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This study focused on assessing the role of Entrepreneurship education on self reliance and economic development among students in Uniport. The slum was purposively sampled due to ease of access, its closeness to the industrial area and high population of unemployed students.

Descriptive research design was used, targeting students between 15 and 35 years old from 3 Entrepreneurship education in University of Port Harcourt. Respondents were selected using different sampling techniques including stratified sampling, simple random sampling and purposive sampling. Questionnaires, in-depth interviews and Focus Group Discussion were used to collect both primary and secondary data, which was thereafter coded and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 23.

The study revealed that personal interest, job satisfaction and future employment prospects are the key factors influencing the choice of entrepreneurship education course by students. It also demonstrated that entrepreneurship education courses equip students with multiple skill benefits such as self-awareness, effective communication, stress management, time management, interpersonal relations, and basic problem solving. Irrespective of their employment status, the study indicated that majority of the students are still able to utilize their acquired Entrepreneurship education skills.

The study concluded that entrepreneurship education, as a source providing skilled workers, plays a significant role in enhancing self reliance and economic development among students in Uniport. Finally, it makes recommendations to public policy makers, development partners and the academy.

According to Akenbi (2000) entrepreneurship education is the acquisition of basic skills, which enable an individual to be gainfully employed in any sectors of the economy. For any country to obtain any level of development, entrepreneurship education must be put into consideration. Western education started in Nigeria when the Christian Missionaries came. During this period, they were mostly interested in teaching the word of God, converting souls and preaching the gospel. Some people were not able to fellowship, some could not walk, see or hear, therefore, they were taught how to make basket and this occupied them, aids were given to them, active/alive and to make them feel at home. Before the arrival of the missionary, vocational training had started at home, children helping their mothers to cook, boys helping their father at farm. The colonial administration participated in vocational/technical education given as a separate plan outside that entrepreneurship education involves such field as agricultural education, business education, marketing or distributive education, trade and industrial education. Entrepreneurship education comprises of vocational and technical training, which is given in schools a class under public supervision and control.

The development of skills is perhaps the foundation on which vocation education is laid the assertion has been authorize to the unanimous agreement of the three groups sample to the fact that entrepreneurship education is designed to develop skills abilities understanding and attitude of individuals. This agrees with the definition of committee on research and publication of American vocation association (1954). The primary purpose of embarking on skill development is to enable someone to do some work. Olatain (1984) says entrepreneurship education refers to systematic learning experience, which are designed to enable individuals for gainful employment in recognized occupation as semi skilled workers or technical or professionals. It equally included guidance and counselling in connecting with training and other instruction directly related through an occupation. The benefits derives from various entrepreneurship education cannot be over emphasized. It is the pride of the nation to develop more entrepreneurship education in order to activate maximum technologically. Thorp et al (1930) in their reports they expressed the view that the aim and objective of entrepreneurship education are as follows; a. The aim of technical education must be to provide or the requirements of industry, commerce and society and to adjust itself to the changing needs of the territory.

The curriculum and organization must be adopted to meet national and local demands and must not adhere to firm and immutable forms. b. Large number of men and women engaged in industry and commerce and in professional and auxiliary, occupation lack the specialized knowledge and training which would allow them to be eicient in their vocation and fit to accept greater resp0onsibility, the course must be arranged so they can improve their knowledge and eiciency while continuing employment. c. Special attention must be given to the training of teachers and personnel and for institutions engaged into training of teachers particularly for secondary schools and technical institutions and for institutions engaged in the training of primary school teachers also for person engaged in social activities such as students and community center work or in community development generally.

1.2 Statement of The Problem
Entrepreneurship education has been known as a veritable discipline for the attainment of self-reliance and can be seen in different dimensions. The various skills acquisition centres in the state are expected to produce man power at craftsmanship and apprenticeship levels. And it has been ascertained that facilities, staff, finance etc are either lacking or not sufficiently provided to achieve the expected desires. Although many technical schools and other skill acquisition centre like college of education, polytechnics are available in Rivers state for the above purposes what is not clear now is that to what extent is “entrepreneurship education helping in economic development of Rivers State”.

1.3 Research Question
In what ways does entrepreneurship education enhance self reliance and economic development among students in Uniport?

Specific Questions
1. What individual motives influence the choice of entrepreneurship education courses by students in University of Port Harcourt?

2. In what ways do students in University of Port Harcourt benefit from Entrepreneurship education courses?

3. In what ways do entrepreneurship education courses facilitate the transition into self reliance for students in University of Port Harcourt?

1.4 Overall Objective
To examine whether entrepreneurship education enhance self reliance and economic development among students in Uniport.

Specific Objectives
1. To examine the individual motives behind the choice of entrepreneurship education courses by students in University of Port Harcourt.

2. To examine the benefits that accrued from Entrepreneurship education courses for students in University of Port Harcourt be- tween 2011 and 2015.

3. To examine how Entrepreneurship education courses facilitate students from University of Port Harcourt to transition into self reliance.

1.5 Significance of the Study
Studies conducted on students entrepreneurship development as well as assessments to ascertain access and utilization of students funds in Nigeria have received adequate attention. However, information regarding entrepreneurship education, particularly its role in facilitating students to acquire competencies necessary for socioeconomic empowerment remains scanty. This critical gap in knowledge is what the study aimed to examine.

