but also a generation of individuals that respect the sanctity of marriage. People get married with fidelity in mind but extra marital affair has always been documented to affect almost 80% of marriage around the world. Extra marital affair in marriage is a social issue various society, religion and age frown at, and as a result stringent measures are placed to curtail this act. In some societies, the penalty could be as stiff as death. However, extra marital affair strives leaving the people to wonder why it has taken a form of legacy passed from one generation to the other. (Ejaifo, 2012). 

Extra marital affair in marriage is gradually becoming a norm. Female extra marital affair is the new trend because extra marital sex by men is socially tolerated and in many respects, even socially rewarded. The prevalence of married men’s participation in extra marital sex in Nigeria is well documented (Karanja, 1987; Onusuloye, Caldwell& Caldwell, 1997; Lawoyin& Larsen, 2002; Mitsunaga, Powell, Antonia, Heard, Nathan, Larsen., 2005). A report out of the Kinsey Institute at Indiana University found that for the first time in modern history, women are cheating at nearly the same rate as men. Another study, published in the National Opinion Research center’s 2013 General Social Survey, found that while the percentage of men who admitted to extra marital affair has held constant over the last two decades, the percentage of wives who reported having affairs rose almost 40 percent. 

Before the advent of civilization, married women, no matter the conditions they found themselves never became promiscuous; they remained chaste and faithful to their vows. Cheating among Nigerian women is the new trend, which is abstract and very different to what was in existence two decades ago, when women were faithful, patient and more tolerating (Ejaifo, 2012). 

Against this background, this study is aimed at investigating the causes of extra marital affair among women in Aku in Igbo etiti Local Government Area of Enugu State. 

1.2 Statement of the Problem 
Extra marital affair among women which was a rare phenomenon has apparently become common place today in the Nigerian society. According to a new report by Durex, a condom manufacturing company in 2012, Nigerian women are ranked the most unfaithful in the world with 62 percent. 

Extra marital affairimpacts strongly on the functionality and stability of relationship (Drigotas, Safstrom, &Gontlia, 1999; Whisman, Dixon & Johnson, 1997). 

John Kester, a sociologist at the University of Lagos reports that extra marital affair not only hurts the relationship but has an adverse impact on family life, particularly if children are involved. When a mother is having an affair there is a different reaction in children, this is because the mother is still most often considered the focus of the family and of course when the child learns of an affair, he or she is in danger of testing confidence in the inability of marriage and family. 

Research on extra marital affair shows that it leads to marital strife leading to divorce, wife battering, prostitution in urban areas, children born of different fathers and the spread of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) (National Aids Control Council (NACC), 2007). Extra marital affair has been associated with increased risk of mental health problems, including depression and anxiety (Cano& O’ Leary, 2000). 

Extra marital affair by impacts negatively on the development in any given area due to its effect on people involved. Resources that are made for the development of the family are deviated to cater for extra-marital affairs and the treatment of HIV/AIDS (Kenya Forum, 2013). Extra marital affair by women could also enhance the spread of sexually transmitted disease (STD) such as gonorrhea, Chlamydia, syphilis, and many others. Reproductive health of the women are most times usually affected, thus resulting to loss of lives by the women or mothers, thereby making their children become orphans, or even school dropouts, thus becoming touts and juvenile deliquents. 

Despite its negative effects on the health of their family members and the society at large,it is worrisome to observe that married women still indulge in extramarital affairs. What could be behind this rise? Could it be that married women are lacking some fundamental needs in family relationship which they seek to satisfy from external sources? 

It is in view of these concerns that this study is being carried out to find out the causes and effects of extra marital affair by women in Aku in Igbo etiti Local Government Area of Enugu State. 

1.3 Research Questions 
The following research questions were put forward to guide the study: 

1. What are the patterns of extra marital affair among married women in Aku in Igbo etiti L.G.A. of Enugu state? 

2. What are the causes ofextra marital affair among married women in Aku in Igbo etiti L. G. A. of Enugu State? 

3. What are the effects ofextra marital affair among married women in Aku in Igbo etiti L. G. A. of Enugu State? 

4. What strategies can be put in place to reduce or address the prevalence of extra marital affair among women in Aku in Igbo etiti L.G.A, of Enugu State? 

