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THE USE OF SELECTED PLANT EXTRACTS IN GREY- WATER TREATMENT

ABSTRACT
Grey water is the left over water from baths, showers, hand basin and washing machine; in some cases water from the kitchen sink. The use of some synthetic chemical reagents in the treatment of grey water has been reported to be cancerogenic. The present study is an investigation into the possibility of using environmental friendly substances like, Agave sisalana leaves extract, Moringa oleifera seeds extract and parkia biglobosa seeds extract as coagulant and antimicrobial properties. Dry leaves of Agave sisalana, dry seeds Moringa oleifera and dry seeds of Parkia biglobosa were obtained from the botanical garden of the Department of Biological Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria. Grey water sample with turbidity ranging from 68, 67 and 76 NTU over the period of study were collected from Queen Amina Hostel of the Ahmadu Bello University Zaria. A standard jar test apparatus was used for the coagulation test, to the determine the minimal dosage of the extracts which are 100 mg/l, 120 mg/l and 150 mg/l. 500 ml of the grey water from was dosed with increasing amounts of the extracts. Turbidity (NTU), PH, total dissolved solids (PPM) electrical conductivity (┬Ás/cm), dissolved oxygen (ppm) BOD (ppm) and antimicrobial properties were measured using standard methods. The study shows that the extracts could act as a natural coagulant, flocculent and absorbent in grey water treatment. Separately Moringa oleifera was found to be more effective in coagulation than Agave sisalana and Parkia biglobosa with a turbidity removal from 76 NTU to 47 NTU and 18 NTU (85 % and 90 %) removal, and also Moringa olerifera separately was more effective in antimicrobial analysis with coloy reduction from 80 cfu to 40 cfu. while in combine, Parkia biglobosa seeds extract and Agave sisalana leaves extract in ratio 1:1 were more effective with turbidity removal of 35 % from 76 NTU to 62 NTU. In terms of antimicrobial analysis there was no synergistic action between them. The extracts can be used as alternative coagulants in grey water treatment. Similarly, the separate use of the extracts is more effective than in combine.


CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1       Preamble
Grey water got its name from its cloudy appearance and from its state as being between fresh potable water known as white water” in a household context. Grey water is the left over water from baths, showers, hand basins and washing machine only some definitions of grey water include water from the kitchen sink. Any water containing human waste (feces) is considered as black water. Grey water reuse can be reuse for subsurface irrigation and for toilet flushing (Mcconnachie, 1993).

Water is life. The importance of water to man’s existence cannot be overemphasized. Adequate supply of water is central to life and civilization. Of the five basic human needs (water, food, health, education, peace) water is a common factor to the other four (FRN, 2004). Safe water is a precondition for health and development and a basic human right, yet it is still denied to hundreds of millions of people throughout the developing world. Water-related diseases caused by insufficient safe water supplies coupled with poor sanitation and hygiene causing 3.4 million deaths a year, mostly among children. Despite continuing efforts by governments, civil society and the international community, billions of people still do not have access to improved water sources (UNICEF, 2008).

The fact that 70 % of the human body weight and 98 % of neonatal body weight are accounted for by water underscores the importance of water to man’s survival (Okuofu, 2010). Moreover, water covers about 70 % of the total earth surface. This obviously explains why many ancient civilizations in history have thrived around water bodies.

Water bodies that played this vital role include the Euphrates, Tigris, Thames, and Nile just to mention but a few (Okuofu, 2010). The importance of water cuts across food production as well as recreation. The sufficiency of water for these uses depends largely on proper harnessing and management of the little available.

The use of water also extends to disposal of waste from domestic and municipal sources. This is often where the problem arises especially when the waste is pre-treated to conform to specified standards and the water may be re-used for other purposes such as irrigation and even for drinking as obtainable in some localities. This may result in physical, chemical or biological (including microbiological) problems with respect to quality of water (Okuofu, 2010).

As pressures on freshwater resources grow around the world and as new sources of supply become increasingly scarce, expensive, or politically controversial, efforts are underway to identify new ways of meeting water needs. Of special note are efforts to reduce water demand by increasing the efficiency of water use and to expand the usefulness of alternative sources of water previously considered unusable, Among these potential new sources of supply is “grey water” (Allen et al., 2010).

