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IMPACT OF IN-SERVICE TRAINING OF TEACHERS ON JOB PERFORMANCE AND MOTIVATION

ABSTRACT
This study assessed the effects of in-service training on teachers performance and motivation in Lagos Secondary schools. In order to provide in-depth information about in-service training the Questionnaire method was used in this research. The participants of this study are 70 secondary school teachers. The findings revealed that teachers strongly desire to receive trainings on curriculum, Information Computer Technology (ICT) and school management. Teachers suggest that a needs analysis should be done in order to inform planning of training. A qualitative approach with a case study design was used which provided a great deal of information about teachers in-service trainings. The number of participants involved in the study was 70 teachers from six secondary schools. The questionnaire method was used in this study for data collection.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Problem
The low performance of students in secondary schools, dynamic society and its needs, continues changes in expectations about the quality and assessment of education, rapid changes in science and technology lead the school and teachers to face difficulties with this respect to parents and society. In fact the issues for teachers and teachers' education to fulfill these requirements are continuing and complex (moeini,2008). In-service teacher training has grown in importance and status and has developed as a global trend for three decades. It has been viewed by many countries as the key element in strategies to rise the quality of educational provision (Hayes,1997).

Professional development programs or in-service training programs enable teachers to become highly qualified by improving, increasing and advancing their knowledge through a better understanding of effective instructional strategies. However, it has been shown that in many cases, in-training does not actually achieve its main objectives, namely the implementation of new teaching strategies and significant changes in students' achievements (Guskey,1986). In-service training is just as important as preservice teacher training. This is the Governments' role to provide teachers education which their need through in-service training. The purposes of the in-service teacher training are to enable individuals to be successful in their professionals, into develop professionalism and skills of lifelong in learning, to improve their required performance to meet the students' needs.

Training of employee for work performance became an issue of concern that raised questions to policy and decision makers (Malhotra et al. 2007). In fact, Meyer et al. (1993) argued that better training procedures for employees result to affective, continuance and normative commitment in public organization. Indeed, employees training are appropriate ingredient in service delivery to the public at large.

Employees training in public organization promote effective and competent performance of public organization. A dynamic global marketplace and increasing foreign competition has compelled public organization to become more effective and flexible in training (Gould-Williams, 2003).

Public organizations try to increase their capabilities by investing more in employees training. Moreover, it encourages competency of employees for both their own benefit and the benefit of others (Rodrigues, 2005). In a career system, initial training is of paramount in the effective and efficient work performance. The newly recruited employees enter in working without specific expertise for the job (Fraser et al, 2007). In fact, initial training offers general preparation in public service delivery. The training offers specific preparation for a new function after or before transfer or promotion. In a post system training may be less important as specialists are hired for a specific post (Koning, 2009).

However, even specialists may need some training throughout their work life to update skills with regard to new technologies or other developments. Nowadays, governments seem to organize public services by merging a pure post and career system The United States, for example, has departed from a pure post system and has to a certain extent introduced a career system, even for top management posts (the senior executive service), leaving enough leeway for political appointments. The "classical" civil services with a rigid career system, on the other hand, have introduced more flexibility to allow for direct appointments to other than entry level posts, and/or have excluded posts above a certain level from the normal career path (Vähäsantane, 2009).

However, the condition of public organization becomes increasingly challenging to engage in employee training. Similarly, Chapagain (2004) argued that USA, Japan and UK adapted different strategies in training of employee through a loan from the government. Training aimed at empowering public organization employee. In fact, training in the realm of employees’ job performance need government sponsorship.

Similarly, in developing countries training in public organization (like schools) is less considered on improving the capacity of its low cadre employees. According to Wereko (2010) who propound that low cadre employees have a weak voice on matter related to training. However, public organization is responsible for the full range of training of its employees. Low cadre demanding more or better education may have extremely weak voices relative to those of the military demanding armaments. In view of that, low cadre employee wanting better training for their skills for improvement of work performance (Mulkeen et al, 2007).

1.2 Statement of the Problem
It is clear that in-service Training programs for employee on work performance are increasingly drawing attention in public organization (URT, 2012). Mechanisms and adequate training of in service delivery still remain in the discussion and yet come into consensus in Nigeria. According to Rova (2006) who argued that training of employee expect to meet efficiency of employees.

Public organization employees are expected to be trained to enhance employees’ useful capacity in job performance. In view of that, employees are required to develop special skills and knowledge related to work performance. In fact, training is expected to foster work performance in public organization. Public organization employees are increasingly challenging in training opportunities while about 70% share of the recurrent education budget over the period 1998-2015 allocated in training (URT, 2012).

The past studies, indicated that training is required for employees work performance in public organization. The public organization has been forgotten in government training and development program (URT, 2013). It is no longer sufficient in recruit and retains the best employees but, organizations have to impart skills and enhance capabilities of employees through learning, supportive environment and shared knowledge. The quality of employees through training programs is the major factors in determining long term success of public organizations.

It is obvious that, achievements of public organization depend on different factors including type of services provided, support from the society concern, other motivation provided to employees, nature of recruiting employees, qualification of managers and other. But to a large extent depend on training of employee to cope with environment changes (Lynton, 2002). Many researches were conducted to other related topics but not assessing the impact of In-service training on teachers performance and motivation in secondary schools.