A study was conducted by CEDEFOP (2011) to review “the benefits of entrepreneurship education in 21 European countries”. Despite demonstrating the many benefits derived from Entrepreneurship education institutions in Europe, the study did not reveal whether similar gains can be directly inferred to Entrepreneurship education institutions found in University of Port Harcourt, particularly in their current establishment. It is notable that entrepreneurship education in University of Port Harcourt lack adequate resources compared to Europe, have limited staff competency, and are less adaptable to the dynamic market trends. Taking into account the current state of entrepreneurship education in University of Port Harcourt, the study examined the capacity of these institutions to impart appropriate skills for economic development.

This study specifically focused on University of Port Harcourt, selected due to its increasingly high population of unemployed students. Many of these students lack employability skills and continue to live in abject poverty despite the presence of many Entrepreneurship education institutions in the area and its prime location next to the industrial area. The study period, 2011 and 2015, was also selected to ensure the most recent findings on how Entrepreneurship education has impacted on the socioeconomic lives of students in University of Port Harcourt was obtained.

This study shall inform public policy makers, especially those in education and the economic sector. The findings and recommendations derived from this study will enhance policy decisions for improved institutional and operational reforms in the entrepreneurship education sector in Nigeria.

The academy shall also benefit from the findings and recommendations of this study, which lays basis for future research besides providing important information on the status of entrepreneurship education institutions in Nigeria.

Finally, development partners interested in entrepreneurship education sector will also benefit from the study findings and recommendations. Through this study, they will gain insight on the current status of entrepreneurship education institutions in the informal settlements in Nigeria and therefore know where to prioritize their investments.

1.6 Limitations and Scope of the Study
This study evaluated “the role of entrepreneurship education on economic development in University of Port Harcourt”. The study collected data between October 2021 and January 2022, limiting its geophysical scope to University of Port Harcourt because of financial constraints. In particular, the study targeted students in University of Port Harcourt who had undertaken Entrepreneurship education courses between 2015 and 2019 as sources of primary data, including administrators of institutions, potential employers, parents/guardian and a village elder.

1.7 Definition of Terms
Employability Skills
The term “employability skills” as used in this study refers to knowledge, skills and competencies acquired by Entrepreneurship education trainees through a process of learning and which improves their qualifications in the competitive world of employment.

Socioeconomic Empowerment
In this study, the term socioeconomic empowerment is used to refer to a state of positive social and economic transformation attributed to improved individual’s self-esteem, social acceptance and personal income.

Entrepreneurship education
In this study, entrepreneurship education refers to education based on practical workplace knowledge and skills acquired by individuals to prepare them for industrial work, trade and other entrepreneurial undertakings.

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This research work examined exploring the determinants of entrepreneurship among graduate’s graduates in Nigeria. A questionnaire survey was conducted to collect data for this study. A total number of 65 graduates in both management and Agricultural sciences in Delta State University Asaba Campus were sampled using a structure questionnaire. The test for multiple means and the T-test for independent means. We observed that back ground variable has no significant impact on exploring the determination, desire and need for achievement, Attitude, National pride and start up experience are positively related to entrepreneurial intentions. We recommend that future research should consider entrepreneurial intentions for graduate graduates in Nigeria and should also consider what factors are related to and may impact individual behaviors. They should also focus more than large population sizes to impact on background variables which will help stimulate economic growth in Nigeria. Taking up a carrier as entrepreneur and setting up a personal business can be an excitingly rewarding experiencing for young persons. The present high rate of unemployment in Nigeria’s economy should entrepreneurship an appropriate and attractive option. It is widely accepted that the educational system of universities. It as to provide as academic environment that many serve as a catalyst for high technology start up. The factor that surrounds decision making frame of a young Nigeria graduates who intends to pick up a carrier in entrepreneur in this study set out to among others, determine the attitudes of young Nigeria graduates towards becoming entrepreneurs, determine what control beliefs influence their intentions.

1.1 Background Of The Study
In recent years, entrepreneurship education has been developing steadily but unevenly in most countries. In the United State for example, which has been a trailblazer and leader in the field, the last decade has been described as an important era, with a significant increase in graduate interest (Fiet 2001a) the figure tend to support this statement.

In 1971, only 16 colleges and universities in U.S. offered entrepreneurship education program, while today, there are more than 800.

Entrepreneurship is an under search topic in the social sciences and especially in economics. It was not always so, Schumpeter discusses the role of the entrepreneurship in the process of economic development at length. He imagine the entrepreneur as a creative driven individual who find new combination of factors of production” to discover and develop a new product, to apply strategy for a new market or design a new technology.

The United States have a comparatively long tradition of fostering entrepreneurs at universities and business schools. While the first entrepreneurship courses were taught at Harvard Business School as early as the 1930s, this field has seen increasing attention since the 1970s. By 1990, 400 universities in America were already estimates exceed 700 (Vesper and Macmillan 1988: Hills and Morris 1988, Fiet 2001) progress in this field has thus been extremely impressive.

1.2 Statement of Problem
Throughout the world, graduate in entrepreneurship as a career choice is growing Brenneret 1991, Hart et Harrison, 1992, while interest in traditional professional employment in big business is gradually declining (Kovereld 1996), the orientation and behaviours of graduate and young graduates are influenced by a number of personal and environmental factors.