By appropriately matching water quality to water need, the reuse of grey water can replace the use of potable water in non-potable applications like toilet flushing and landscaping. In most modern wastewater systems, treated wastewater is then disposed off into the ocean or other water bodies, voiding the reuse potential of this treated wastewater. In other places, once used wastewater may be disposed of directly into the environment. This system wastes water, energy, and money by not matching the quality of water to its use (Allen et al., 2010).

1.2       Statement of Problem
The use of some synthetic chemical reagents in the treatment of grey water has been associated with health problems, for example chlorine which reacts with natural organic materials during pre and post chlorination to form by products, some of which have been reported to be carcinogenic (Herbert, 2007).

The adoption of a sustainable technology is a major factor that determines the success of the treatment of grey water. The use of conventional technologies is not only capital intensive, but also requires sophisticated equipment, and requires skilled operators, with the use of natural treatment additives and processes, and these problems can be greatly reduced or totally eliminated.

1.3       Justification of Study
Grey water which is gotten from bathrooms, washing machines and kitchen sinks, contains organic and inorganic substances. The use of chemical reagent like (Chlorine, Ozone etc.) can cause serious health hazards e.g. cancer. However, the present study is an investigation into the possibility of using environmental friendly substances like, Agave sisalana leaves extract, Moringa oleifera seeds extract and Parkia biglobosa seeds extract as coagulants and to test for the present of antimicrobial properties. These extracts are natural sources of reagents that are affordable, with less health hazards and are easy to handle.

1.4       Aim and Objective
1.4.1    Aim
The aim of this research is to use Agave sisalana leaves extract, Moringa oleifera seeds extract and Parkia biglobosa seeds extract to treat grey water for the purpose of irrigation and toilet flushing.

1.4.2    Objectives
i. To characterize the antimicrobial properties of Agave sisalana leaves extract, Moringa oleifera seeds extract and Parkia biglobosa seeds extract in grey water treatment.

ii. To evaluate Agave Sisalana leaves extract, Moringa oleifera seeds extract and Parkia biglobosa seeds extract as grey water treatment coagulant, individual and in combination.

iii. To attest the feasibility of Agave sisalana leaves extract in the treatment of grey water.

1.5       Scope of the Study
This research is a laboratory based study. Its scope includes: the coagulation studies and antimicrobial anayisis of Agave sisalana leaves extract, Moringa oleifera seeds extract and Parkia biglobosa seeds extract.

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THE EFFECT OF COMMUNITY SANITATION PRACTICE ON WATER QUALITY IN SELECTED COMMUNITIES IN JALINGO, TARABA STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT
The study was conducted on communities along Lamurde floodplain between Latitude 8˚52’0” and 8˚56’6” and Longitude11˚19’0” and 11˚22’8”. The study areaoverlain the shallow well fields where public water supply system and main private water vending were extracted to service the entire Jalingo city. Sample points were selected among the few available functional water points during the month of April when dry season was at its peak. Seventeen water points were randomly sampled, assessed and quantified for sanitary risk using standardized checklists. Biophysicochemical constituents of the water samples were also conducted using international standard methods of water samplings and analytical application principles. The sanitary inspection identified different degree of sanitary risk factor at the sample points, with a common practice at the dug wellsource where fetching tools were left in pools of stagnant water. All the sample points quantified with high sanitary risk were noted with faecal coliforms. There were significant differences between faecal coliform counts (F2,14= 17.31; p = 1.64 x 10 -4) in the dry season and (F2,14= 5.39; p = 8.54 x 10 -4) in the wet season at 95% confidence level along borehole, tube well and dug well sources. Nitrate contaminations were localized to sources closed to either pit latrines or solid waste dumpsites. No effect between nitrate concentrations (F2,14=1.75; p =0.21) in the dry season and (F2,14 =1.65; p =0.23) in the wet season 95% confidence level along the boreholes, tube wells and dug wells. The summary of the analysis indicated that fecal and chloride contaminations were widespread over borehole, tube well and dug well water sources while all other chemical contaminations were localized.


CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
The soil formation has the capacity of self-cleaning and equilibrium maintenance of groundwater quality to preserve its quality so that every generation finds it the same as the one before it (Bhatia, 2002). However, with man’s expanded population and his quest to develop industrial and agricultural sectors to provide food and other basic amenities to the increasing population, there has been enormous amount of wastes generated and released with varying compositions onto the environment on a continuous basis. The contaminants arising from these wastes may be carried from the sources by infiltrating water through long distances to the groundwater table before natural processes such as adsorption, biodegradation, radioactive decay, ion exchange and dispersion could remove them. Studies have shown that Nigeria urban groundwater quality is influenced by geology and geochemistry of the environment, rate of urbanization, industrialization, landfill/dumpsite leachates and effect of seasons (Ocheriet al., 2014).

