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The purpose of this study was to assess knowledge, attitude in the acceptance of family planning among mothers in Ikorodu, Lagos state, Nigeria. Ex-post facto research design was used for this study and the sample size consisted of 384 respondents. To achieve this purpose, a researcher developed questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection. The population of the study comprised of 72,844 women of reproductive age. The instrument was vetted by five jurors from the Departments of Physical and Health Education and Nursing Sciences. Three hundred and eighty four (384) copies of questionnaire were distributed to the respondents. Three hundred and seventy nine (379; 98.7%) were adequately filled and retrieved from respondents. Five (5; 1.3%) copies of questionnaire were not filled correctly and therefore, those were not used. A multi-stage sampling procedure was employed which comprised of; stratified, simple random, purposive, proportionate sampling procedure. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics of frequencies and percentages, mean and standard deviation. To test the formulated hypotheses, one sample t-test was used. All the formulated null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 alpha level of significance. The results of the study revealed that mothers in Ikorodu, Lagos state, Nigeria have significant knowledge of family planning with a t-value of 3.201 (p-value of 0.021). The findings further showed that mothers in Ikorodu, Lagos state do not have significant attitude towards family planning with t-value of 1.291 and p-value of 0.18, finally the results of the study revealed that mothers in Ikorodu, Lagos State do not significantly practice family planning with a (p-value of 1.05).

1.1 Background to the Study
The act of giving birth is the most serious labour in the world (Ademowore, 2011).

The explosive increase in the nation‟s population emanating from indiscriminate childbearing, apart from a small number of privileged and conscientious countries that have succeeded in reducing the population growth, each pregnancy and birth remains a risk fatal experience for hundreds of millions of women worldwide.

Family planning is a means by which individuals or couples space the process of conception, pregnancy and childbirth in intervals, mutually determined by both husband and wife in order to have desired number of children that they can conveniently cater for their needs (Delano, 2010).

According to Ahmed (2014), Family Planning is the factor that may be considered by a couple in a committed relationship and each individual involved in deciding if and when to have children. Though, rarely articulated, family planning may involve consideration of the number of children a couple wish to have as well as the age at which they wish to have them. Family Planning are obviously influenced by external factors such as marital situation, career considerations, financial position, any disabilities that may affect their ability to have children and raise them, beside many other considerations.

World Health Organization (2011), describe family planning as a way of thinking and living that is adopted voluntarily, upon the basis of knowledge, attitudes, and responsible decisions by individuals and couples, in order to promote the health and welfare of the family group and thus contribute effectively to the social development of a country. The World Health Organization (WHO) (2012) estimates that 287,000 material deaths occurred in 2010, sub-Saharan Africa (56%) and southern Asia (29%) accounted for the global burden of maternal deaths.

National Demography Health Survey (2012), reported in Nigeria on maternal mortality rate, revealed that, 600,000 women died in agony every year. It is not an exaggeration to say that the issue of maternal mortality, fast in its conspiracy of silence in scale and severity, the most neglected tragedy of our time. Also 585,000 women die during pregnancy and child birth, and result from often pregnancy and child bearing.

Family planning is sometimes used as a synonym for the use of birth control; however, it often includes a wide variety of methods, and practices that are for birth control. It is most usually applied to a female-male couple who wish to limit the number of children they have and/or to control the timing of pregnancy (also known as child-spacing). Family planning may encompass sterilization, as well as abortion. The pervasive problem presently is population rapid growth, especially in developing countries where this population growth matters, because it has enormous impact on the human life. It will not be wrong to say that the most urgent conflict facing the contemporary world today is not between the states of ideologies but between the pace of growth of the human race and the disproportionate increase in the production of resources, necessary to support mankind in peace, prosperity and dignity (Sehgal, 2014).

Odimegwu (2011) Opined that, rapid growth of population is not caused by any single reason, but it is obvious that how crucial the demographic factor can be in the political stability and the socio-economic development of a country. It has now universally recognized that a massive population size, its rapid growth rate, and its controlled transfer of population from rural areas to the cities can create pressure on the resources of a country, adversely affecting its economic prosperity. There is convincing evidence that poverty incidence is always higher among larger households.

Indeed, Orbeta (2010); figured out an enduring positive association between family size and poverty incidence and severity. Studies by Orbeta (2010) also showed how a large family size creates the conditions leading to greater poverty through its negative impact on household saving, labour force participation. Earnings of parents, as well as on the human capital investment in children. Besides, it is stated that uncontrolled population growth is recognized as the single most important impediment to national development. Although population growth is not the only problem dividing rich and poor countries, it is one important variable that has widened the gap in growth in per capital income between developed and developing nations. Advocates of birth control see it as a means to prevent the personal and social pressures that result from rapid population growth (Encyclopedia, 2013). Family planning services are defined as “Educational, comprehensive medical or social activities which enable individuals, including minors, to determine freely the number and spacing of their children and to select the means by which this may be achieved (Maisamari, 2010).

Generally, it is because of this over population of the family has resulted to unhealthy, the unemployed, the ill-educated and the under-fed, which has no small measures aggravated crime rate as the populace are left with no better option, than involving themselves in various notorious and corrupt practiced earn a timing. With the recognition and consideration of the consequence of population explosion it is obvious that family planning remains the only acceptable and practicable option for the reduction of incessant population growth. Family planning is the process of choosing the number of children in a family and the length of time between their births. It involves adoption of contraceptive devices to prevent unwanted pregnancies and thereby determining the number and spacing of children in the family (Encarta, 2010). Also family planning practices is therefore, the various ways of controlling births which may not conform to the approved standard either as a result of ignorance or apathy, couples ignorance and wrong perception of family planning, has created a rat-race situation where survival is for the fittest; (Agbakuribe, 2011).

Despite the recent increase in contraceptive use, Nigeria is still characterized by high levels of fertility and a considerable unmet need for contraception. The total fertility rate in Nigeria is 6.0 births per women and considerably higher in the rural areas than in the urban areas. Hence, men should be actively involved at the knowledge level (the concept of family planning), the supportive level (being supportive for other to use contraception) and the “acceptor” level, (as contraceptive user). Their decision-making role should be taken into account in order to promote family planning. Research indicates that accepting pregnancy, knowledge on different methods choice, and the understanding of the side effects of different methods are among the factors related to family planning.