Under uncertainly, out came may be characterized by an expected value which summarizes the potential out comes of the probability of their occurring. Business profits are typically an uncertain function of the work effort extended by the entrepreneur, with an expected profit level for each effort level surrounded by a variance of profit outcomes due to the impact of unexpected changed in consumer preferences competition price and product offerings, macro-economic variables and so on.

This profit variance introduces the role that additional remuneration for that effort profit variance is considered by potential entrepreneurs who asses stability (certainty of ensuring a pay check every month avoiding rise, maintaining current life style) before making a decision to set up a new venture (Amit, et al 1996) given the myriad of factors that surrounds the decision making frame of a young Nigeria graduate who intends to put a career in entrepreneur, it is imperative that answers be found to the following questions. What are the attitudes influences, their intention toward becoming entrepreneurs? What are the subjective norms underlying their intention of becoming entrepreneur? What control beliefs influence their intentions?

1.2 Objectives of the Study
The general objective of this study is to determine entrepreneurship among graduates of universities in Nigeria. More specifically, the study attempted to:

i) ascertain the effects of entrepreneurship curriculum contents on graduates‘ critical thinking and business idea generation.

ii) examine the extent to which entrepreneurship pedagogy affects graduates‘ shared-vision and identification of business opportunities.

iii) evaluate the role of teaching methods in entrepreneurship on graduates‘ interest and business start-ups.

1.3 Research Questions
Based on the research objectives, the following research questions were addressed in the study:

i) To what extent do entrepreneurship curriculum contents impact on graduates‘ critical thinking and business idea generation?

ii) In what way does entrepreneurship pedagogy affect graduates‘ shared-vision and identification of business opportunities?

iii) In what way do teaching methods in entrepreneurship stimulate graduates‘ interest and business start-ups?

1.4 Research Hypotheses
The following Hypotheses stated in null form were tested in this study;

H01) Entrepreneurship curriculum contents do not significant impact on graduates‘ critical thinking and business idea generation

H02) Entrepreneurship pedagogy does not significantly affect graduates‘ shared-vision and identification of business opportunities

1.4 Significance Of The Study
Economic theories of entrepreneurship usually assume, not surprisingly, that entrepreneurs have economic aspirations principally those of profit maximization. However, a few early theories recognized that entrepreneurs may have non-economic aspirations as well, such as the desire to innovation. The venture into areas untouched by others, the desire to develop markets triumph over others in the market and dynastic aspirations.

The notion that entrepreneurs are embedded in a social framework is central to much work by sociologists (Gramoveter, 1985). Furthermore, as Dyer and Handler (1994) observe, entrepreneurial aspiration focus on entrepreneurial theories tend to focus on entrepreneur at business entry rather than in the business cycle.

In general, the implication and application of the theory of planned behaviour in the field of entrepreneurship and numerous and extremely promising. Some of the theory’s implication are related to education and training. Since the early 1980’s researchers have been able to identify the role played by education and teaching variables in the development of perceptions about the desirability and feasibility of entrepreneurial behaviour.

In recognition of the owning a business can change one’s life, this paper guaranteed and inventory of economic psychological factors then can be used to develop a model of the determinants of entrepreneurial intentions.

1.5 Scope of The Study
For the purpose of the proper analysis of the subject matter the scope of the study is given in two parts, the spatial and temporal scope. Spatially the study is limited to young graduates in Nigeria. Temporally, it was conducted over a three week period.

1.6 Definition of Terms
Entrepreneur: an entrepreneur is a person who creates a new business in the face of risk and uncertainty for the purpose of achieving profits and growth by identifying opportunities and assembling the necessary resources to capitalize on them Zimmerer and Scarborough (2002).

Proactive: a person controlling a situation by making things happens rather than waiting for things to happen and reacting to them.

Autonomy: this is the ability to act and make decisions without being controlled by anyone else.

Entrepreneurial Behaviour: this factor corresponds to the attitudes towards the behaviour, and is dependent on beliefs relating to the behaviours positive or negative impacts.

Attitude: the way you think and feel about some body or something, the way that you behave towards somebody or something that show how you feel.

Spatial: this is relating to space or position, size, shape etc. of things.

Temporal: this is a particular quality in one’s personality. This is a strong desire to have or do some thing.

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Rural resources have a lot of potential which needed to be brought into full production as to uplift the values. These values can only be achieved when other resources like times, money, infrastructure, expertise and the like are applied. The high demand of products is expected to propel the application of the said resources into maximum productions which in turn increase the value of rural environment, confirming value to be a function of profit.

Unfortunately, government policies and programmes in the year past failed to reflect the need for balance rural and urban development. Thus, most development policies and programmes are urban – oriented. As a result rural dwellers have been subjected to poverty, unemployment poor infrastructure, economic and social defects. Incidentally rural dwellers stick to migration

Therefore, this study on rural infrastructures as a strategy for reducing rural – urban Migrations in Nigeria, a case study of Ndokwa East Local Government Delta, seek to identify rural infrastructures programmes/projects extent of rural urban migration and factors responsible for rural urban migration in the study area.

From the findings based on the analyzed data, integrated rural infrastructures strategy has been pin-pointed and recommended as a feasible and viable measure toward minimizing the rate of rural – urban migration in Nigeria at large and Ndokwa East Local Government in particular.

1.1 Background of study
Rural areas are key sector in every nation’s economy and their rapid development and modernization have gained the attention of policy makers and government all over the world. This is because of the sizeable majority of the population living therein. Therefore; the future of the country depends largely on it.