In urban settings, the risk of groundwater contamination are likely to be most significant, due to the higher density of contaminant sources, issues of contaminant legacy and greater concentrations of anthropogenic activity (Sorensen and Pedly, 2015). Additionally, as the impervious and un-vegetated ground of urban developmental areas have little or no retention during rains, human and animal wastes are flushed into the river systems polluting urban water supplies, rivers and coastal waters (Mafutaet al., 2011). Principal water contaminants arising from poor community sanitation practices include but not limited to faecal matters, nitrate and chloride. Faecal contamination may occur because there are no community facilities for waste disposal, because collection and treatment facilities are inadequate or improperly operated, or because on-site sanitation facilities (such as latrines) drain directly into aquifers (Bartram and Ballance, 1996). Ammonia in the environment mainly results from feedlot and the use of manures in agriculture, or from on-site sanitation or leaking sewer. Ammonia in water could also be an indicator of sewage pollution (WHO, 2006). Chloride is abundant in human faeces; its presence in water is an indication of faecal contamination.

Of primary concern is the quality of groundwater exploited for drinking as well as other domestic purposes. Many human bacteria and virus are transmitted through faecal contaminated groundwater supply, making them waterborne. High prevalence of diarrhoea among children and infant can be traced to use of unsafe water and unhygienic practice (Bradford et al., 2013). Heavy metals enter groundwater through natural leaching from the rock or runoff from industrial wastes and pollution fallout of pervious surface of roads, motors parks and commercial areas, which percolate down, into groundwater tables. They persist in the environments and tend to accumulate in soils, sediments and biota. Heavy metals can cause neurological disorder and any contact with water with highly polluted heavy metals can result in skin irritation (Davis and Susan, 2004).

This concern has attracted overwhelming studies on the quality status of groundwater abstracted from shallow wells and deep wells for human consumption in urban areas of the country (Ocheri et al., 2014). Jalingo, which is one of the fast growing cities in Nigeria, is not exceptional. The urban abstraction wells are mainly within the informal congested city limit with wells and boreholes constructed close to pit latrines. The solid wastes management and pollution control within the city is characterized by insufficient methods of collection, transfer and storage, insufficient coverage of the collection system and uncontrolled disposal of the waste (Yavini and Musa, 2013).

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RECOVERY OF VALUE METALS FROM SPENT ZINC-CARBON BATTERIES

ABSTRACT
Spent primary batteries are known to contain metallic compounds that could be of value if recycled as well as harmful to man and the environment if not properly disposed. Also, the recovery of these value metals from the used batteries can reduce limited natural resource (ore) depletion. This research was carried out to investigate the recovery potential of Zinc and Manganese from spent zinc-carbon battery paste. Spent battery samples were collected around Samaru area of Sabon-gari LGA of Kaduna State. The samples were crushed, ground, sieved, washed and oven-dried. Quantities of dry samples were taken for x-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis and chemical digestion. Chemical digestion (leaching) was done by studying some variable parameters: acid concentration, reducing agent concentration, temperature, stirring speed, solid-liquid ratio and time. Leached samples were then filtered and the filtrate taken for quantitative analysis of dissolved metals using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) analysis. Results show traces of heavy metals (lead, mercury and cadmium) and also significant amount of zinc and manganese in the solution. The optimum conditions for selective dissolution of zinc was found to be 2M nitric acid concentration, 10% hydrogen peroxide, 600C, 400rpm, 1:5 S/L and 1.5hrs, which yielded 4788.323mg/lit. For manganese, it was 1M nitric acid, 5% hydrogen peroxide, 600C, 400rpm, 1:5 S/L ratio and 1.5hrs giving a yield of 18042.67mg/lit while the optimum condition for simultaneous dissolution of zinc and manganese was found to be 1M nitric acid concentration, 5% hydrogen peroxide, 600C, 400rpm, 1:5 S/L ratio and 1.5hrs with a yield of 1225.648mg/lit zinc and 18042.67mg/lit manganese. The study therefore, showed that there is reasonable potential of zinc and manganese recovery from spent zinc-carbon battery.