Knowledge of family planning is a key variable in any discussion of fertility regulation and in the evaluation of family planning program. Acquiring knowledge about family planning is an important step toward gaining access to and then using suitable contraceptive methods in a timely and effective manner. Information of knowledge of family planning will help the couples to avoid or delay pregnancy; (Umar, 2012).

Knowledge is facts, information and skills acquired through experiences or Knowledge of family planning – this consisted of knowledge of modern contraceptives source of information about family planning, sex education ins school and sexual transmitted diseases STDs the alarming rate of indiscriminate child bearing emanated from lack of knowledge of family planning (Chingpaye, 2013).

Contraceptive almost killed me if I were not educated. I`m sure I would have died (34 year old undergraduate women). The ascertain above corroborated what Hellandendu (2013) said in the study of violence against females. The research observed of artificial fertility regulation techniques are perpetuated by economic; political and gender structure in contemporary societies most of which work to the detriment of women. This is so because most of the artificial contraceptives are directed towards women which have detrimental health effects. Therefore, this study was to assess knowledge, attitude and practice of family planning among mothers in Ikorodu, Lagos state, Nigeria.

1.2 Statement of the Problem
There is no doubt that Nigeria is one of the most populous country in Africa. The researcher observed that the problem of many children per family contributes to poverty, unhealthy, under-fed and ill-educated. The researcher observed that frequent birth by women of reproductive age had been associated to a serious health problem to women of reproductive age and their children; the health of women of reproductive age is in coma due to frequent discharge of blood which is not regained before the conception of another pregnancy; and this accounted for thousands of deaths of women in Lagos state. Fertility in the country remains high with a total fertility of 6.0 births per women and considerably higher in the rural areas than in the Urban (Population Bureau, 2012).

Maternal mortality is high due to the short interval of pregnancy which amounted to births related cases, this trends has causes pre-term birth (birth within 37 weeks of pregnancy) low birth weight (child birth less than 2,500grams) and infant morbidity in the rural area for instance in Lagos state. The weaned children are in a serious health condition because the period for normal breast feeding is lacking, thereby resulting to low immunity that prone to contagious diseases.

In spite of the importance of population growth to the society, couples, cultural resistance to child-spacing has brought about numerous social problems like indiscriminate child bearing, unwanted pregnancies, high rate of infant morbidity, drop-out from schools, and the low standard of living which has been on the increase with poverty also contributing to the incidence where families continue to reproduce uncontrollably because, of the believe that. It is a taboo to regulate fertility; these ugly threat has been observed by the researcher in Lagos state; Nigeria.

National Demographic Health Survey (NDHS) (2012), estimated on maternal mortality rate that 600,000 women died every year out of 585,000 women died during pregnancy and child birth, to break this vicious threats in our various rural areas. This study is out to assess knowledge, attitude in the acceptance of family planning among mothers in Ikorodu, Lagos State, Nigeria. This is to know whether women of reproductive age have knowledge about family planning, their attitude and practice towards family planning.

1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, in the acceptance of family planning among mothers in Ikorodu, Lagos State, Nigeria. The specific purposes of the study are to assess:

1. the knowledge on family planning among mothers in Ikorodu, Lagos State, Nigeria.

2. the attitude of women of child bearing age towards family planning in Ikorodu, Lagos state, Nigeria.

3. the practice of family planning among mothers in Ikorodu, Lagos State, Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions
The study is proposed to answer the following research questions:

1. what is the knowledge of women of child bearing age about family planning in Ikorodu, Lagos State?

2. what is the attitude of women of child bearing age towards family planning in Ikorodu, Lagos State?

3. what is the practice of family planning among women of reproductive age in Ikorodu, Lagos State?

1.5 Significance of the Study
The result of this study will be beneficial to:

The health educators in planning awareness program for the client, thereby creating enlighten to the client in making decision that are related to family planning methods.

Findings of this study will enable the client to benefit from the awareness programs that are provided by the health educators in areas that are related to family planning methods.

Findings of this study will sensitize the policy makers in creating policies that would support family planning practices.

Findings of this study will help tremendously in reducing mortality and morbidity through the awareness program on issues or family planning and unwanted pregnancies.

Findings of this study would contribute to the body of knowledge for Researchers and other educational purposes.

1.6 Research Hypotheses
On the basis of the research questions, the following hypotheses were formulated for the purpose of this study:

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The study examined the societal effects and the causes of unemployment in Abuja. The study indicated that unemployment has many negative effects to the society, economy, family, and individuals. From the response got from the questionnaires revealed that unemployment leads to poverty, low productivity, losses in foreign direct investment, low revenue generation, rural urban migration, illicit activities which increases insecurity, anti-social activities such as armed robbery, prostitution, political thuggery, violence, kidnapping, restiveness and other social vices evident among the unemployed youths and this constitutes danger to the stability, growth and development of the state. The research concludes that, addressing the problems of unemployment, must involve all stakeholders. Suggestions from the analysis therefore, are that effective policy measures such as re-prioritization or revitalization of agricultural sector, reformation of educational system, provision of enabling environment and building of industries be pursued vigorously which will drastically reduce unemployment and poverty as well as eradicate the menace of unemployment in Abuja.

1.1 Background of the Study
Globally, the world is experiencing mass unemployment of qualified and able-bodied youths and these have generated much concern for both governmental and non-governmental organizations, public and private sectors of the economy. The global economic recession of the 1980’s has caused rapid deterioration in Nigeria’s economic industrial output. In the 60’s and 70’s unemployment was not pronounced like today because the government then were proactively involved in providing jobs for graduates churning out from various higher institutions.

Over the years, unemployment has taken a centre stage in most socials and economic discourse in Nigeria because the youths remain the greatest asset and the life wire of any nation. Youth employment in any nation is universally acknowledged as the basic source of survival and economic development (Ajaji, 2008). The central issue in societal development is how to create conditions necessary for rapid and sustained growth and productivity where, the ultimate goal is to improve people’s quality of life and standard through production of goods and services at affordable prices, provision of basic infrastructures, reduce poverty, create employment opportunities and conducive political, religious, social and economic environment. (Echeriri, 2007).