According to Afolayan (1995) rural areas, can be easily identified by various criteria including the level of infrastructural development i.e. road networks, educational institutions, water supply, electricity, health facilities, communication etc. Other criteria used include occupation, housing, extent of community planning etc.

Typically, rural dwellers are less vocal, characterized by a culture of poverty; at most people live barely above subsistence level (Laah et al 2022). Rural areas, in developing countries are usually deprived of the basic needs of life such as housing, medical care, postal communication, education, transport etc. specifically, rural areas refer to geographical areas that lie outside the densely built up environment of towns, cities and the suburban villages, and whose inhabitants are engaged primarily in agriculture as well as the most basic of rudimentary form of secondary and tertiary activities (Ezeah, 2005). Rural area which is the opposite of an urban area refers to the country side where population engages mainly in primary production activities like rearing of livestock (Ele2006).

About 90 percent of the rural labour workforce engages directly or indirectly in agriculture (Nyagba 2009). The rural sector of Nigeria is very vital to the socio economic development of the nation. According to Nyaba (2009), the most important sector of the Nigerian population is the rural areas. This is because the rural sector is the major source of capital formation for the country and principal market for domestic and raw materials for industrial processes (Ugwauaniyi Emma, 2022). Rural area dwellers have seen round to engage in primary economic activities that form the foundation for the country’s economic development (Abah 2010).

Given the contributions of the rural sector to the national economy, enhancing the development of the sector should be central no government and public administration. This is necessary as such would further enhance the ability of the sector for increased contribution to the overall national growth and development.

In most countries, development is most desirous in the rural areas where bulk of the population resides. The development of the rural areas signally to a greater extent the level of national devel0pment and the situation of the nation’s in the development ladder.

Rural infrastructures has therefore been described in different ways by different authors, depending on the discipline or line of the thought. This is because the approach to rural infrastructures is multi disciplinary. According to Aslam C (1981) rural infrastructures is a process aimed at developing the rural poor, their economy and institutions from a state of stagnation or law productivity equilibrium into dynamic process leading to higher levels of living and better quality of life. Similarly, Schumacher (1983) defined rural infrastructures as developing the skill of the masses to make them self reliant through instructions which supply appropriate and relevant knowledge on the methods of self-help.

According to (Aviy 1999) rural urban migration occurs at varying levels in every country. However, the challenges and projects of rural infrastructures in Nigeria have been of great concern to the different tiers of government due to the rate of rural urban migration.

Different motive, account for rural urban migration amongst rural dwellers such as socio cultural issues, where people are forced to migrate to avoid numerous social problems at their place of origin (Agyemang, 2022) poor in infrastructural development and lack of basic amenities, search for better economic opportunities such as jobs etc. Accessibility and ease of transportation and communication has also been noted to facilitate, rural urban migration, this view is based on the extension of road networks, from major towns to perpetual- urban and rural areas that resulted in the decrease in transportation cost and improved communication systems.

1.2. Statement of The Problem
Given the contributions of the rural sectors to the economy, enhancing the development of the sector should be a priority to the government and relevant stakeholder. This is necessary as such would further enhance the ability of the sector for increased contribution to the overall national growth and development. Unfortunately, over the years, the development strategies and efforts in Nigeria has been more urban based resulting in the relative neglect of rural areas as evidenced by dearth of basic infrastructures in the rural areas such as good roads, well equipped and functional hospital, electricity, pipe borne water use (Abah 2010). Abunyi and Nnamani (2011) also noted that rural poverty persists in Nigeria despite the prosperity created by the country’s oil wealth as evidenced by the difficulty experienced in getting back daily needs such as food, water and shelter. Lack of these basic life needs in the rural areas has made a number of urban dwellers migrate to urban centres with high hopes of improving their standard of living.

According to Abah (2010), the deplorable condition of the Nigerian rural sector is emphatic and more worrisome is that even the few policies and programs put in place and implemented by government over the years have not resulted in significant improvement in the development of the rural areas of Nigeria (Ezeah, 2005). Incessant and excessive rural urban migration has brought a lot of socio- economic difficulty both in rural and urban areas. McCarthy (2004), opined that excessive urbanization leads to high rate of urban congestion, crime and poor sewage disposal system, safe and portable drinking water, electricity and other amenities, chronic unemployment with the attendant creation of large slums and shanty towns. Many developing countries including Nigeria have made several attempts to resolve these problems of rural under development and dissertation.

In Nigeria from the colonial period till date, successive administrations have tried to reform the rural areas where over 75% of Nigerians live in for the sake of attaining balanced growth and development, and discourage rural-urban migration to no avail (Omonigho, 2022).According to Nwallezo (2004), the Nigerian population is growing at an annual rate of 2.8 percent that of the urban population is growing at 5.5 percent. It’s pertinent to note that this rate is among the highest world today. This therefore calls for urgent measures to be taken towards fast travelling rural infrastructures to reduce urban population explosion.