1.4 Objectives of the Study 
The main objective of the study was to ascertain the causes and effects of extra marital affair among women in Aku in Igbo etiti L. G. A.of Enugu State. 

The specific objectives of the study were as follows: 

1. To find out the patterns of extra marital affair among married women in Aku in Igbo etiti L. G. A, of Enugu State. 

2. To ascertain the causes ofextra marital affair among married women in Aku in Igbo etiti L. G. A, of Enugu State. 

3. To investigate the effects ofextra marital affair among married women in Aku in Igbo etiti L. G. A of Enugu State. 

4. To proffer plausible solutions/strategies that will help curtail the prevalence of extra marital affair among women in Aku in Igbo etiti L. G. A, of Enugu State. 

1.5 Research Hypotheses 
The following research hypotheses are raised for the study; 

1. HI: Women who marry early are more likely to engage in marital 

extra marital affair than women who did not marry early. 

2. HI: Women who engage in distant relationship are more likely to engage in extra marital affair than who did not. 

1.6 Significance of the Study 
This study has both practical and theoretical significance. 

Practically, the study will help to resuscitate marriage and improve marriage relationship by helping married people to keep to their marital vows and have healthy spousal relationships. It will help to create societal awareness on the damages and harm of extra marital affair, if not properly curbed. 

Theoretically, the findings will give first-hand information to religious leaders, marriage counselors, women organizations on the causes and effects of extra marital affair among women, with a view to give proper counseling to spouses either before or during the marriage sessions. With the knowledge, the curriculum planners would include issues that bother on family and procreation into subjects like, Sociology, Civic Education, Sexuality Education and Social Studies. Findings of the study will also add to existing knowledge and literature that have addressed the issue of extra marital affair among married women in Aku in Igbo etiti Local Government Area, Enugu State and Nigeria at large. 

1.7 Scope of the Study 
The scope of the research was limited to women who are legally married and persons residing in Aku in Igbo etiti Local Government Area of Enugu State. 

1.8 Definition of terms 
Attitude: It refers to the way we think or view someone or something. 

Couple: This refers to two people who are married, are living together or having an intimate relationship, as socially approved. 

Divorce: It is the legal ending of marriage between couples so that husband and wife are free to remarry again. 

Early marriage: Early marriage is a marriage that occurs before a person reaches the age of consent (18 years). It is also known as child marriage. 

Gender: It refers to culturally and historically specific concepts of femininity and masculinity. It reflects the power relations between men and women; social construction of sex roles between men and women. 

Extra marital affair: It is referred to as cheating or adultery when married. It is a violation of a couple’s assumed or stated contract regarding emotional and or sexual exclusivity. 

Marriage: In the context of this study, marriage can be seen as the legalizing of a special relationship between a man and a woman to which the society gives its approval. It places each partner under legal and social obligations to the other and to the society. 

Pattern: A particular way in which something is done, or been organized or happens. 

Prevalence: It is a term which means being widespread. It tells us about the number of particular events in the community. Socio-Economic Factors: These are conditions that necessitate and sustain the status of individuals in family and community in terms of formal education, occupation, income, health and cultural freedom.

For more Sociology Projects Click here
==================================================================
Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 59 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
==================================================================

Share:

PRODUCTION OF BAR SOAP

ABSTRACT 
The Production of Bar Soap is aimed at producing a cleansing agent which is capable of removing stains or dirt in man and his environment so as to reduce the population size of pathogenic micro-organisms. Soaps are salts of fatty acids. It is obtained by treating oils and fats with a strong alkaline solution. This brings about a chemical reaction called saponification, which is the mixture of alkali with fats to form crude soap. A mixture of the strong alkali solution (caustic soda) and water was poured into a bowl containing oil which stirred continuously until saponification occurred in the mixture. Then, other necessary ingredients were added to the mixture and was stirred to ensure thorough mixing of the solution. The mixture was poured into a mould and was allowed to cool and solidify. It was removed from the mould after solidification and was cut in bars. The product served the specific function of cleansing as it can be used domestically, industrially and otherwise to proffer hygiene good health and long lasting of objects. 