The researcher used that gap to study the topic concern.

1.3 Objectives of the Study
This research was steered by the following objectives;

General Objective
The overall objective of this study is to assess the impact of in-service training on teachers performance and motivation in secondary schools.

Specific Objectives
i. To assess the impact of in-service training on teachers' teaching methods.

ii. To assess the impact of in-service training on teachers' punctuality and attendance. iii. To examine the effects of in-service training on students' academic performance.

1.4 Research Questions
1. What is the impact of in-service training on teachers' teaching methods?

2. What is the impact of teachers’ in-service training on punctuality and attendance?

3. What is the impact of in-service training on students’ academic performance?

1.5 Significance of the Study
This study was designed to assess the effects of In-service Training program on employees work performance and point out its importance to both employee and public organization. Ngwira (2005) highlight that employee training is both costly and interrupting to the schedule of the organization.

Employees training intended to improve work performance towards the organization performance (Hayes, 1996). Since both training aim to improve performance, it makes sense to use them together, so that the performance management process can end up telling what kinds of training will be most effective in a given situation. Therefore, this study assessed the effects of In-service Training programs in work performance and is expected to open the minds of educational partners and researchers on different training styles and performance so as to enhance in-service training on teachers.

1.6 Scope of the Study
The study assessed the impact of In-service training on teachers performance and motivation. 70 secondary school teachers were selected through random sampling method. A qualitative approach with a case study design was used which provided a valid information. The questionnaire method was used as a tool for data collection.

1.7 Limitation of the Study
Every research is unique and has various theoretical and practical problems which are different from other researches. This study was limited in its findings in the following ways: Firstly some questions (items) included in the study has diverted to the attention of the respondents and thus interferes with thinking, response and findings of the study.

Secondly, the sample size was limited to only 70 teachers of six schools at Lagos State in Kigoma Region. This may not be a good representation of the majority of Nigerian secondary school teachers, hence could affect the significant relationships from the data generalizability of the findings. However, above mentioned limitations were minimized pilot test that was conducted before entire study was undertaken.

1.8 Delimitation of the Study
The participation in the study was good due to the fact that the respondents were aware of the topic “assessing the impact of in-service training on teachers performance and motivation in secondary schools”. Furthermore, the study was delimited to study schools in Lagos State. Selected area for research was nearby a researcher residential as well as the selected sample from the targeted population reduced unnecessary costs. Respondents were given with all necessary information on the reason for conducting this study so that they willingly participated in giving required information.

1.10. Definition of Terms
Performance the accomplishment of a given task measured against preset known standards of accuracy, completeness, cost, and speed (Carlson, 1998).

1.10.1 Training
Training is widely understood as a communication directed at a defined population in the purpose of developing skills, modifying behavior, and increasing competence, generally, Training focuses exclusively on what needs to be known (Dunn, 1988).

1.10.2 In-Service Training
In-service training may be defined in this study as all training which is given to teachers and education administrators following initial training and attainment of professional certificate. It is indisputable fact that this aspect of education and training for teachers is an important and integral part of educational system. Its importance has been given prominence of government, international organizations and through research and writing by academicians. It is this eminence and attention given to the program, which aroused the interest of the researcher leading to his choice of in-service teacher training as his area of study.

1.10.3 Public Sector
Public sector sometimes referred to as the State Governments or the government sector, is a part of the state that deals with either the production, ownership, sale, provision, delivery and allocation of goods and services by and for the government or its citizens, whether national, regional or local/municipal (David, 2002).

1.10.4 Development
Development: Is the positive change from unsatisfactory to satisfactory in all aspects of life such as economically, socially and politically (Sullivan, 2003).

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STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT AND SUSTAINABILITY OF AIRLINE INDUSTRY (CASE STUDY: FEDERAL AIRPORT AUTHORITY OF NIGERIA, CALABAR)

ABSTRACT
The purpose of the study thesis was to assist Federal Airport Authority of Nigeria to develop a more strategic and sustainable airline by investigating what other case company and Federal Airport Authority Of Nigeria operations. The study objective is to explore and understand the strategies that Federal Airport Authority Of Nigeria and Operate in their business and what has developed and how the airline implement and its sustainable practices in terms of economic, social and environmental aspects. There has been a major decline of the national airline industry in Nigeria and this thesis seeks to explore and get understanding of airline industry in Nigeria and its challenges and what could be developed for the industry to rejuvenate in a sustainable manner. The study will bring about literature review with key concepts in strategy development, sustainability and understanding of the airline industry operations mainly for national airlines.

The thesis was conducted through semi structured interview with Federal Airport Authority of Nigeria with focus to the airlines strategies and sustainability practices. The study will narrow the re-search in focusing on case studies on international level with Calabar airport to explore their strategies, operations and sustainable practices implemented to make the industry successful then later the study will focus on Federal Airport Authority Of Nigeria operations from current situations and challenges and what can be learned from Finn air in order to develop the industry in a more sustainable manner.