In Nigeria, unemployment is soaring high despite laudable programmes provided by federal, states and local governments to curb the growing concern of joblessness among the teeming population of the country. Several governments both past and present have tried to solve this issue but day to day it increases. President Ibrahim Babangida’s regime from (1984-1993) was the first administration to be confronted with mass unemployment which led to introduction of National Directorate of Employment (NDE) to tackle the scourge of unemployment but to no avail. President Olusegun Obasanjo’s administration (1999-2007) came up with the national Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) but could not solve this menace.

President Umaru Yaradua’s administration (2007-2010) with the view of solving this problem initiated the seven (7) points agenda, yet no meaningful achievement was recorded and President Goodluck Jonathan (2011-2015) administration launched Youth Enterprise with New Innovations (YOUWIN) and Alhaji Bolaji Abdulahji the minister of youth also organized a youth forum to help youths realize their goals in life, still there is high prevalence of unemployment in the Nigerian Sectors (Ikemefula, 2012).

The level of unemployment in Nigeria as well as Abuja appears to grow in geometric progression every year, in contrast to its regional neighbours most of whom have far less resources. Anameza (2000), stated that Nigeria will have no prospect of measurable development or of improving the welfare of its people; unless it enhances the chances of employment for its graduates. The menace of unemployment has increasingly been recognized as one of the societal problems currently facing many developing countries like Nigeria and Africa as a whole.

Abuja, with a population of over 4 million people and a vast spread of natural resource endowment has the potential to be the source of growth and prosperity for the whole region. The unemployment problem in Abuja remains persistent and even growing by the day with labour force approximately 70% persons (mostly youths) annually moving into job market (Adelodun, 2006). Statistics of unemployment seems to consist, not of uneducated rural populations, who have been uprooted by failing agricultural production resulting from the absence of mechanization and decreasing incomes but also of some highly educated populations, as well, who normally, would form the core of the productive vanguard in a developing country. In other words, many of Nigeria’s unemployed and consequently poor are well educated even by European and American standards. Nigeria’s underemployment and low productivity constitute a vicious cycle that explains the endemic poverty in the country.

Overall, unemployment in Abuja has affected youths from a broad spectrum of societal groups, both of well and less educated, although it has particularly stricken a substantial fraction of youths from low income backgrounds and limited education. From the foregoing, it is obvious that unemployment, especially the unemployment of graduates, impedes the progress of Abuja in many ways. Apart from economic waste, it also constitutes danger for political stability (Ipaye, 1998). It is disturbing to note that Nigeria’s graduates have limited chance of becoming gainfully employed. It is even more disheartening that the country’s economic condition is such that, it is hardly able to absorb an optimal proportion of the production of its own educational system. Gone are the days when employers went about looking for employees. It is now the turn of employees to move from one office to the other seeking for non-existent jobs. These days, thousands of young people are found waiting to be interviewed for just one, two or few vacant positions in some organizations or firms. Most people who cannot earn their living are prone to social vices. They look at themselves as second-class citizens for being unable to contribute to the society.

Abuja faced high rates of unemployment thereby leading to social vices and insecurity in the state. In FCT, the only means of survival is politics, civil service, trading and farming. No day passes by without seeing youths roaming about the streets in various offices and business centres in search of job, through advertisement in various mass media such as Newspapers, Magazines, Handbills, posters, Billboards, Radio and Television announcements. Youths all over the country spend much time and huge amount of money surfing through the internet in search of job and some being tired in searching for job and labeled as idle ones have joined bad gangs and are involved in criminal activities and prostitution.

Unemployment is defined as young ones within the age of 18 – 35 years who are living in absolute joblessness. It also means young ones who are willing and able to work but cannot find work. Under-employment on the other hand, refers to people who are gainfully employed but not financially rewarded to authenticate their suffering and qualification (Onuh, 2011). Unemployment and underemployment has seriously confronted youths in Abuja. These are caused by several factors such as: rural-urban migration, corruption, socio-cultural constraints, poor educational system and high turnover of graduates from secondary and higher institutions, increase in government spending on political office holders. The state of unemployment can even lead to depression, low self-esteem, frustration and a number of other negative consequences (Ipaye, 1998).

Unemployment is a crucial issue in FCT because the youth constitute a major part of the labour force and they have innovative ideas, which among other factors are important in the development process of the country. A large proportion of the youths however are unemployed. The negative consequences include psychological problems of frustration, depression, hostility and gradual drift of some visible unemployed youths into all manner of criminal behaviours (Okafor, 2011). Unemployment in FCT generally is indeed a pathetic situation that calls for urgent attention, to address the societal effects accompanied by it.

It is on this background that the study is undertaken with the view of examining the societal effect of unemployment in Abuja using FCT as a case study and suggesting ways of improving and ameliorating unemployment in Abuja.

1.2 Statement of the Problem
Unemployment in Abuja is alarming as the rate is growing geometrically. Unemployment in the state is becoming unbearable as it threatens the growth of the state. It is apparent that youths in any society are the greatest assets of national development if given the opportunity of employment. Due to non-availability of ample employment opportunity in the state, the teeming youths with vibrant energy cannot contribute effectively and efficiently to the economic growth and development of the state but rather utilizes such energy in unacceptable means of satisfying their needs, wants and goals in life by engaging themselves in social vices such as armed robbery, kidnapping, violence, political thuggery, cybercrimes, fraud (419), murder, killing human beings and drug trafficking, with prostitution as the only means of survival. Our present society is not helping matters as it places much emphasis and values on materialism.

The problem of unemployment in FCT and the state has also affected the local government area, individuals, families, communities, society and government, and has indeed hindered the societal growth and development of FCT and the state, thereby challenging the leadership and people of Abuja as it brings about poverty, high crime rates and deviant behaviours, malnutrition, poor health condition which later results in high death rates (Brown, 2011).