CHAPTER ONE 
1.0 INTRODUCTION 
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE SUBJECT MATTER 
Soap has been a product with over a 5000 years history. It has remained an essential ingredient in modern living. It is used daily for medicinal and for laundry purposes; for household cleansing and for personal hygiene. There is an ongoing demand for bar soap as a cleaning agent despite the rolls made by modern detergents and soap powders (Barthelemy, 1883). 

Industrial manufactured bar soaps first became available in the late eighteenth century. This happened when advertising campaigns in Europe and the United States, promoted popular awareness of the relationship between cleanliness and health. Until recently, the production of bar soap remained a primitive art, its manufacture being essentially the treatment of fat with alkali, a chemical process which is the same whether the production is done in a backyard or in a factory. The simplicity of the process of production of soap has led to is world wide practice as a small business operation.Due to largely and very aggressive marketing and advertising of synthetic detergents by their manufactures and distributor in the face of zero efforts by the bar soap productive, the use of bar soap were neglected and its relevance in household cleansing or industrial cleansing was abandoned. The use of synthetic detergents has been increasing daily both in domestic and commercial utilization largely because of heavy national and international advertising. But soap still remains a viable cleansing product and can make a comeback in popularity if its benefit and advantages are marketed properly. Soap can still be viable particularly if significantly added value is placed, on its manufacture in terms of adding performs etc to the soap and to it more desirable for utilization (Thomas 1922) 

In modern times, the use of soap has become, universal in industrialized nations due to a better understanding of the role of hygiene in reducing the population size of pathogenic micro-organisms in the environment. Because of the awareness created on the relationship between cleanliness and health, there is a steady demand of soap for domestic washing and cleansing and from industrial sector for washing up activities in plants and machines (Robinson, 1904). 

Since the production of soap is cheap and can be produced anywhere, it will be possible to easily achieve a sufficiently high economy of scale. The production of toilet soap is also a distinct possibility as it is merely an exiting of bar soap whereby the water content is reduced from about 28% to 10% and perfume is added. Once the bar soap market is established, then a whole spectrum, of soap products is available though it will require additional and different machinery (Robinson, 1904). 

1.2 AIMS OF THE STUDY 
The basic aim of this project is to produce a soap in bars which can be used in household (domestic washing and cleansing) and also in industries for washing of factory tools and machines. It aims at producing a soap which is capable of removing stains and dirt so as to ensure a neat and healthy environment. 

1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 
The study on the production of the bar soap is significant in homes, offices industries etc it is used in the washing off of dirt from our cloths, dishes, equipments etc. to ensure neatness and proper cleansing. 

The significant of this study tends to connect the relationship that has to do with cleanliness and health. It tend to provide good health to people by ensuring a well and thorough cleaning of household materials, industrial facilities and equipment as well as cleaning the entire surroundings to ensure good health. 

1.4 PURPOSE OF STUDY 
This research is designed to examine the methods used in the production of bar soap, its economic importance and its capacity to be utilized both domestically and industrially. 

1.5 LIMITATION OF STUDY
The cost and acquisition of materials were major factors that affected this research project adversely. Also, time constraint poised a significant limitation during the execution of this study.

For more Science Laboratory Technology Projects Click here
==================================================================
Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 45 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
==================================================================

Share:

TEACHER'S ACADEMIC QUALIFICATION AND EFFECT ON THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF MATHEMATICS STUDENTS IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL, ABA-NORTH LGA, ABIA STATE

ABSTRACT 
The purpose of this study was to establish the effect of teacher’s qualification and academic achievement of students in mathemtics. The study was conducted in Aba-North, Abia state in Nigeria. The target population was comprised of the head teachers of the 29 secondary schools in the division, the teachers and students of SS3. The study applied a descriptive research design. A questionnaire and an interview guide techniques were used for data collection. Data was analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. The study revealed that teacher qualification have enormous influence on students’ achievement in mathematics. The teachers’ attitude on students, the demographic characteristics of teachers and their qualification had a significant influence on students’ academic achievements. The researcher therefore recommends immediate measures taken on reducing teacher - student ratio so as to enable individual education programmes taken on learners, device away of monitoring and evaluating the curriculum implementation in schools to ensure complete syllabus coverage is done. Further research can be done so as to establish the extent of influence of other education factors such as gender, social-economical effects, environmental and peerpressure. 