The research results showed differences and similarities between the case companies and with focus for the main case company to learn from the other company in its operations to develop. The main case study should revise its strategies and measure in order to see if they have been effective with new strategies and how to develop their business model into more sustainable way. There is need to do more research in the area of study by incorporating government role in airline development.

Chapter one
1 Introduction
1.1 Background of Study
Air Transportation as a means of moving passengers and freight has gained an important place worldwide (Sweet 2009, 2). Airline industry in Nigeria is the main reliable mode of transportation to the country due to its geographical position being a landlocked country. Federal Airport Authority Of Nigeria as national carrier for the country, the airline has undergone major challenges in its operations and since nowadays, airline business practices are more focused in being sustainable for the growth and for future existence. Airline industry in that matter has major issues on how sustainable it is due to the carbon emission. Airline industry in less developed countries like Africa, the area of sustainability can be critical and difficult to investigate.

Tourism growth in Nigeria depends mainly on Airline industry due to its geographical position as a landlocked country. Federal Airport Authority Of Nigeria is the only national carrier which cooperates with regional airlines like South Africa, Kenya airways and Ethiopian Airlines. The regional airlines are all part of global alliances and Federal Airport Authority Of Nigeria is not, this also makes it a challenge for visibility and development of the airline, strategies used to operate the airline are unknown and sustainability practices are unclear. Air Travel plays vital role but with climate change and environ-mental responsibility. Aviation industry directly attribute to the greenhouse gas emissions (Calabar airport 2012, 16).

1.2 Statement of problem
The significant area of the research is to strategically develop a sustainable national airline Federal Airport Authority Of Nigeria in order to have increase in tourists’ arrival with easy accessibility to Nigeria as well as the economic benefit for the country. The aim would be to discover how to reduce the challenges and develop new strategies that would bring growth to the industry and also employment to the society. Africa is the region most in need of improvement, and aviation safety work on the continent typifies industry efforts on the global stage. Although Africa continues to post the worst safety statistics, 2011 saw a 56% improvement in the region over the previous year (IATA 2012, 23).Federal Airport Authority Of Nigeria has major problems with maintenance for its air crafts which has led to cancellation of flights on which the carrier had to charter other air-lines to fly their passengers. The airline is owned by government which is also a challenge to make decisions more efficient and effective.

1.3 Research Objectives
This study will be conducted to determine three main objectives:

i. To determine the development levels for airlines operating in the Nigerian Market.

ii. To determine the influence of perceived service quality on customer satisfaction.

iii. To determine the influence sustainability on performance.

1.4 Value of the Study
The information from the study will enable understanding of customer perception of service quality. This study will give airlines an insight on how different dimensions of service quality may affect performance. Managers will use the information to make strategic decisions.

The study will also form a basis for research in airlines industry and other aviation organizations in Nigeria and in the region. Additionally, the findings of the study will add to literature on the subject and will be an ideal reference material on the study of effects of service quality on performance.

Lastly, the study will form basis of further research from the recommendations that will be made for further studies.

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MORAL DECADENCE AND IT'S IMPLEMENTATIONS ON STUDENT'S ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE AMONG SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN YENAGOA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ANAMBRA STATE

Abstract
This study is on the effect of moral decadence on students academic performance. Five objectives were raised which included; to ascertain the factors responsible for moral decadence of students in secondary school, to ascertain whether teacher’s attitude towards the students contributes to moral decadence among secondary school students, to ascertain whether Parents attitude towards their children contributes to moral decadence among secondary school students, to ascertain the relationship between causes of moral decadence among students and student academic performance, to suggest the possible solutions which may help to being an end to the problem of moral decadence in our secondary schools. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 staff from different secondary schools in Yenegoa, Anambra state was selected randomly. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made up principals, vice principals administration, senior staff and junior staff was used for the study.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study
Moral decadence may be said to be as old as the time when men started to organize him into society and consequently made laws to order the affairs of men in a social set up. In the Holy Scripture Cain exhibited some form of moral decadence when he out of envy murdered his brother Abel in their abode. We have heard of people engaging in moral decadence behavior on daily basis. Many of our students today especially those in our secondary school exhibit various forms of moral decadence in form of juvenile delinquency. This could be in the form of arson, murder and robbery etc. these acts involve both adult and youths, the rate of moral decadence tends to be on the increase in the modern world. Africa is not an exception of this general increase in the young stars, negative attitude to constituted authority. This rate of moral decadence tends to be on an increase despite the various measure taken by successive government most especially Nigeria, to curb the menace among our students so as to bring about a socially stable society.