1.3 Research objectives
1. To find out the causes and effects of rural-urban migration in Ndokwa East

2. To outline which LGA programmes and policies would enhance the economic wellbeing of the Ndokwa East community

3. To find out the current state and level of implementation of the identified Rural infrastructures and activities in Ndokwa East

4. To find out how Rural infrastructures initiative can reduce the rural urban migration in Ndokwa East

1.4 Research Questions
This study sought to answer the following research questions:

1. What are the possible causes and effects of rural-urban migration in Ndokwa East?

2. Which LGA programmes/policies would enhance the economic wellbeing of communities in Ndokwa East?

3. What is the current state and level of implementation of the identified Rural infrastructures in Ndokwa East?

4. How can rural infrastructures reduce rural-urban migration in Ndokwa East?

1.5 Significance Of The Study
This study will help beam the search light on rural infrastructures and its substantive development of rural infrastructure as strategy for reducing rural urban migration in Nigeria.

The study seeks to find out the socio economic and cultural causes of rural urban migration in the study area and its implications on rural infrastructures with respect to the study area, this will help in highlighting strategies adopted by the community members to cope with the situation and what can be done to curb situation. This research study will also help reveal the extent of the problem to relevant stakeholders so that they can rise to the occasion and put in measures to develop the rural urban migration. Finally, this research work will add to the existing body of knowledge on the importance of development of infrastructure as a strategy for reducing rural urban migration in Nigeria.

1.6 Scope Of The Study
This study will cover the rural infrastructures and its impact on development of rural infrastructure as a strategy for reducing rural urban migration in Nigeria. The special reference to the actual influence it has on the socio economic activities and lives of rural dwellers, causes of rural-urban migration and measures put in place by relevant stakeholders to combat the winners of rural-urban migration in the study area. The study will also cover all the rural areas and incidence of rural-urban migration in Delta.

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There is no gainsaying that road network connectivity, level of road accessibility and transport services developing nations are often poor and inadequate, yet, most of the cultural resources with which Ghana is endowed are domiciled in the hinterlands. Developing these cultural resources into tourist attractions becomes problematic due to the abject condition of the link roads and lack of adequate means of transportation. This research is focused at investigating the transportation systems in Cape Coast Kakum and the impact on tourism and hospitality. Three communities were used for the study. The selection was based on the three senatorial zones in Cape Coast, and from the zones, the communities richer in cultural resources were chosen. Survey method was used to gather the primary data for which the questionnaire was the major instrument of research'. A total of 300 sets of questionnaire were administered to respondents in the three communities. In the findings, it was deduced that roads to the communities in Cape Coast Kakum are in a deplorable state coupled with lack of ready and comfortable means of transportation. All these have immensely affected tourist flow to the numerous cultural attractions in the area of study. It was also deduced that poor road condition was also responsible for the high cost of transportation. It was recommended that federal government should expunge the joint account policy between states and local governments so as to empower the later to handle their road construction and rehabilitation projects. A collaborative effort must exist between the host communities and their local governments as a condition for an uninterrupted development of their numerous cultural resources for tourism purposes.

Tourism is defined as the short-term movement of people from their usual place of residence (origin) to other places (destination) for the purpose of leisure and recreational activities without any intention of securing a permanent resident or job at the destination; Cooper and Boniface (2006). It is also seen as the science, art and business of attracting and transporting visitors, accommodating them and graciously catering for their needs and wants; Mentosh and Gupta (2008). Since the early 70s, tourism has grown to become one of the fastest growing economic sectors in the world, ranking only after petroleum and auto trades. Tourism today plays a significant role in the balance of payment of many countries both in the developed and developing worlds. Tourism therefore, brings huge economic and social benefits to many nations, especially those that carefully plan and manage their potential attractions or resources (UNTWO, 2010). It has become the world’s largest growing industry, statistics by the world Tourism organizations shows that there are no signs of this growth slowing down in the next Millennium. To benefit from this global trend, tourism is been adopted by governments as a vehicle for poverty alleviation, employment generation and wealth creation. It is also seen as a veritable tool for the realization of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs).

It is not in doubt that Ghana is lavishly endowed with varieties of cultural resources which are mainly domiciled in the rural areas. The desire to witness cultural heritage like festivals, traditional architecture, monuments, arts and crafts, historic sites, shrines etc, has formed a major motivation for cultural tourism in recent times. Richards (2011) defined cultural tourism as the movement of persons to cultural attractions away from their normal place of residence, with the intention to gather new information and experience to satisfy their cultural needs. It is a fact that all forms of tourism, world over cannot thrive in isolation from transport, which provides the link amid the dwelling and destination regions of tourists. Yet, because the cultural resources are domiciled mostly in the rural locations, the need for transport becomes even more important. In the view of tourism professionals, transportation is an integral part of tourism which serves as a means of tourists' displacement from origin to the destination and other surrounding attractions. Hence, Hall (1991) highlights that there is a strong positive correlation between transport development and tourism growth. This implies that improvement in transport has a direct impact on tourism. It was gathered from the historical development of tourism that the key technical transformation in the transportation system industry brought about by the industrial revolution, marked the beginning of tourism. During this period in history, massive modifications of transport system were recorded which gave rise to the exploration of new lands to satisfy cultural needs. Hobson and Uysal (1992:209) also testified that the major steps in the development of tourism have been linked with advancements in transport.