CHAPTER ONE 
INTRODUCTION 
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY 
Mathematics is defined as the way of reasoning that promotes the habit of accuracy, logical systematic and orderly arrangement. Mathematics also provides us with powerful theoretical and computational techniques to advance our understanding of modern world and societal problems and to develop and manage the technology industries that are the backbones of our economy. 

Quality education is a concern and challenge to all nations of the world. This is due to the rapidly changing technology and job demands that have forced the focus of education to oscillate. Today, we live and work in era dominated by computers, world – wide communication and a global economy. 

A teaching qualification is one of a number of academic and professional degrees that enables a person to become a registered teacher in a secondary or secondary school. Such qualification includes, but is not limited to the Postgraduates Certificate in Education (PGCE), the professional Graduates Diploma in education (PGDE), the Bachelor of Education and National Certificate of Education (NCE). 

Secondary education is the first stage of compulsory education. It is preceded by pre-school or nursery education and is followed by Secondary education. In most countries, it is compulsory for children to receive secondary education although it is permissible for parents to provide it.The major goals of secondary education are achieving basic literacy and numeracy among all students, as well as establishing foundations in science, mathematics, geography, history and other social sciences. 

Typically, secondary education is provided in school where the child will stay in steadily advancing classes until they complete it and move on to high school/secondary school. Children are usually placed in classes with one teacher who will be primarily responsible for their education and welfare for that year.The continuity with a single teacher and the opportunity to build up as close relationship with the opportunity to build up a close relationship with the class is a notable features of the secondary education system. 

In most schools, teaching of mathematics is, handled by those that have only a supplementary training in mathematics e.g. graduates of physics, chemistry, biology, and even economics. The need to improve students’ achievement in mathematics is extremely critical.However; students’ performance in mathematics depends on a complex interplay of factors both within and outside the classroom. These factors range from teacher qualification to the professional development the teachers have received to support their teaching, to student socio-economic backgrounds and to the teaching practices the teachers use to accomplish their professional practice. 

For many years, educators and researchers have debated which school variable influence student achievement (Darling 2000).Ferguson(1991) concluded from his research in Texas,’’Good teachers have distinguishable impacts on students examination scores’’(p.465).Sander (1998) found that the ‘’single factor affecting academic growth of populations of students is differences in effectiveness of individual classroom teachers’’(p.27). 

Examining relationships between teachers certification, college/graduate school year, years of experience and student achievement in mathematics may help teachers and school administrators gain better insights to students performance. According to the Alabama teacher equity plan (2006), well prepared teacher is the critical ingredient in student learning. 

The No child left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001 requires that all teachers in core academic subjects be highly qualified. NLCB stipulates that to be considered highly qualified, teachers must demonstrate that they have sufficient subject – matter knowledge and teaching skills to be effective teachers. Specifically, highly qualified teachers must: - 

1. Have obtained full state certification as a teacher passed the state teacher licensing examination and hold a license to teach. 

2. Have demonstrated subject matter competency in each of the academics subjects he or she teaches, and 

3. Hold a minimum of a bachelor’s degree. Ontario’s Education Minister, Jante Ecker (1999), indicated that governments must require teachers to have sufficient skills and knowledge in order maintain teacher certifications and to provide the highest level of education students. 

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 
The background knowledge of rudiments in mathematics can never be over-emphasized. The instructor (teacher) of mathematics at the lowest level education (secondary school) must be qualified since this stands to be the foundation on which “all” is built. If the foundation is weak, it will be difficult to build on it. The teachers at secondary school level try there best but to no avail. Why? It’s because they’re building on “nothing” and weak foundation. Phobia and negative attitudes towards learning mathematics could be erected right from there depending on the quality of the teacher that first introduced the “innocent” students to the subject. 

This alarming situation and the need to improve students learning and achievement in mathematics in Nigeria point to the need to investigation the effect of teacher’s qualification on the academic performance of students in Mathematics in secondary schools. 

1.3 The Purpose of the Study 
The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of teacher qualification on students’ achievement in mathematics in Aba-North LGA, Abia state, Nigeria. 

1.3.1 Objectives of the Study 
1. To assess how teacher qualification influence students’ achievement in mathematics in Aba-North LGA. 

2. To examine how demographic characteristics of teachers influences the students’ achievement in mathematics in Aba-North LGA. 