We read our newspapers and hear from the electronic media of students in the country committing all forms of crimes ranging from the violation of parental regulations to truancy, stealing, assault, robbery and other socially undesirable behaviors. Available information shows that our students are most frequently implicated in the acts of moral decadence that in every five caught for a criminal offence; there are usually young stars. These offence ranges from drugs and robbery. During the military rule, several measures were put in place to curb the trends, on its assumption to power on the 31st December 1983, the government of general Mohammuadu Buhari (Rtd) made it known that one of the causes of our problems in our country (Nigeria) was moral decadence and as such, the war against moral decadence (WAI) was introduced into all aspects of the life of the nation. Also our past head of states, General Sani Abacha (Lt) on assumption I office (1993) launched the war against moral decadence and corruption (WAIC), President Olusegun Obasanjo also launched independent corrupt practices commission (ICPC) and economic financial crime commission (EFCC). This was aimed at checking the various corrupt practices in our society. Despite all these commendable effort of our youth are still very much moral decadence. The Nigeria youth is yet to embrace the principles behind the war against moral decadence and corruption program even when he is supposed to have great roles to play in the success of the program. There is often the saying that our youths are the leaders of tomorrow, but from what happens on a daily basis, one is forced to wonder if actually the youths are the future leader of tomorrow, if they could actually be entrusted with the leadership roles of the futures, people from various works of life have expressed concern. Olusegun Obasanjo formal president and head of state of the Federal Republic of Nigeria lamented over the rate of moral decadence in the Nigeria society. He pointed accusing fingers to most youths and adults noting that they suffering from what he called social, moral, political and economic moral decadence. Also formal head of state general Ibrahim Babaginda confirmed the obvious fact that the rate of moral decadence and crime among youths was growing fast. He said “moral decadence is threatening the nation as evidenced by the get rich quick syndrome that pervaded all facts of the society. Crimes of violence in which our young stars are involved in indication of the malaise which affects most of our communities”. (Daily Times 26th December, 1985. pp 1). The problems of moral decadence among students are fast becoming a canker worm that is eaten deeper and deeper in to the fabric of our society and thereby constituting a greater threatens to the stability of the nation. Moral decadence of various types has eaten deep into the fabric of the social system, it is a problem that is increasing at a fast rate and needs prompt attention. We have come to notice that hardly any family exists without a child possessing one trait of moral decadence or the other. It is either the child steals, is rude, not well mannered, runs away from classes, and or at time if the child is a female, it may be that she posses indulgent sexual acts which may create great concerns for the parents. It is also possible that the child is one way or the other drug addict. In whatever way it is viewed whether the child exhibits any of these features or many others, which are socially undesirable, such a child is certainly a problem to the family and the society at large. It is also sad, to note that student’s moral decadence has had a lot of negative effects on the school system and learning, many academic calendar are being disrupted as a result of this moral decadence many students now form themselves into gangs, they threaten the life of fellow students and even teachers. It is as a result of this moral decadence that we now have secreted societies or secrete cults even in our primary and secondary schools. is is necessary for the nation to pay attention to the frequent moral decadence among our students, if she is to achieve fame and progress in all field of human endeavor. This is because the fate of any nation depends on the youths she breeds, as they are the leaders of tomorrow.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The problem of student’s moral decadence is to be well attended to by parents, teachers/school administrators and all these involved in the upbringing of the students in the country, if lasting solutions are to be found in it. To this end, we all stand to gain in no small measure of students refrain from moral decadence behaviors and become discipline.

OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is the causes and effect of moral decadence among students. But for the successful completion of the study; the researcher intends to achieve the following sub-objectives;

1. To ascertain the factors responsible for moral decadence of students in secondary school

2. To ascertain whether teacher’s attitude towards the students contributes to moral decadence among secondary school students.

3. To ascertain whether Parents attitude towards their children contributes to moral decadence among secondary school students.

4. To ascertain the relationship between causes of moral decadence among students and student academic performance

5. To suggest the possible solutions which may help to being an end to the problem of moral decadence in our secondary schools

1.3 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;

H0: there are no factors responsible for moral decadence of students in secondary school

H1: there are factors responsible for moral decadence of students in secondary school

H02: there is no significant relationship between causes of moral decadence among student and student academic performance

H2: there is a significant relationship between causes of moral decadence among student and student academic performance

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is expected that the result of this study would be useful to parents and the society. School administrators, teachers, government and policy makers in their effort to put an end to the problem of students moral decadence specifically the out-come of this work would assist parents and society in monitoring the activities of their children through the results of this study, school heads, will discover what negative role they play and which in turn affect events that can lead to moral decadence in school. They will then adjust their administrative loopholes and forge ahead for a well-disciplined schools system. Teachers are expected to know from this study how student’s moral decadence is being carried out around them and employ means of eradicating the trend. The study would also be useful to the government and policy makers in formulating policies that will ensure a disciplined and patriotic behavior on the part of the students. The overall aim of this study is the complete wiping out of moral decadence among out students so that teaching learning atmosphere will be conducive and free dangers. In such an environment, there will be better enhancement of knowledge.

1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers the causes and effect of moral decadence among students. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;

a) AVAILABILITY OF RESEARCH MATERIAL: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study

b) TIME: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

c) Organizational privacy: Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities

DEFINITION OF TERMS
CAUSES: Causality is the natural or worldly agency or efficacy that connects one process with another process or state, where the first is partly responsible for the second, and the second is partly dependent on the first

EFFECTS: A change which is a result or consequence of an action or other cause.

MORAL DECADENCE: Lack of discipline.