The problems of unemployment are so devastating that Nwodo, (2011) wants the Federal and State Government to urgently address the growing issues of unemployment, insecurity and other social vices rampaging our country. Today, the numerous problems associated with unemployment are so enormous that Njoku (1997) asserted “Nothing can be more disturbing to an independent nation than a preponderance of unemployed youths”. Hence, Okoro, (2001) says “restive youths without employment, good housing and other decent conditions of living are bound to become miscreants in the society and deviant behavior will soon become the order of the day in their lives”. To this end Umanah, (2011), pointed out that unemployment has inflicted unprecedented social and economic havoc. It has both social, economic, political, health and psychological consequences on the individual and the society.

It is these seemingly insurmountable problems that necessitate this academic work, to ascertain the extent of the societal effects of unemployment in Abuja. The work will only focus on the state capital which is FCT.

1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study is to find out the effects and consequence of unemployment on the societal life and activities of Abuja. In view of this, the specific objectives of the research work are as follows:

1. To examine the effects of unemployment and armed robbery situation in FCT.

2. To examine the effects of unemployment on the kidnapping situation in FCT.

3. To find out the extent unemployment has affected the societal well being of the individuals of FCT.

1.4 Research Questions
The following constitutes the research questions for the study.

1. What are the effects of unemployment and the level of armed robbery attacks in Abuja?

2. What are the effects of unemployment on the level of kidnapping situations in FCT?

3. What are the consequences of unemployment in Abuja?

1.5 Research Hypotheses
Following the objectives of the study as outlined in section 1.3 and the research question as outlined in 1.4, the research hypotheses are as follows:

1. Ho: There is no significant relationship between unemployment and armed robbery situation in FCT.

H1: There is significant relationship between unemployment and armed robbery situation in FCT.

2. Ho: There is no significant relationship between unemployment and kidnapping situation in FCT.

H1: There is significant relationship between unemployment and kidnapping situation in FCT.

3. Ho: There are no consequences of unemployment in FCT.

H1: There are consequences of unemployment in FCT.

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The aim of this study was to compare anthropometry and food intake patterns in bus drivers working during the day and night. One hundred and fifty males (81 night workers and 69 day workers) participated in the study. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Measurements of height, weight, waist circumference (WC), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, blood glucose, and lipid profile were obtained. A significant difference between groups was observed for mean WC (98.5 ± 10.7 cm in day workers versus 103.2 ± 9.7 cm in night workers; p 0.005). Night workers had higher prevalence of being overweight and obese (BMI 25 kg/m2) than day workers (78.2% day workers versus 90.2% night workers; p 0.004) and increased WC (494 cm) (72.4% day workers versus 86.4% night workers; p 0.03). Significant differences were found for meat consumption (2.3 servings ±0.9 for night workers versus 2.0 servings ±0.7 day workers, p 0.04) and fruit intake (0.9 servings ±0.4 for night workers versus 0.7 servings for day workers ±0.5; p 0.006). Night workers had a lower intake of vegetables than recommended compared to day workers (100 versus 92.7%, respectively, p 0.01) and higher intake of oil (40.7 versus 24.6%, p 0.03). Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that night work was associated with being overweight (OR 2.94, 95% IC: 1.14–7.66, p 0.03) and abnormal values of WC (OR 2.82, 95% IC: 1.20–6.69, p 0.009) after adjusting for potential confounders. It is concluded that night workers had a higher prevalence and risk of being overweight/obese and increased WC compared with day workers.

Night workers also presented a higher proportion of inappropriate intakes of food groups when compared to day workers, even though both groups were eating poor diets. These results demonstrate the need of lifestyle-intervention programs in these workers.

1.1 Background of the Study
19:00 and 6:00 h (Monk & Folkard, 1992) and often refers to an arrangement of alternating day shifts, evening shifts and/or night shifts. Regarding the night shifts, most of working hours take place between 22:00 and 6:00 h (Akerstedt, 1998). Recent evidence has shown that shift work affects 420% of the working population in the world (De Bacquer et al., 2009). No comparative data are available for the total population of Brazil, but research performed in the area around the city of Sao Paulo has suggested that 11% of the working population does shift work (Fischer et al., 1995).

Evidence from the literature indicates that night work is associated with several health problems, including metabolic and nutritional disorders such as diabetes (Dochi et al. 2009; Guo et al., 2013; Karlsson et al., 2003; Pietroiusti et al., 2010), dyslipidemias (Karlsson et al., 2001; Monk & Buysse, 2013; Romon et al., 1992), metabolic syndrome (Esquirol et al., 2009; Li et al., 2011; Lin et al., 2009; Pietroiusti et al., 2010; Szosland, 2010) and, particularly, obesity (Amani & Gill, 2013; Di Lorenzo et al., 2003; Karlsson et al., 2001; van Amelsvoort et al., 1999).

Weight gain in these workers has been associated with several mechanisms, including poor diet (Geliebter et al., 2000; Mota et al., 2013), sedentary lifestyle (French et al., 1994; Mota et al., 2013), short sleep duration (Macagnan et al., 2012; Mota et al., 2013) and desyn- chronization of circadian rhythms (McDonald et al., 2013). From the nutritional point of the view, it has been reported that shift workers exhibit an altered nutritional intake (De Assis et al., 2003a; Mota et al., 2013; Pasqua & Moreno, 2004; Waterhouse et al., 2003), including an excessive number of eating events per day (De Assis et al., 2003b), high calorie intake (French et al., 1994), and increased consumption of saturated fat and foods with a high glycemic index (Di Lorenzo et al., 2003).

Studies have demonstrated that workers from the transportation industry also present high proportions of being overweight and obese (Hirata et al., 2012; Winkleby et al., 1988), but these findings have been associated weight gain with shift work. Nevertheless, overweight and obese individuals have presented higher rates of mortality, morbidity and absenteeism rates due to their adiposity (Hirata et al., 2012; Winkleby et al., 1988). A study carried out in USA and involving4600 000 workers found the highest prevalence of obesity among male employees who worked in highway transportation services (31.7%) (Caban et al., 2005). In Brazil, Hirata et al. (2012) found that over half the population of drivers (57.5%) was characterized as overweight and ~20% was considered obese, 77.5% of the total sample having excess weight.