3. To establish how teaching experience of the classroom teacher influence student’s achievement in mathematics in Aba-North LGA. 

1.4 Research Questions 
1. How does the teacher’s qualification influence students’ academicperformance? 

2. How does the demographic characteristics of teacher’s influence student’s academic performance? 

3. How does the teaching experience of the classroom teacher influence students’ academic performance? 

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 
The purpose of the study is to determine the relationship between student’s performance and teacher’s qualification and the extent to which they predict student’s achievement in mathematics in Aba-North Local Government Area of Abia State. 

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 
The researcher work will be relying mainly on the information collected from class teachers in some selected secondary schools in Aba-North Local Government. 

1.5 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 
The research work is limited only to Aba-North Local Government area of Abia state. Schools were randomly selected and data collected based on the student performance in Mathematical test, teachers’ qualification, subject major and years of experience. 

1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS 
1. Student academic performance: Refers to the display of knowledge attained or skilled developed in school subject designated by test and examination scores or marks assigned by the subject teacher to the students. This shows a valued judgment placed on various means of evaluation of teaching-learning. 

2. Mathematics: Is a very desirable tool virtually all spheres of human endeavors be it science, engineering, industry, technology, and even the arts it is a key subject in the school curriculum and is considered a knowledge that is indispensable to an educated person 

3. Mathematics Test: This is a criterion test which includes varieties of questions. The questions require students to choose out of four options and individual students are scored into 4 levels. 

4. Teachers’ qualification: - Research shows that mathematics teachers quality is unevenly distributed in schools and students with the greatest needs tend to have access to the least qualified and least effective teachers (Peske and Haycock 2006) 

5. Subject Major: - Area of concentration of individual teacher. Teaching Experience: - Teachers will be categorized according to whether or not they had more than five years of teaching experience mathematics. Peske and Haycock (2006) said that years of experience and educational background are useful indicators for measures of teacher quality. Yet while they are associated with characteristics, they do not guarantee success in student’s academics performance

For more Science Education Projects Click here
==================================================================
Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 55 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
==================================================================

Share:

PROBLEMS OF TEACHING CHEMISTRY IN NIGERIA SECONDARY SCHOOLS (A CASE STUDY OF EGOR LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA IN BENIN)

ABSTRACT 
The study examines problems of teaching Chemistry in secondary school level with reference to secondary schools in Egor L.G.A.. A survey method was used for the study, the population consisted of all the male and female teacher of secondary schools in Egor L.G.A. out of 65 academic staff, 35 were involved in the study. A questionnaire developed by the researchers based on likert 5 –point scale was used for the study mean scores and frequencies were used to analyze the data based on the research questions. Research result show that the prospect of teaching Chemistry lies on the modification and improvement of the traditional lecture method used in teaching. The study also identified negative attitude of students in secondary school level towards learning Chemistry as a problem that affect their ability to learn the subject furthermore, the teaching techniques applicable in teaching Chemistry is secondary school are the traditional lecture method used from time-immemorial, lecture-demonstration technique and cooperative group teaching technique, the problem militating against teaching of Chemistry in secondary school level include unavailability of qualified teachers, teachers lack of competencies, constraint of complex scientific language used in teaching Chemistry in secondary school level, lack of modern laboratory apparatus as well as lack of effective teaching techniques and inconsistency in government policies. 

CHAPTER ONE 
INTRODUCTION 
1.1 Background Of The Study 
The attitude towards Chemistry in secondary schools in Nigeria is unsatisfactory sequel to the wrong perception that the subject is difficult to assimilate, inspite of the benefit student stand to gain by learning Chemistry most student nonchalantly chose to study other subjects in place of physic (Okoh, 2002). Students attitude towards Chemistry to a large extent have an impact on their interest in leaning Chemistry. As such Cupdag (1989) opined that the attitude of students reveals their level of learning toward a particular subject, thus, makes them enthusiastic to learn than those who have unfavorable attitude towards its. In this regard, Cheng (2004), in a study conducted regarding students learning in Chemistry, found out that in the student’s evaluation, consistent with their notion that Chemistry is complex to learn have unfavorable attitude towards learning it. This also have a negative consequence on teaching the subject, because the negative perception of students becomes a barrier to teaching. 