Prior to the decision to travel to any destination, certain transport needs must be fulfilled, including safety and easy access to tourist destinations. The ability to connect attractions and carry luggage comfortably, and at affordable cost must be certain. Collier (1994) in agreement to this assertion mentioned some of the tourist transport needs that must be fulfilled as:

• Transporting the tourist from the generating to the host area

• Transport between host destinations

• Transport within host destinations

The need for effective transport to cultural attractions is not limited to tourists alone. During festival celebrations, for instance, indigenes of the host communities residing in the urban cities and aboard visit home. Besides, some invited guests like friends, well-wishers and business associates contribute to the population of the crowd moving towards the host community. Also included in the number are the service providers who provide convenience and comfort to the tourists. On this note, Okoli and Igbojekwe (2014), maintained that the quality of the transportation system is an important aspect of the traveler's experience. In their own view, poor service, scheduling problems, and or long delays associated with transportation service could seriously affect a passenger's perception and lead to regrets about a trip. Tourists expect to be transported safely, quickly and comfortably at moderate costs to their destinations before a trip could be termed memorable (Nwankwo, 2005). Various countries in Asia have also considered improving tourists transportation using tour buses instead of road transport. In Hong Kong, most tourists use trains that are managed by specific organizations. But there are also special buses for tourists that are called tour buses. These buses are not managed by the government but they are owned by the government but they are designated for tourists only.

According to Howe and Bryceson (2000) tourists transportation has been a challenge in many African countries. Popular transport for tourists used to be road transport in most of African countries. But this started to change in 1980s where some organizations tour sites operated tour buses for tourists.

Most public tour sites in African countries have no tour buses. Tourists use public buses and other means of transport. These tourists are facing many challenges including arriving late to tour site and rough treatments from bus conductors. These challenges are not bothering tourists who use tour buses within same countries (ibd).

Tour buses are chosen because generally tour buses and other special buses for tourists are considered to be safer than other public buses. Considering how many tourists the buses carry and the distance they cover, deaths on the road are extremely rare. Tour buses in America have a rate of 0.2 deaths per 100 million miles traveled. The rate of deaths in other automobiles transport is eight times higher. Statistics provides a good way of comparing risks involved. In a period of 11 years, from 1994-2004, a total of 71 passengers on tour buses died in crashes. But in one year, 2004 alone, traffic accidents killed 31,693 people traveling in cars and light trucks in America (Forkenbrock, 2004).

In Ghana, Cape Coast residents travel under difficult conditions from one part of the city to another. Available information shows that daily travel in the city is facing many difficulties. These difficulties include the split between residential areas and places of work or areas where people get services, expansion of urbanized area and deficient transport system. As a result of these factors, transport remains to be a critical need for city residents (Sliuzas, 2001).

Werlin (1999) explain that generally lack of adequate transport system, is potential to create complicated daily life by making access to various destinations and services difficulty for majority of people especially the poor. Privileged section of the population has access to good transport infrastructure but on the other hand, the low income population is facing poor urban road transportation.

Rural transport is considered as a vital component of the system of services necessary for the continuing existence of a dispersed settlement in less densely populated areas (Tolley and Turton 1995). More so, in most developing countries, the road is the principal mode available, while the rail and inland waterway transport generally play little or no role within rural areas. Considering the nature of cultural tourism, the location of cultural attractions leaves the travelers with no other choice than the road transport. Yet, the overall road network connectivity, level of road accessibility and transportation services is generally poor and inadequate. The situation is so pathetic that they are highly deprived of infrastructural facilities like smooth tarred roads, adequate drainage system, sufficient road networks and transportation means. The most problematic is the poor physical condition of the rural roads. It was alleged that even up till 1960, other parts of Africa excluding the Southern part have less than 5 percent of their roads tarred, with large proportion of their minor feeder roads still existing as tracks. The condition in the communities in Cape Coast Kakum is so bad that a good number of the rural roads can only be managed during the dry season, when the rains are over.

Governments at all levels have not demonstrated adequate effort in the repair and general maintenance of the roads, and this amounts to a domino effect on vehicle maintenance cost and transport fares (Adesanya, 1997). Adeniji (1983), further posits that this level of insensitivity could be as a result of the low volume of traffic and periodicity, as well as seasonality in demand for transport in rural areas. Furthermore, Aderamo and Magaji (2010) expressed some fears that the solution cannot be at sight so long as the local government remains underfunded. Under this situation, most rural roads remain unpaved, narrow, circuitously aligned, and with pot holes, thereby leaving them impassable until dry season reappears. According to Ifegbo (2021), majority of festivals in Igbo land take place during the raining season, when most of the rural roads are in their worst conditions. This has remained a challenge to the respective stakeholders i.e. the government at all levels, tourism planners and the transport industry and until a remarkable improvement is made, tourism development will remain a dream.

Such inadequate and unreliable transport in Cape Coast is also experienced by tourists. The tourists also need transport every day to go to various tourists destinations and back. It is common in Cape Coast to see many tourists stranded at bus stands for long time waiting for transport. But there are other tourists who use special tour buses. This group may not be experiencing the same transport impact as their fellows who use public means (Nyirenda, 2012). This study examined the impact of peace transit on tourism and hospitality in Cape Coast.

1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
Tourist attraction in Cape Coast is growing. According to Mjingo (2011), there are about 10,000 tourists in the city who need transport to go to tour site and travelling back home. But the safety of travelling for these tourists, most of them rely on the erratic road transport system, which is at stake most of the time. Mjingo (2011) also reports that Cape Coast has about 12 tourist sites.

But most of these tour sites have no proper transport arrangements for their tourists. University of Cape Coast (2008) observed that the tourists travel to various tour sites and back home with a lot of difficulty. When travelling from the outskirts of the city to their respective tour sites, tourists face the inconvenience of commuting unreliable road transport. This means that the future of transport system for tourists who use road transport system in Cape Coast is uncertain.