Although a few studies suggest that professional drivers have dietary habits that predispose towards obesity (Cavagioni, 2006; Marqueze et al., 2012), the qualitative food intake patterns of drivers on different work schedules is poorly described in the literature. Based on this, the hypothesis of this study is that bus drivers who work at night exhibit a poor diet and higher proportions of obesity when compared with those who work in the daytime. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare anthropometry and food intake patterns of bus drivers working during the day or night.

Nutrition forms the foundation for human health and development across all stages of the life course. Almost one in three people on the planet grapple with a lack of adequate nutrition, making this one of the most devastating problems to face the global community. (WHO, 2015). Adequate nutrition in an individual is important for both current and future health, as this period is perhaps the only window of opportunity for the catch-up nutrition needed to prevent a vicious inter-generational effect of malnutrition World Health Organization, (WHO, 2015). According to WHO in 2014, every country in the world is affected by one or more forms of malnutrition. Combating malnutrition in all it forms is one of the greatest global health challenges. Around 45% of death among individuals are linked to undernutrition. These mostly occur in low and middle-income countries. At the same time, in these countries, rates of overweight and obesity are rising (United Nation, 2012). Also, malnutrition increases health care costs, reduces productivity and lows economic growth, which can perpetuate a cycle of poverty and ill-health (WHO, 2014).

Globally, people are consuming foods and drinks that are more energy dense (high in sugar and fats), and engaging in less physical activity. Unhealthy diet and poor nutrition are among the top risk factors for diet -related non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cardiovascular disease, certain cancers, and diabetes globally (United Nation, 2016). Unhealthy eating habits have contributed to the obesity epidemic in the United States: about one-third of U.S. adults (33.8%) are obese and approximately 17% (or 12.5 million) of college Bus drivers are obese (Centre for Diseases Control, 2011).

Dietary pattern (DP) is the general profile of food and nutrients consumption which is characterized on the basis of the usual eating habits (World Health Organization WHO, 2015). The assessment of dietary patterns gives a more comprehensive impression of the food consumption habits within a population. It may be better at predicting the risk of disease than the analysis of isolated nutrients or food because the joint effect of various nutrients involved would be better identified (Hu, 2002).

Patterns of nutritional behavior adopted in Bus drivers are mostly continued in adults life and increased the risk of development of many chronic disease (Kpakaskrzypczak et al. 2012). Diet in childhood and Bus driver have Agric Department health implication due to evidence relating poor nutrition in childhood to subsequent obesity and elevated risk for type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease (Canete, Gil-Campos, Aguilera, and Gil, 2007) which are increasing in prevalence (WHO, 2004).

Nutritional status is the sum total at an individual anthropemetric indices as influenced by intake and utilization of nutrients, which is determined from information obtained by physical, biochemical and dietary studies (UN, 2015). It is a result of interrelated factors influenced by quality and quantity of food consumed and the physical health of the individual. The transition from adolescence to adulthood is an important, period for establishing behavioural patterns that effect long term health and chronic disease risk (Meg small, Bailey-Davis and Maggs, 2012). University Bus drivers seem to be the most affected by this nutritional transition (Baldini, Pasqui, Bordoni and Maranesi 2009).

1.2 Statement of the Problem
Adequate nutrition promotes good nutritional status and thus satisfies the requirement to good physical health hence the risk of malnutrition is increased with unhealthy dietary habit and practice (Adamu et al, 2012). Nutritional status has a great impact on the learning capacity of children on their productivity as adults as well as and on their quality of life in general (Flynn et al, 2006). According to the United Nation nearly 870 million people of the 1.7 billion in the world or one in eight suffered from chronic undernourishment in 2010 to 2012. Almost all the hungry people, 852 million, live in developing countries. In Africa nearly one in four people are hungry; the number of hungry people grew over this period from 175 to 220 million, with nearly, 20million added in the last few years only 16 million undernourished people resides in the developed countries (FAO, 2012). It is believed that almost one third of children and Bus driver in developing countries are malnourished (FAO, 2015). Contrary to widely held notion that malnutrition is due to poverty, anecdotal evidence suggest that this may be caused by people choosing to eat that the wrong types of food, rather than lack of what to eat which reflect the lifestyle of most undergraduate (Tropy, 2004) many bus drivers encounter numerous health risk and bear the brunt of undernutrition and suffer the highest risk of disability and death associated with it. Even feeding them later in life in too letter, too expensive and too late to improve nutrition or future productivity (World Bank, 2008). About 60% of young people who die from common disease like malaria and diarrheas would not have died if they are not under nourished in the first place as a result of their dietary habit (WHO, 2016). In 2001 54% of all mortality was attributed directly or indirectly only a small part of the total disease burden due to malnutrition from the choice of eating habit (Salem and Hamza, 2005). These unhealthy habit can lead to undernourishment or overnourishment with the resistant increase in the susceptibility of avoidable disease. University Bus drivers seem to be the most affected by this nutrition transition. Studies from developed countries have shown that young adult leaving their parent and living away from home to attend college experience numerous health related behavioral changes, including the adoption of unhealthy dietary habit (Ajala, 2006). These behaviour are attributed to drastic, changes in the environment and resources available, frequent exposure to unhealthy, food and habits leading to higher consumption of high calories snacks, fast foods and lower consumption of fruit and vegetable, added to this skipping meals may also become frequent. (Achinihu, 2009).

Evidence shows that providing information on eating habit and on nutritional status result in improved health. Despite this recognition poverty and lack of clear policy on eating habit and nutritional status assessment make it difficult for Bus drivers to monitor and moderate their eating habit result in malnutrition. Therefore, this study seeks to assess dietary pattern and nutritional status among bus drivers in Imo state.

1.3 General Objectives of the Study
The general objective of this study is to assess dietary pattern and nutritional status among bus drivers in Imo state University.

1.4 Specific Objective of the Study
1.4 Aim
The aim of this study is to assess dietary intake pattern and nutritional status of Bus drivers in Imo State.

1.5 Specific Objectives
(1) To document demographic characteristics of Bus drivers, Imo State

(2) To determine nutritional status and Physical activity Levels of Bus drivers in Imo State.

(3) To assess dietary pattern of the Bus drivers using Food Frequency Questionnaires.