CHAPTER ONE
1.0       INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background to Study
Large amount of primary cell batteries are discarded annually across the globe. In most West African countries, zinc-carbon and alkaline-zinc-manganese dioxide batteries have traditionally been the most popular among the rural folks and lately among the low to middle income populace in the urban areas owing to erratic power supply (Dankwah et al., 2015).

Primary batteries are the most common household portable energy source. They are also known as single-use batteries because they cannot be recharged and are disposed of after use, therefore, are considered the most common source of household hazardous wastes. The environmental impact of battery is not limited to the waste stream. Environmental impacts occur in the production, distribution and end-of-life phases of the batteries. Single-use batteries have significant environmental impact at every stage of their life cycle. Secondary batteries are rechargeable as they can be used repeatedly upon being recharged. Recharging occurs when electrical current is applied to the battery, reversing the chemical reactions that occur during battery use (Linden and Reddy, 2002).

Owing to its popularity and short lifespan, spent primary cells such as zinc-carbon and alkaline-zinc-manganese dioxide batteries can considerably function effectively as energy source to power household gadgets such as flash lights, television remote controls, radio receivers, etc. if recycled (Dittrich et al., 2012).

IRR (1992) stated that the logistics and viability of recycling household battery collection systems is mainly influenced by the current status of battery recycling technology for the various battery systems and the cost of battery recycling. Such knowledge will aid in evaluating the feasibility of implementing battery recycling programs. In fact, it is believed that the collection and recycling of used household batteries poses several unanswered technical and economic problems that need to be resolved before any widespread and implementation of such a program.

The metals of potential concern in the household batteries studies are cadmium, manganese, mercury, nickel, and zinc. In whatever disposal or management practice that is adopted for used household batteries, there is the potential for the release of one or more of these metals into the environment which may affect human health directly or indirectly or which may negatively impact the environment. Currently, used household batteries are almost exclusively disposed of in domestic waste, which is eventually incinerated or landfilled. Lately, the idea of used battery collection, separation and possible recycling is becoming another focus of attention (Veloso et al., 2005).

Any decision to recycle primary batteries must carefully weigh several factors including the low toxicity of the battery materials (e.g. steel, zinc and manganese), total energy requirement and the environmental impact associated with the collection, transport and recycling of the batteries, the amount and value of the metals recovered and the overall cost (Meskers et al., 2009).

According to NEMA (2002), landfill disposal of primary cell batteries does not pose a significant health or environmental risk based on over 20 years of battery experience and the results of various scientific studies. Almost a decade later, Khan and Kurny (2012) reported that “when zinc-carbon batteries (primary cells) are disposed of in a landfill, the elements of the spent batteries can undergo natural leaching, seep into the ground water, change water pH and cause contamination”. Further stated that the incineration of batteries also poses two major potential environmental concerns. The first is the release of metals (Zn, Pb and Hg if present) into the ambient air and the second is the concentration of metals in the ashes that must be land-filled. The stabilization process of the landfill on the other hand, is a costly process (Bernardes et al., 2004).

EPBA (2006) reported that the disposal of spent batteries represents an increasing environmental problem in terms of heavy metal contents when these devices are disposed of inadequately. This environmental problem is closely related to the battery market evolution; in 2003 the total portable battery weight in the East and West Europe was about 164,000 tons of which 50,197 and 99,138 tons were zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries respectively (30% and 60% of the total annual sales).

According to Nindhia et al. (2016), spent primary cell still contains ammonium chloride (NH4Cl2) which is mildly acidic that can disturb the balance of nature if the battery is carelessly discarded. Manganese dioxide (MnO2) is known as a hazardous material that can stain the human skin.

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PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE AND ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF 7UP BOTTLE

ABSTRACT
Studying the life cycle of 7up bottle is of great importance not only to the producers but to the users and the entire environment.The work broadly covers the entire life of the bottle from raw materials, production phase to the end of its life. The environmental impacts include those from emissions into the environment and through the consumption of resources, as well as associated with producing the bottle that occur when extracting resources, producing materials, manufacturing the products, during consumption/use, and at the products' end-of-life (collection/sorting, reuse, recycling, waste disposal). These emissions and consumptions contribute to a wide range of impacts, the depletion of resources, water use, land use, and noise—among others. A clear need, therefore, exists to provide complimentary insights, to help reduce such impacts. The raw materials are readily available except for soda ash sodium sulphate and iron chromate which are supplied from outside the Country and are very expensive.