But on the other hand, University of Cape Coast (2008) argues that some road transport systems like peace transit have an orderly way of transporting both tourists and citizens within and out of the city, these public transits although expensive, provide safe and comfortable movement giving tourism a positive effect as the problem of transportation is reduced Those who use tour buses are mainly those attending private tour sites in the city. This group is privileged with less difficulty in travelling compared with their fellows who use road transport system. One would wonder what happened to tourists who face such transport challenges both personally and in their social activities. At the same time one would want to know what are the benefits enjoyed by tourists who use tour buses to travel over those who use road transport system. This study examined the impact of road transport system on the tourism development of primary tourists in Cape Coast.

1.3 Research Objectives
1.3.1 General Research Objective
The general objective of the study was to assess the transportation system in Cape Coast Kakum and the impact on tourism and hospitality in Cape Coast.

1.3.2 Specific Research Objectives
Specific objectives of the study were as follows:

1. To assess the current system of road transport used by tourists in Cape Coast Kakum Municipal.

2. To assess the impact of transportation on tourism in Cape Coast.

3. To examine coping strategies that are used by tourists to deal with challenging road transport system in Cape Coast.

1.4 Research Questions
1.4.1 General Research Question
What are the transportation system in Cape Coast Kakum municipal and it’s impact on tourism and hospitality in Cape Coast?

1.4.2 Specific Research Questions
1. What is the current system of road transport used by tourists in Cape Coast Kakum Municipal?

2. What is the impact of transportation on tourism in Cape Coast?

3. What are the coping strategies that are used by tourists to deal with challenging road transport system in Cape Coast?

1.5 Significance of the Research
The study contributes towards the on-going discussions and initiatives taken by various stakeholders towards providing reliable transport to tourists. The study also adds on information about the impact of poor transport system on tourism.

peace transit owners will use the available information to up their management of their transport systems, passenger treatment and proper management of their vehicles.

Tourism organizers in Ebony will have a second look into the transport sector as a major factor in setting up a tourist event, as it will involve transporting tourists around

This study provides information on the impact of those challenges on tourists‟ tourism development especially in Cape Coast.

1.6 Scope of the Study
In order to understand the impact of peace transit on tourism and hospitality of tourists in Cape Coast, the study assessed type of challenges faced by tourists and their impact on the tourism. Peace transit was used as the case study

1.7 Organization of the Study
The study has five chapters that present introduction and background of the research in chapter one, literature review of ideas and arguments from various authors related to the subject in chapter two, followed by chapter three that discussed research methodology that was followed on the research work. Chapter four presents study findings and analysis of the findings. Chapter five presents summary conclusions and recommendations.

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Tourism communication promotion is not uniform. They vary according to the uniqueness of the destinations. For a destination to be successful, it is imperative to address tourist‟s expectations and satisfactions in other to determine the areas of strength to utilize and areas of weaknesses to improve. This study advances the understanding of tourist demographic determinants, trip determinants and travel motivations of tourists in the study area. Using krejcie and morgan sample table, 380 questionnaires were administered. The study found that tourists were typically highly educated, young adults and mostly males, working full time with high income. On average tourists stayed in South West for 1-7 days and traveled alone for adventure, leisure or educational purposes. The study also reveals and ranked the factors motivating and militating tourist‟s choice in South West. Visiting of relations and friends, weather/climate, scenic beauty and unique attractions ranked higher in motivating tourist choice in South West, while frequent and incessant crisis ranked highest in discouraging tourist choice in South West. An Important Performance Analysis Technique (IPA) was used to determine the most important and performing tourism component in the study area. It was discovered that attraction is the most important performing component in South West as a tourist destination. In the light of the above, the study makes recommendations to improve the study area‟s attractiveness and to satisfy tourist needs and expectations in other to enhance responsiveness.

1.1 Background to the Study
Tourism is currently the fastest growing sector of global economy. It is already the number one industry in many countries, in terms of foreign exchange earnings and job creation (Agene 2005). Tourism is at present the major export product for 83 percent of developing countries and main export of one third of them. In 2000 specifically, developing countries recorded 292.6 million international arrivals (WTO 2003). Ukene (2003) quoting IMF report of the year 2000 asserted that tourism generated U$504 billion in the year globally. In tourism marketing, the tourist is identified as a place customer. The role of marketing in place or tourism marketing is to create satisfied customers and keep them at a profit (Drucker, 1965).

Tourism development has undergone gradual but progressive evolution with each phase reflecting its growing importance in the economy. Organized tourism started in Nigeria in 1962. The Nigerian Tourism Association was formed by group of private practitioners to project the tourist image in Nigeria (Okon, 1997). The efforts of the association led to the admission of Nigeria as full member of the International Union of Official Organization Travel (IUOTO), now World Tourism Organization (WTO) in 1964. The Federal Government of Nigeria in 1990 issued a blue print on Tourism to demonstrate the development of tourism into an economically viable industry. The main thrust of the National Tourism Policy is devoted to the objectives of generating foreign exchange and employment etc. (Osuaka, 2001). Driven by the desire to realize these objectives, the Nigerian Government has remained committed to the growth and development of tourism in the country. This stance has been successively reflected in various monetary, fiscal and industrial policy measures employed to provide appropriate financing and incentives for the sector.