(4) To determine serum iron, zinc and copper of Bus drivers attending Food and nutrition in Imo State.

1.4 Significance of the Study
The result of the study will provide information that may be used to design and improve on nutritional service provision in school based on health care, especially in Imo state. Non- governmental organization (NGOs) may use the finding to improve on nutrition services to people in the society. Result on dietary pattern and nutritional status together with recommendation that will be given will provide solution on how to encourage bus drivers to exhibit healthy eating habit behavior researcher and academicians may further develop area for research based on the findings from this study.

1.5 Limitation of the Study
Many of the bus drivers may not like to give information on their dietary pattern and nutritional, status and therefore so much time will be spent in the field to explain the benefit of this study to the undergraduate Bus driver to encourage participation.

1.6 Operational Definition of Terms
Assessment: Refers to the act of evaluating.

Dietary pattern: Simply refers to food consumption habits within a population.

Nutrition: Is the science of food and it relationship to health.

Nutrition status: Is the sum total of an individual food intake both in terms of quantity and quality and also by the physical health of the individual.

Body mass index: Refers to weight in (kg) over height in metre square (m²).

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Prevalence and determinants of nutritional disease among 499 under-five (U5) children and their mothers (496) in Unguwar Zango, Yauri Town was investigated through a cross- sectional survey using cluster sampling techniques based on probability proportion to size of Emergency Nutrition Assessment (ENA) for Standardized Monitoring and Assessment for Relief and Transitions (SMART) methodology. Malnutrition in the study area is unacceptably high with Global and Severe Acute Malnutrition at 12.8% and 5.4% respectively, stunting at 40.3% and underweight at 24.4%. For the mothers only 1.9% were underweight with about half (46%) overweight / obessed. Crude death rate was fifty-nine deaths per thousand live births (59/1000) with U5 years children mortality rate of 78/1000 and morbidity rate 17.2%. Majority of the children (79.5%) had fever, followed by cough (32.5%), malaria (29.8%), diarrhoea (27.3%). Mean U5 years children serum concentrations of Iron, Zinc, Calcium, Phosphorus, Vitamin A, Vitamin D and Haemoglobin levels respectively are 80.50±17.90µg/dl, 164.9±105.1mg/dl, 8.4±1.3mg/dl, 6.4±2.2mg/dl, 229.8±33.0 nmol/L, 89.1±82.1µg/L, 11.7±1.4g/dl, while that of their mothers are 85.69±30.69µg/dl, 153.76±97.28mg/dl, 8.54±0.98mg/dl, 5.82±1.90mg/dl, 131.76±130.98nmol/L, 118.11±115.28 µg/L, 12.55±1.03g/dl respectively. Feeding practices shows 30.6% initiated breastfeeding within 30 minutes of birth and 22.4% exclusively breastfed for up to 6 months. Determinants of nutritional disease at P< 0.05 include childcare, place of delivery, immunization status, early initiation to breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding practices, use of colostrum and age. There is high prevalence of double burden of nutritional disease among under-five children and their mothers in Unguwar Zango with multifactorial determinants.

1.1 Background
Malnutrition is insufficient, excessive or imbalanced consumption of dietary energy and nutrients. It manifests in different forms, such as undernutrition, overnutrition and micronutrients malnutrition and results from either inadequate or excessive availability of energy and nutrients (Brown et al., 2011). Malnutrition can occur in two forms; Primary malnutrition which results when a poor nutritional state is dietary in origin and secondary malnutrition is precipitated by a diseased state, surgical procedure, or medication. Diarrheoa, alcoholism, AIDS, and gastrointestinal tract bleeding are examples of conditions that may cause secondary malnutrition (Brown et al., 2011).

Malnutrition in early childhood is associated with functional impairment in adult life as malnourished children are physically and intellectually less productive when they become adults. It decreases the educational achievement, labour productivity and economic growth of a country. Children that are malnourished tend to have increased risk of morbidity and mortality and often suffer delayed mental development, poor school performances and reduced intellectual achievement. Concurrent high levels of nutritional disease worsen the health status and development potential of a child (Smith and Haddad, 1999).

Globally, nutritional status is considered the best indicator of the well-being of an individual (Dasgupta et al., 2014). The nutritional status of a child is of particular concern because, early years of life are crucial for future growth and development. Under-five children represent the vulnerable and the most important target group where malnutrition plays a pivotal role in their mortality and morbidity along with delayed mental and motor development during these formative years (Dasgupta et al., 2014).

A widely used conceptual framework published by UNICEF in 1990 identifies three main underlying determinants of nutritional status: availability and access to food, the quality of feeding and care giving practices, and the health of the surrounding environment and access to health care services. Each of these determinants is a necessary but not sufficient condition on its own to good nutrition (ARDD World Bank, 2007)

1.2 Statement of Research Problem
The challenges of hunger and inadequate intake of food nutrients which hampers the nutritional status of children and women still remains an issue of concern in Nigeria. Worldwide, almost 7 million children die each year before they reach their fifth birthday, while India (24%) and Nigeria (11%) together account for more than one-third of all under- five deaths. Globally, undernutrition is responsible, directly or indirectly, for at least 35% of deaths in children less than 5 years of age (WHO, 2010; You et al., 2011; UNICEF, 2014). The under – 5 mortality rate in Nigeria is 128 deaths per 1000 live births, which implies that one in every eight children born die before reaching their fifth birthday (NDHS, 2013).

Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) revealed that under-5 mortality rate decreased from 201 deaths per 1,000 live births to 128 deaths per 1,000 live births from 2003 to 2013 (NDHS, 2003; NDHS, 2013). However, Nigeria did not achieve the millennium development goals (MDGs) target of reducing the under-5 mortality to 64 deaths per 1,000 live births and the infant mortality to 30 deaths per 1,000 live births (FMOH, 2014).

The estimated maternal mortality ratio in Nigeria of 545 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2008 has increased to 576 deaths per 100,000 live births in 2013 (NDHS, 2008; NDHS, 2013). The NDHS (2008) also reported that 12% of Nigerian women are too thin, but 22% are overweight or obese. The proportion of overweight women is almost twice as high in urban areas as in rural areas (31% compared with 17%) and increases with age, education, and wealth.