1.8 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows

Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

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KNOWLEDGE AND FACTORS INFLUENCING SOCIAL WELLBEING OF THE ELDERLY PERSON IN BAUCHI STATE

ABSTRACT
The elderly in Nigeria are denied resources by formal institutions towards retirement and comfort to life in advanced stage of their existence. Yet, they are the custodians of culture and tradition, mediators during conflict resolution and contributors in enforcing peace in their various communities. Thus, their social wellbeing is of paramount importance especially in Bauchi because it comprises of varying diverse cultures and traditions which can only be held confidential and transferred to the younger ones when they are due, by the elderly persons. This study therefore examined the general social wellbeing of the elderly, factors affecting their social wellbeing, types and sources of support as well as the coping strategies of the elderly in Bauchi, Bauchi State, Nigeria. The study used their social, economic and health conditions as indicators. Purposive sampling technique was adopted and a structured questionnaire was administered to 399 respondents from six wards in the Local Government Area. In addition, Focus Group Discussions were held and In-depth Interviews were conducted on the subject matter to complement the quantitative data. Data were analyzed with both descriptive and inferential statistics using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS). The study showed that 77% of the respondents are in the early elderly (65-74) age group in which female respondents constitute 59.1% and males 40.9%. Farming and trading constitute the most important occupations engaged by the elderly with about 67.9%. However, majority of the elderly constituting 63.7% generate less than N 16,000 per month. The result of the principal component analysis (PCA) showed that factors such as health and nutrition of the elderly (11.50 eigenvalue), support given to the elderly (0.78 eigenvalue) and socialization and family association (0.60 eigenvalue) are the major factors influencing the social wellbeing of the elderly in Bauchi. Majority of the support for the elderly is gotten from the children with 49.1%, and the nature of support for the elderly appeared to be mainly financial support with about 49.1% in the study area. Going by this, the living standard of the elderly is concluded to be generally low. The study recommends that there is need for health insurance schemes for the elderly, special supply of food supplements for the old and also the provision of geriatric healthcare facilities like specialized hospital and old people's homes either by Bauchi State government or private individuals. There is also need for stakholders to design policies that will ensure the elderly are financially secured in their old age so as to improve their standard of living.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
Conventionally, “elderly” has been defined as a chronological age of 65 years old or older, while those from 65 through 74 years old are referred to as “early elderly” and those over 75 years old as “late elderly (Hajime et al.,2006). However, the evidence on which this definition is based is unknown. Ageing is referred to as the regular changes that take place in biologically matured individuals as they advance through life cycle (Harris and Cole, 1980; Gorman, 2000). Ageing is a relentless, biological imperative that begins with both male and female. No one escapes it. It is a process of getting old and all people affected by this process are regarded as the elderly. It is defined legally, socially and culturally (Nicholas, 1980; Okumagba, 2005).

Social wellbeing of old people are a reflection of the social wellbeing of society as a whole (Rosenmayr, 1979; Orire, 2021). The definition of level of living has been based on either needs or resources. According to Drewnowski (1974), the level of living of a population is the level of satisfaction of its needs attained per unit of time as a result of the goods, services and social wellbeing which the population enjoys in the unit of time. In talking about social wellbeing the term "standard of living" is widely used and it is sometimes seen merely as an economic concept, a measure of material wellbeing. The term social wellbeing is most often used with the same meaning as standard of living. The living standard of the elderly is mainly based on the capability of the next generation to meet their needs materially, financially and otherwise (Newman, 2003).

The global population is said to be ageing and it is ageing at an unprecedented rate of 2.8% annually. These facts have been subsequently recognized and affirmed (Asiyanbola, 2009). Both the number and proportion of people aged 65 years and above are increasing, although at different rates in different parts of the world. The number of older adults has risen more than threefold since 1950, from approximately 130 million in 1950 to 419 million in 2000, with the elderly share of the population increasing from 4 percent to 7 percent during that period (Waite and Hughes, 2004). It is worthy of note that political, social, health and economic factors determine to a very great extent, the social wellbeing of the elderly. The needs of elderly people in Nigeria has traditionally been the concern of the Federal, State, Local Governments and voluntary agencies (Anthea, 1991).

Adebowale, Atte and Ayeni (2012), noted that globally, the population of elderly is increasing and their well-being is becoming a public health concern. In Nigeria, poverty is widespread and elderly persons are at higher risk as a result of their age which reduces their working ability and leads to their retirement. Unfortunately, the Nigerian Government does not provide social security to the elderly and the supports from the family are fading out, hence, the well-being of elderly is compromised. Bauchi of Bauchi state has a good picture of such compromise as the elderly persons are really relying on the younger persons (Marcus 2007).

In some more advanced countries of the world like France, problems of the elderly such as social and medical issues are solved through provision of old people’s homes, free medical and health care delivery. Many of them are put into institutions, even though they are capable of active employment and life in the community. Not only is this very costly, but putting someone into a hospital bed and leaving them there often leads to psychological problems and chronic illness. Instead of aid being given to keep people at home, the disabled and elderly are treated as medical cases and kept in hospitals and institutions (Jean, 1980).