Furthermore, Edward (2006) asserts that research in a similar area which was targeted at assessing students’ beliefs and perception about the nature of Chemistry learning and evaluation of teaching practices that would help students develop more expert-like beliefs and positive attitude; observed that inspite of the benefit the student would derive from learning Chemistry their perception about Chemistry being a difficult subject cannot be easily changed thus affecting the teaching of the subject in secondary schools in Nigeria. However, Torres (1997) opined that in present time, the emphasis on science teaching has shied from teaching of science as a body of established knowledge towards science as a human activity. Instead of teaching students to think critically and independently; science teaching to a large extent, has taught students to accept scientific knowledge without questions, learn existing theories and present alternative explanations. As such, Chemistry as a dynamic branch of science is difficult to describe, thus, in learning Chemistry, this should not be taught as a series of formulas to be memorized and applied just for “cultural” purposes but be taught as a dynamic branch of science which should provide questions and explanations on how the world works (Jense, 1995). It is against this background that the researchers see the subject matter of this research “problems of teaching Chemistry in secondary school level” as an issue worthy of investigation. 

1.2 Statement Of The Problem 
A lot of studies shows the poor performance of students in Chemistry this is attributed to the notion that Chemistry is complex to learn thus making students to develop an unfavorable altitude towards learning the subject. On the part of teachers, Chemistry is taught as a series of formulas to be memorized and applied just for the sake of learning as against teaching students to think critically and independently instead of accepting such knowledge without questions. This issue has become a serious concern to education planners and policy makers in Nigeria. As such the subject matter of this research is considered an empirical problem worthy of investigation. 

• Purpose of the Study 
The main purpose of this study is to find out the problems affecting the process of teaching of Chemistry in Secondary schools in Egor Local Government Area of Edo state. Specifically, the study sought to: 

• find out instructional material problems affecting the teaching of Chemistry in Secondary schools 

• determine teacher-related problems affecting the teaching of Chemistry in Secondary schools 

• ascertain time-related problems affecting the teaching of Chemistry in Secondary schools and finally 

• find out the prospects in minimize these problems. 

1.4 Research Questions 
• What are the instructional material related problems affecting the teaching of Chemistry in Secondary schools in Edo state? 

• What are the teacher-related problems affecting the teaching of Chemistry in Secondary schools in Edo state? 

• What are the time-related problems affecting the teaching of Chemistry in Edo state? 

• What are the prospects of minimizing these problems affecting the teaching of Chemistry in Edo state? 

• Significance of the study 
The present study is of great relevance to many. Beneficiaries of the findings of this work include teachers, students, curriculum planners, parents and other stake holders in education. 

The findings of the study will improve the teaching styles of teachers. They will be made aware of the importance of effective ways to reach different types of learners and assess student understanding through multiple means. Chemistry teachers will understand the importance of training and re-training themselves in order to enhance competency in the subject area. The training could be geared towards enhancement of relationship between teachers and students. Through this, teachers could become better advisers, content experts and coach and through such means, make teaching more meaningful. (Eyibe, 2017) 

The findings of the study will help students to appreciate the importance of technology, deepen their interest in the subject, and help them to understand what skills they need to survive in a complex, highly technological knowledge based economy. Being aware of the challenges confronting teaching of Chemistry, students will be better enabled to learn and easily refine their analysis and problem-solving skills. Also experiment and observe phenomenon and to view results in graphic ways that aid in understanding. And, as an added benefit, findings will help students with technology tools and a project-learning approach. With these, students are more likely to stay engaged and on task, reducing behavioral problems in the classroom. 

Curriculum Planners like the Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) will benefit from this study. 

• Scope of the Study 
This study is delimited to the problems affecting the teaching of Chemistry in the Public Secondary schools in Edo state. The study investigated instructional-related, time-related and teacher-related challenges. It also focused on strategies that could be employed to ameliorate the problems affecting the teaching of Chemistry in Secondary schools in Edo state.

For more Science Education Projects Click here
==================================================================
Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 59 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
==================================================================

Share:

Search for your topic here

See full list of Project Topics under your Department Here!

Featured Post

HOW TO WRITE A RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

A hypothesis is a description of a pattern in nature or an explanation about some real-world phenomenon that can be tested through observ...

Popular Posts