Micronutrients deficiencies in Nigeria has remained a great public health concern. The last national Food consumption and micronutrient survey conducted over a decade ago 2001- 2003, 29.5% of preschool children had Vitamin A deficiency, 24.8% of Nigerian children under 5 suffered from marginal vitamin A deficiency while 8% of pregnant women in Nigeria had night blindness. About 20% of the population were at risk of inadequate intake of zinc, 76.1% of pre-school children, 62% non-pregnant women and 66.7% of pregnant women were anaemic. One major cause of anaemia is iron deficiency (Maziya-Dixon et al., 2004; Aminu, 2010; FMOH, 2013). An increased visibility of the problem of "hidden hunger" arising from micronutrient deficiencies is noticed in communities of the Yauri Town. This calls for commitment of all stakeholders as a public health priority to undertake measures to make ending micronutrient deficiencies most especially, vitamin A, zinc, iodine, folate and iron deficiencies in Yauri Town.

The findings from MICS survey in 2011 indicated a high prevalence of nutritional disease amongst under-five children in the Yauri Town. It showed that the prevalence of vital nutrition assessment indicators in Yauri Town such as moderate (-2SD) stunting was 65.1%, moderate wasting 14.2%, and moderate underweight 46.8% (MICS, 2012). There is recently a reduction in these indices according to the report of NDHS (2013) which indicated overall stunting to be 29.6%, wasting 18.8%, underweight 16% in the Yauri Town. Concurrent high levels of nutritional disease worsen the health status and development potential of a child and makes every strategy for health, education and prosperity an uphill struggle.

1.3 Aim and Objectives of Study
1.4.1 Aim
The aim of the study was to determine the burden of nutritional disease, specific determinants causing it by assessing the nutritional status among under-five children and their mothers in Unguwar Zango of the Yauri Town.

1.4.2 Specific objectives;
The specific objectives of the study include;

i. Assessment of nutritional status and prevalence of nutritional disease among under-five children mother pair in Unguwar Zango of Yauri Town.

ii. Determine morbidity and crude death rate among under-five children and their mothers.

iii. Determine micronutrient (Vitamins A, Iron, Iodine, Zinc, Vitamin D, Calcium and Phosphorus) status of the under-five children and their mothers.

iv. Establish the determinants of nutritional disease in the study area.

1.5 Justification
The mortality indices for children in Nigeria are ranked among the worst in the world. Nigeria ranks 9th in global assessment of under-five mortality rate and approximately one million children die annually in Nigeria before their 5th birthday (UNICEF, 2014). The role of adequate and sustainable surveillance particularly for nutrition assessment of children in the community cannot be over-emphasized, considering the efforts in promoting optimal childhood nutrition, growth and development.

Although several studies and attempts to reduce child mortality in Nigeria have been conducted, yet progress on reaching the desired target is still limited. Many of the previous studies were descriptive in nature and lacked detailed analysis of socioeconomic and proximate determinants of child and maternal malnutrition (Ajieroh, 2009).

None or little effort has been devoted to examining the key determinants of nutritional disease among under-five children and their mothers in communities of Unguwar Zango of the Yauri Town that will effectively guide nutrition interventions.

MICS survey in 2011 indicated a high prevalence of nutritional disease amongst under-five children in the Yauri Town (Yauri Town). Hence, this study will provide information that can be used for nutritional surveillance and targeting programmes that would focus more on populations most affected. More importantly, the survey will be instrumental for generating information that will form the basis for developing interventions for nutrition and other health programmes in the Yauri Town as a whole.

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Fermented cassava products like lafun (edible starch) are important staple foods in many African homes. Natural fermentation time is usually long resulting in slower acidification process and inconsistent nutritional composition of products which could be overcome with the use of starter culture. However, most available starter cultures are used for single food fermentation and are uneconomical. This necessitates the development of a starter culture for multiple related food products to reduce cost. Hence this study was designed to produce a cassava fermentation for the production of lafun.

Cassava varieties TME 30572, TME 4(2)1425 and TME 50395 were obtained from the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Ibadan and landraces from Bodija market. Fresh, peeled, chipped and grated cassava tubers were spontaneously fermented in the laboratory. Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) were isolated from the fermenting mash and identified phenotypically. Genotypically identified starters were selected based on screening for starch hydrolysis, linamarase and pectinase enzyme production, antimicrobial compound production and rate of acidification using standard methods. The starters were utilised singly and randomly combined to initiate fermentation for production of lafun. Un-inoculated fermentation mash served as control. Rate of production of organic acids, various sugars, metabolic enzyme assays, nutritional and anti-nutritional content of the resulting mashes were monitored using standard procedures. Best starter was applied in the final production of lafun. Shelf-life of the products were evaluated and compared with the control. Data were subjected to descriptive statistics and ANOVA technique at p=0.05.

Ninety-eight LABs were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (50.0%), L. acidilactici (12.2%), L. brevis (11.3%), L. fermentum (10.3%), L. delbrueckii (8.2%), L. mesenteroides (6.0%), and L. lactis (2.0%). Screened isolates did not hydrolyse starch but produced pectinase, linamarase alongside hydrogen peroxide, diacetyl and lactate with a rapid decrease in medium pH (6.5 - 3.6). Selected potential starters were genotypically identified as L. pentosus F2A (A), L. plantarum subsp. argentolarensis F2B (B), L. plantarum F2C (C), L. plantarum U2A (G) and L. paraplantarum U2C (I). The best starter combination CGI gave significant reduction in fermentation pH (7.1 - 3.7) and lactic acid ranged between 0.04mg/ mL and 6.9mg/mL. Sugars produced include xylose (3.2µg/mL), arabinose (1.4µg/mL), fructose (26.2µg/mL), glucose (30.3µg/mL) and sucrose (99.7g/mL). Enzyme assay revealed peak amylase (10.1U/mL) and pectinase (4.4U/mL) activities at 24 hours as well as linamarase (0.8U/mL) at 48 hours in fufu, whereas, in usi, highest linamarase (0.7U/mL) and pectinase (1.0U/mL) activities were recorded at 72hours with no amylase activity. The CGI-produced lafun had significant reduction in phytate (0.3-0.1mg/g and 0.3-0.27mg/g), tannin (35.4-34.0mg/g and 35.4-32.3mg/g), cyanide (0.1-0.05mg/g and 0.1-0.0mg/g), and moisture (7.3%-5.1% and 7.3%-5.4%) content while total protein content increased (1.0-1.3% and 1.0-1.8%) respectively. Starter fermented lafun had shelf-life of five days while control had three days.