Old age as asserted by Bosanquet (1978), is considered to start from 60 years of age. It is worth noting that the physical changes that come with old age vary and do not necessarily develop at the same time in each old person. The United Nations (UN) held the First World Assembly on Ageing in Vienna in 1982 (United Nations, 1982). It recognized and affirmed that the global population was ageing and that it was ageing at an unprecedented rate. The United Nations then designated 1999 as “The Year of the Older Person”. In the second UN Assembly on Ageing in Madridin 2002, the Assembly adopted an International Plan of Action on Ageing, and a political declaration, recommending that older persons must be full participants in the development process in the 21st Century (United Nations, 2002). In addition to these specific Assemblies on older persons, population ageing has been prominent in the major international population conferences as well as in other key UN declarations during the past twenty five years.

Newman (2003), in a study of the social wellbeing of the elderly using the 1995 National American Housing Survey (AHS), noted that roughly 14% of elderly individuals had a housingrelated disability, 49% had at least one dwelling modification, and 23% had an unmet need for modifications. Because half of those with dwelling modification also reported unmet needs, the match between disabling condition and modification, not the presence of modifications is the key.

In Nigeria, those aged 65 years and above make up about 4.3 percent of the total population which was put at 140,431,790 million according to 2006 population exercise (National Population Commission, 2009). The population of elderly (age 65+) in Nigeria is on the increase as the crude mortality rates are gradually reducing (NPC and ICF Macro, 2009). The problems of an ageing population have not been seen as important in Nigeria because the aged are such a small proportion of the population. In most developing countries, formal social security systems have only limited coverage and inadequate benefit payments (Bailey, 2000; Colin, Turner, Bailey and Latulippe, 2000). As a result, the majority of older people depend on family support networks, a reality that is well appreciated in most parts of sub-Saharan Africa in the past (Van de Walle, 2006; Kaseke, 2004; WHO, 2002). However, it is recognized that traditional social security systems are evolving, attenuating and rapidly disappearing due to pressures from urbanization and industrialization (Tostensen, 2004). Youths migrate to cities while the elderly move back to the rural areas. Elderly persons in Nigeria reside more in rural communities, particularly those who have retired from their place of work (Tostensen, 2004).

Ageing in Nigeria is occurring against the background of socio-economic hardship, wide spread poverty, the HIV/AIDS pandemic, and the collapse of the traditional extended family structure. The roles of elderly in nation building at the various stages of their life cannot be overemphasized. They are the custodians of culture and tradition, are mediators during conflict resolution and contributors in enforcing peace in their various communities (Asiyanbola, 2008). The younger generation will know little or nothing about culture and tradition if the elderly who are to educate them are not been properly preserved. The elderly have served their motherland when they were young and active (Asiyanbola, 2009).

Many elderly reach retirement age after a lifetime of poverty and deprivation, poor access to health care and poor dietary intake that is usually inadequate in quality and quantity. These situations leave them with insufficient personal savings to meet their daily needs (Charlton and Rose, 2001). They are most at times denied of their right to receive their pension resulting on their poor well-being due to poverty and poor medical attention. The social wellbeing of the elderly is of paramount importance (Kimokoti and Hamer, 2008), especially in Bauchi LGA as the area comprises of varying diverse cultures and traditions which can only be held confidential by the elderly and transferred to the younger ones when they are due. It is against this background that this research was embarked upon. There is the need to understand the wellbeing of the elderly in Bauchi local government because the role of elderly person in every society is of utmost importance.

1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
The attitudes of government towards the elderly in our contemporary society is not encouraging, as there exist no special resources directed to aid in making life better for them in the rural and urban Centre. The health care systems in most developing countries are appalling as government spend a small fraction of the budget on treating older adult illness and access to care is limited and not a policy priority (Poullier, Hernandez and Kawabata, 2003; Tollman, Doherty, and Mulligan, 2006). The attitudes of health care providers towards older people make their situations even more difficult. Many older people do not access health services due to inability to prove their age, aggravated by the limited availability of health services, equipment and expertise.

Although, declarations and plans have presented great opportunities for countries to mainstream ageing within the context of current global development initiatives, the recognition of population ageing by governments is still limited. This is the situation, especially in African countries, where other pressing priorities command most of the attention of policy makers, even though the process of population ageing is already visible in these countries.

In Nigeria, poverty is rife and elderly persons are more at risk since most of them are no longer in the economically active phase of life and there is no national social security to provide economic support in old age (Gureje, Lola, Ebenezer and Benjamin, 2008). Access to health care is severely limited both by paucity of health facilities and manpower and by out-of-pocket payment arrangement. Social network is dwindling and traditional family support is decreasing as urbanization and migration takes young members of the family away. Also, social changes are affecting the position of the elderly in the society and leading to a reduction in their social status and influence in the community (Gureje, and Oyewole, 2006).

A recent study by Okoye (2004) explored how Nigerian youths feel about care-giving for the elderly and their views about traditional ways of taking care of the elderly. The author observed in the study that the youngsters are not willing to live with their aged parents; neither are they willing to send their wives nor their children to the village to live with their aged parents. An earlier work examines the link between social support/networks, urban condition and physical wellbeing of the elderly (Asiyanbola, 2004).