Prior to 1980, the type, known and practiced tourism was the standard commercial (mass) tourism which was based on commercially created beehive of activities such as festivals, carnivals and other seasonal events. But since the 1980s tourism trend has shifted focus to natural ecosystem and, this marked the emergence of tourism which has been considered a critical endeavor by environmentalists, so that future generations may experience destinations relatively untouched by human intervention (Honey, 2008). Coined by Hector Ceballos-Lascurain in 1983, the concept of tourism or responsible tourism or jungle tourism, and sustainable tourism (Sadry, 2009) have become prevalent concepts since the mid-1980s, and has experienced arguably the fastest growth of all sub-sectors in the tourism industry. Virtually, almost all the Local Government Areas in Nigeria have varying degrees of ecotourism attractions. This attests to the richness of the Nigerian natural and cultural attractions as described by Fagbile (2001). The economic importance of tourism is quite enormous. It educates the travellers, provides funds for ecological conservation, creates jobs, protect and conserves the environment, improves the well-being of local people, ensures direct financial support to local people, creates political empowerment of local communities, generates revenue for government, maintains peace, law and order in society, fostering respect for different cultures and for human rights and contribute to economic development.

However, tourism development suffered setbacks in the past because of lack of commitment by previous governments and this has attracted many scholarly enquiries on the factors that may determined the tourism service communication promotion in Nigeria, considering its strategic importance to the economic development of any nation.

1.2 Statement of the problem
In recognition of the importance of tourism in national development, governments have demonstrated concerted efforts towards developing the sector by funding and maintaining the sector, but the result of such effort has not been ascertained by any known literature in the region.

At the moment, available literature such as Blackwell (1970), Ashworth and Voogd (1993), and Esu (2006), etc., focused on the challenges to tourism marketing while literature on the problems of tourism service communication promotion in the region are scarce. In other words, past literatures on tourism marketing focused more on how to market tourism product and less, perhaps not at all on why tourists have not been visiting tourism sites in south-south zone of Nigeria inspite of the richness and attractiveness of most sites coupled with the efforts of government and firms in the hospitality industry at promoting these sites. Moreover, factors such as demographic determinants, socioeconomic determinants of tourists, destination determinants, government policy, environmental factors and marketing communication determinants may have been conjecturally identified as problems of tourism communication promotion in the region. But it is quite unfortunate that such intuitive based determinants lacked empirical justification, thereby creating illusion as to which of the identified factors significantly influence tourism communication promotion in the region. The above conjectured dimensions of impediment notwithstanding, there is still no sufficient empirical proof of which variable in each dimension most influenced tourism service communication promotion. For instance, amongst demographic determinants of age, gender, lifestyle, religious belief, attitude, cultural inclination, residency most influences tourism communication promotion? Also, which of the socioeconomic factor such as income, education, employment status, occupation, perceived usefulness and fees/charges most influence tourism communication promotion? Amongst destination determinants, which of service quality, functionality of tangibles, convenience and comfort, service delivery most influence ecotourism communication promotion? Assuming it is marketing communication strategy, which of advertising, social media, internet, air catalogue etc? If it is government policy, could it be immigration requirements, stay-time permit, and bilateral agreement? Should it be environmental factors, could it be topography, accessibility, security and safety, climatic condition, attitude of the host community etc that is most responsible for low tourism service communication promotion in the region?

Perhaps, the answer to these questions may be in the affirmative, but what becomes more worrisome afterall, is the uncertainty of the extent to which each of the identified variables have affected tourism service communication promotion in the region. These and other salient issues prompted the researcher to consider an empirical investigation of the factors that significantly affect tourism service communication promotion in the south-south geopolitical zone of Nigeria a worthwhile academic exercise, hence this study.

i. What are the promotion patterns of tourism marketing in South West?

ii. What are the factors motivating tourists‟ choice of destinations in South West?

i. To review the concept and technique for analysing tourism communication promotion.

ii. To analyse responsiveness determinants of tourism marketing in South West.

iii. To identify factors motivating choice of tourism destinations.

iv. To identify factors militating against tourism responsiveness in South West.

v. To make recommendations for improvement of tourism destinations responsiveness in South West.

This study will centre on the analysis of responsiveness determinants of tourism destinations in South West, focusing on tourist demographic determinants, tourist responsiveness of destinations and the factors motivating them to visit. The study will be limited to South West as a region (covering the three local government areas; South West North, South West South and South West East) in regards to data collection, analysis and recommendations.

Tourism destination: Tourism destination as a physical space in which the visitor spend at least one night and is made up of tourism products such as support services and attractions, and tourism resources with physical and administrative boundaries that defines its management, images/perceptions of market competitiveness (world tourism organization, 2003).

Tourism: is defined as the entire activities of person(s) travelling to and staying in a place(s) outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited (UNWTO, 2010).

Tourist: a tourist is someone who satisfies the conditions of travelling at least fifty miles from home for any period of less than a year and that while they are away, they spend money in the place they visit without earning it there (Morley, 1990).

Responsiveness: responsiveness is the business that comes into an establishment generating revenue; it can also be seen as business or activity provided by a patron. For this study the above definition was adapted to be: the business or activities provided by patrons (tourists) in a destination, generating revenue. Determinants: Trait, Quality or property or a group of them distinguishing an individual, group or type.

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