The selected starter was able to ferment both lafun to yield products with improved nutritional content, better shelf-life and reduced anti-nutritional composition. This could be employed in the production of indigenous fermented foods.

Keywords: Lactic acid bacteria, Starter culture, Lafun, Shelf-life, Fermented food

1.1 Background to the study
In Africa, cassava is very important to the people because fermented cassava products are known to constitute a major part of the daily diets in many homes. It is cultivated widely as a food crop, ranked as the world′s sixth most important (Soccol, 1996) and fourth on the list of major food crops in developing countries after rice, wheat and maize (Mingli et al., 1992). De Bruijin and Fresco (1989) reported a progressive increase in demand of fermented cassava products yearly as a result of the high energy content due to the fact that it provides averagely more than 50% of daily energy intake.

However, cyanogenic glucosides inherent in cassava usually restrict its use as a food crop (Koch et al., 1992; Peifan et al., 2004) even though there is an endogenous linamarase (β-glucosidase), an enzyme which can easily hydrolyse linamarin, situated in the cell wall (Mkpong et al., 1990). It was reported that the endogenous linamarase could not completely breakdown the linamarin (Ikediobi and Onyike, 1982; Mkpong et al., 1989) thus, bringing about the addition of an exogenous linamarase during fermentation, which is by far the most important and widely used means of processing cassava (Oyewole, 1992; Nweke et al., 2002) to reduce cyanogenic toxicity (Ikediobi and Onyike, 1982).

Fermentation, the oldest method of food processing, started over 6000 years ago (Holzapfel, 2002) in which the traditional methods and outdated techniques of producing fermented foods were based on spontaneous fermentation due to naturally occurring microorganisms in the environment and on the raw materials. However, fermentation durations were long due to the lag phase of the organisms, thus, yielding a longer acidification process and making it difficult to produce an end product of consistent quality. Developing countries cannot continue to be dependent on the historic methods for food processing because of factors such as increasing populations, drought and other natural disasters, inadequate food production as well as other associated problems such as long fermentation time, inconsistencies in final products and the presence of pathogenic organisms, all because it depended on chance inoculation from the environment.

Common research approaches have included isolation and characterization of microorganisms that could be used as starter culture with modifications to fermentation regimes. To date, little of this research has been put to use. Part of technology considerations suggested by Baseline Consultancy Report for Cassava in 2010 included the use of isolated starter cultures in maintaining product quality. Therefore, an improved fermentation method that will not compromise the quality and safety of the product would be through the use of starter cultures which are preparations or materials containing large number of viable microorganisms which may be added to facilitate improved and controlled fermentation process (Holzapfel, 1997, 2002).

Lafun (edible starch) are among the products of cassava fermentation in Africa (Etejere and Bhat, 1985). Fufu is an important basic commodity, ranked next to gari as a native food of most Nigerians (Sanni et al., 1998) and widely eaten in many parts of West Africa and the Tropics (Sanni, 1989). It is a sticky cassava mash which is cooked in boiling water and consumed with soup. It is eaten mostly in the Eastern and Western parts of Southern Nigeria as well as some other areas of West and Central Africa; and unlike other fermented cassava products, it has very intense odour (Lancaster et al., 1982). Usi is an indigenous food of the Itsekiri and Urhobo in Southern Nigeria, who also refer to it as edible starch. It is a very pasty, light yellow food eaten with any oil or pepper soup. The starch is precipitated out of the solution pressed out of the grated cassava during the preparation of gari and sometimes, obtained from grated cassava, soaked directly in water (Etejere and Bhat, 1985). Both cassava products undergo lactic acid fermentation by several microorganisms, thus yielding various metabolites which confer positive effects such as preservation, flavour development, cyanide reduction and changes in functional properties on the final product (Akindahunsi et al., 1999).

The use of starters will provide a means of standardising the production process resulting in products of uniform quality and contributes to reduction in processing time. Furthermore, such starter will have the ability to detoxify, while retaining the desirable organoleptic qualities of the product, grow rapidly to significantly shorten fermentation time, rapidly drop the pH and increase the acidity, as acidic conditions inhibit the growth of and toxin production by pathogens (Mugula et al., 2002).

1.2 Statement of Problem
Constantly, there is an increase in demand for fermented cassava products because they are high energy yielding foods but indigenous spontaneous fermentation have been characterized with longer acidification time, inconsistencies in the nutritional composition and quality of the final products. Use of starter culture has brought some improvement on fermented cassava products, but most available starter cultures are used for single food fermentation and are uneconomical.

1.3 Justification
The ability to isolate strains of microorganisms with desirable physiological and metabolic characteristics for use as starter culture will result in a high degree of control over the fermentation process, thus, maintaining consistency. Furthermore, the possibility of developing a cassava fermentation for multiple related food products will reduce cost and be of economic importance.

1.4 Scope of the research
In order to establish the selection process, this study was approached in four phases, namely; isolation, characterization, identification and screening for potential starters; utilization of potential starters both singly and in combination for controlled fermentation; physiological studies and optimisation of growth conditions of selected starter(s); utilisation of the starter(s) in lafun fermentation and final product assessment.

1.5 Aim and objectives
The overall aim of this study is to select a cassava fermentation for the production of lafun. Specifically, this study was designed to:

· Isolate, characterize and identify lactic acid bacteria involved in the fermentation of cassava to produce lafun.

· Screen for, and genotypically identify potential starters.

· Utilise selected isolates solely and in combination to ferment cassava in lafun production, monitoring microbiological, nutritional and technological properties as well as derived metabolites during the fermentation processes, thus, select isolate(s) of best fit.

· Carry out optimization of growth studies on the potential starter(s) selected

· Apply the selected starter(s) in the production of the two products and analyse the end products.

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