In Nigeria, poverty and poor infrastructural development which perpetrated rural communities where most elderly people reside, constraint them from achieving good social wellbeing. Traditionally, the elderly are expected to rely primarily on their families for economic and emotional support. At times if family support mechanism fails, community help may be available. However, the collapse in family ties and structure also have negative effects on elders who are used to enjoying support from extended families where traditionally the elders are respected and properly catered for(Ajala and Olorunsaiye, 2006; Asiyanbola, 2009).

Due to the youthful nature of Nigeria age structure, government believes that the health problems that manifest among children and youths need more attention than that of the elderly. As a result, very little consideration is given to the elderly in Nigeria by both the research community and policymakers. Average household sizes are large and a substantial proportion of older adults live alone (Adebowale, Atte and Ayeni, 2012). The economies of the elderly (65 years and above) in Bauchi are predominantly supported by subsistence agriculture, which provides little or no pension coverage and limited health care services.

In Bauchi state, the population of the elderly was 4.6% of the entire population in 2005. It was estimated that old people would be 63,539 in 2005, 65,006 in 2007 and 70,909 in 2010. Despite the relatively small number of old people, it is expected that it will rise in the future. Adequate facilities for the treatment of geriatric diseases should be planned (Marcus, 2005).

In assessing and determining the nature of the social wellbeing of the elderly in localities, regions and countries, a lot of research work has been carried out to give better understanding about the subject matter. These are seen in the works of Adebowale et al (2012), who studied elderly wellbeing in a rural community in north central Nigeria. The study was designed to determine the prevalence and identify predictors of elderly well-being in a rural community in Nigeria. It was cross-sectional in design and adopted multi-stage sampling procedures to select 1217 elderly people aged 65 and above. Well-being was captured using scores from four domains; social, psychological, physical and environmental and the data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square and logistic regression models.

Orire (2021) also carried out a research on the spatio-temporal analysis of population aging in Kwara State. The study attempts a spatial concentration of the elderly segment of the population of Kwara State, Nigeria, using data from 488 copies of questionnaire. The data collected were summarized by means of descriptive and inferential statistical analysis.

1.3 Research Questions
i. What is the general social wellbeing of the elderly in Bauchi?

ii. What are the factors affecting the social wellbeing of the elderly in Bauchi Local Government Area?

iii. How are the elderly coping with their social, economic and health conditions in Bauchi Local Government Area?

iv. What are the sources of support for the elderly in Bauchi?

v. What kind or type of support do elderly people receive in Bauchi Local Government Area?

1.3 Aim and Objectives of the Study
The aim of this research is to examine the social wellbeing of the elderly with emphasis on their social, economic and health conditions in Bauchi of Bauchi State,

Nigeria. The aim will be achieved through the following specified objectives which are to:

i. examine the general social wellbeing of the elderly in Bauchi

ii. analyze the factors affecting the social wellbeing of the elderly in the study area

iii. assess how the elderly cope with their social, economic and health conditions inthe study area

iv. assess the kind or type of support elderly people receive in the study area

v. identify the sources of support for the elderlyin the study area

1.4 The Scope of the Study
The study evaluated the general social wellbeing of the elderly persons in Bauchi LGA. Special consideration was given to health status of the elderly, their nutritional status and their supporting system which ranges from the source, nature and frequency of the support. For the purpose of this study, six (6) wards were purposively selected namely; Akurba/ Bakin Rijiya, Chiroma, Gayam, Makama, Shabu/ Kwandere and Zanwa of the thirteen (13) wards in Bauchi local government which is also the state capital of Bauchi State. The selection of the six wards is to have a high degree of coverage of the area and also have enough sample population. It is in these six wards that in-depth study will be carried out. This area was selected by the researcher due to the peaceful condition of the areas as against other areas that are still in conflict in the local government. It is within the temporal scope of this study to exhaust a period of six (6) months beginning from December 2014 to May 2021. The study was based on data obtained in the field using questionnaire survey which shall be answered by the elderly persons in the study area.

1.5 Justification of the Study
This study is very significant to an understanding of the social wellbeing of the elderly. The findings may be helpful to decision and policy makers on the elderly especially as it relates to the developmental process particularly in Nigeria. It is best convenient for the society to understand, identify and appreciate the factors responsible for the social wellbeing of the elderly in any given society.

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IDENTIFICATION OF OCCUPATIONAL HAZARD AND SAFETY PRACTICE AMONG HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS IN UNIVERSITY OF PORT HARCOURT TEACHING HOSPITAL, RIVER STATE

ABSTRACT
Introduction: Healthcare facilities like other work places are characterized by a high level of exposure to occupational hazards which could significantly endanger the safety and health of workers, and impact on the rate of occupational injury and infections among health care providers. Traditionally, healthcare workers are viewed as professionals who are capable of maintaining their health without assistance. Hospitals and health institutions were also considered to be safer than other working environment.

Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the occupational hazards and safety practices among health care providers at the University of Port Harcourt teaching hospital.

Methods: A cross-sectional study employed the simple random sampling method to select 246 respondents. A structured questionnaire was designed and administered to study participants. Data collected from respondents were entered into MS EXCEL for organization, and analyzed using STATA version 14.

Results: The study found high knowledge and awareness of occupational hazards and safety among the health care providers. There was positive attitude towards occupational safety practices. However, there was presence of occupational injuries and illnesses among healthcare workers.

Conclusion: The development and implementation of an effective occupational health policy to guide health care providers is imperative.

Keywords: Occupational, Hazards, Safety, Practices, Attitude

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1. Background
Traditionally, professionals working in a hospital are seen as people who are capable of keeping their health without help and hospitals and other health facilities were also considered to be safer than other workplaces. As a result few resources are allocated to the occupational health of these health care providers. However, the hospital environment presents healthcare employees with various occupational hazards, including exposure to infectious agents, needle stick and sharp injuries, musculoskeletal disorders (MSD), exposure to carcinogenic agents, latex allergies, violence and stress (Lugah et al., 2010).

The World Health Organization (WHO) in 2007 endorsed the Global Plan of Action on Workers’ Health, to be implemented from 2008-2017 to provide political framework for development of infrastructure, policies, technologies and partnerships for achieving basic level of occupational safety throughout the world (WHO, 2007). The Global Plan of Action addresses all aspects of employees’ health, including prevention of workplace hazards, protection and promotion of safety practices at work, employment conditions and improving the response of health systems to employees’ health. It, thus, links occupational health to public health (Bekele, Gebremariam, Kaso, & Ahmed, 2015).

Thus, working in a safe environment is the basic right of all employees and the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 and the Workers Right to know laws were important landmarks in the history of occupational safety and health. They embedded in the law the principle that employers had a responsibility to protect their employees (Rosner& Markowitz, 2016). It is thus instructive to assess the knowledge, attitude and perceptions of health care workers with respect to occupational hazards and the extent to which personal protective equipment were used in the discharge of their duties.

1.2. Problem statement
The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that at any point in time more than 1.4 million people globally have infections they acquired in healthcare centres. Health care providers were at risk of being exposed to numerous infectious diseases, including, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), tuberculosis (TB), hepatitis B, and influenza. In other countries, health care workers were three times more likely than the general public to contract TB. In general, airborne infections posed a significant danger to hospital employees especially in low- and middle-income countries (Lavoie et al, 2010).

Shockingly, 90% of blood borne infections occured in low-income countries, stressing the vulnerability of hospital staff in these areas. Professionally, Health Care Workers see to patients through different preventive and curative services. However, while they focused on providing care, they are exposed to hazards that could affect their health and wellbeing. This is the norm in developing countries where health care services are besought with minimum protective precautions against being exposed to various occupational hazards (Aluko et al., 2016).

In addition, poor attitude toward occupational safety and health, and knowledge on occupational hazards among health care providers substantially contributed to their vulnerabilities (Aluko et al., 2016).

In Nigeria, very little is said about occupational health hazards confronting healthcare practitioners and other health care providers. The University of Port Harcourt teaching hospital is one of the busiest hospitals in the country, and serves as one of the three referral health centres in the Region and beyond. There was the need to assess the occupational dangers posed to hospital employees and other workers in this facility, and utilization of personal protective equipment by healthcare workers in the health facility.

1.3 Research Questions
1. What is the level of awareness about occupational hazards among workers at the University of Port Harcourt teaching hospital

2. What is the attitude of workers towards the use of personal protective equipment as an important barrier in minimizing occupational hazards?

3. What is the perception of workers about the health implications of occupational hazards in the hospital?

4. Are there administrative policies and training on use of personal protective equipment?

1.4 Objectives
1.4.1. General Objective
To assess occupational hazards and safety practices among health care providers at University of Port Harcourt teaching hospital in Rivers state, Nigeria.

1.4.2. Specific Objectives
1. To assess the awareness, knowledge, attitude and perception of workers about occupational hazards at the University of Port Harcourt teaching hospital.

2. To determine the prevalence of occupational related diseases among healthcare workers.

3. To assess the use of personal protective equipment among workers at the hospital.

1.5. Justification
Assessing the knowledge, attitude and perceptions of health care providers regarding occupational dangers has the ability to spread awareness in occupational health hazards and to regulate and set standards to promote safety and health in the various hospitals. (Aminde et al., 2015)

Adequate knowledge of occupational hazards coupled with a positive attitude and perceptions among health care providers is highly crucial for preventing the occurrence of various kinds of occupational diseases and injuries. However there is limited data on health care providers knowledge, attitude and beliefs of occupational dangers in developing countries where the burden of occupational diseases and injuries continue to increase (Agbana et al., 2016).

The study is expected to help provide data on the knowledge, attitude and perceptions of health care providers about occupational hazards associated with the healthcare environment and ways to reduce the occurrence of these hazards by using equipment to protect employees at the hospital.

The findings of this study would help stakeholders such as the Ministry of Health, Nigeria Health Service and other healthcare related organization fashion out the requisite policies help to improve the safety and health of HCWs in the country.

1.6 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Knowledge: This is what the Respondents knowledge about occupational hazards and safety as pertains to their work environment.

Attitude: This is Respondent’s behavior and actions towards occupational hazards and safety

Perception: This is respondent’s view about occupational hazards and safety. Personal Protective Equipment: Items worn by health care workers to protect themselves during work

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