Energy is most utilized at the melting stage, the furnace alone accounts for 70% of the total plant demand, while the batch stage and transportation has the least of energy consumption. A few of the total bottle produced for the batch under review were unrecovered from the consumers and most of the recovered bottles after being reused two times for the period of two and half years ,were crushed and used for recycle for further production. The greenhouse gases were emitted greatly at melting stage due to the fuel type LPFO (low pour flow oil) used in running the furnace .It is a by-product of crude oil which burn slowly. Dust particulates were also observed at the point of unloading of the raw materials and batch house.


CHAPTER ONE
1.0       INTRODUCTION 
1.1       Glass Life-Cycle Assessment
The product Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) allows to quantify a product‘s environmental footprint, in accordance with international standards, It studies two major aspects:

The whole product Life Cycle: from the raw materials and production phase to the end of the product life.

All environmental impacts: water consumption, air pollution, resource utilization, and energy.

While a project life cycle assessment establishes an important quantitative benchmark, the full sustainable benefits of glass packaging include additional environmental, health, social and economic dimensions that reach above and beyond what can be measured in an LCA. These include health and safety, recycling, reuse and resource efficiency; the full benefits of glass social, environmental and technical recycling and reuse. Glass recycling and reuse contribute significantly to reducing glass packaging‘s carbon footprint (Abrahams, and John 2002). The use of recycled glass or cullet in batch materials has the following beneficial impacts:

Every 1 kg of cullet used replaces 1.2kg of virgin raw materials that would otherwise need to be extracted.

Every 10 percent of recycled glass or cullet used in the production results in an approximate 5 percent reduction in carbon emission and energy savings of about 3 percent.

Glass is resource efficient; it can be reused in its original form more than other packaging materials. Additionally, several initiatives currently underway in the glass industry that will further increase the efficiency of glass packaging. Such efforts include including ; to improve recovery and recycling of glass containers, help eliminate the diversion of glass to landfill; leading to a decrease in energy use and global warming potential (Andreola, et.al., 2005).

Light weighting glass containers reduces raw material usage, emissions, energy use and the overall weight.

Packaging‘s most important function is product preservation and no other packaging material does this better than glass.

1.2       Life History of Glass
According to Chang, (2008), glass dates back to the Stone Age when naturally occurring glass (especially the volcanic glass obsidian) was used globally by many Stone Age societies for the production of sharp cutting tools and jewelry. Another rare form of naturally occurring glass is called fulgurite (commonly called ‗petrified lightning‘) which occurs when lightning strikes sand and the resultant heat sometimes fuses the sand into long slender glass tubes. The scarcity and selective source areas of these naturally occurring glasses made them valuable materials for trade. Archaeological evidence however suggests that the first true glass was made in coastal North Syria, Mesopotamia or Ancient Egypt, (Douglas, 1972).

Early glass production relied on grinding techniques borrowed from stone working. This meant that glass was ground and carved at a cold state. The disasters that overtook the Late Bronze Age civilizations brought glass-making to a halt and it only picked up again in its former sites, in Syria and Cyprus, in the 9th century BCE, when the techniques for making colorless glass were discovered. In Egypt however, glass-making did not revive until it was reintroduced in Ptolemaic Alexandria, (Helmenstine, 2012).

1.3       Statement of the Research Problem
When you buy a bottle of 7up drink, most of the cost is for the liquid and the bottle. But what about the environmental cost? Manufacturing, filling, labeling, shipping, storing and recycling of the bottles is expensive. In responding to the imperative to reduce greenhouse gases, life cycle modeling tool is used to measures the environmental impact of every stage in the bottle life cycle. Each of these life cycle stages yields carbon emissions that contribute to the total carbon footprint. As a result, customers and consumers get a clear picture of 7up bottle packaging which provides insight into the bottle quality and the bottle‘s positive or negative environmental impacts.

1.4       Aim of the Study
The aim of this research is to assess the life cycle of 7up bottle production and the associated environmental impacts generated at every stage, using Sunglass as a case study.

1.5       Objective of the Study
The objectives of this study are to:

1. Study the stages in the life cycle of the 7up container glass, with consideration to a particular batch.

2. Assess the impacts associated with every stage in the life of a the bottle

3. Study the  span of the bottles with 7up bottling Company, its end users and back to  the Sunglass Company

1.6       Research Questions
This research work tends to ask the following questions:

1. What are the stages in the life cycles of the 7up container bottle?

2. What are the impacts associated with every stage in the life of a bottle?

3. How long does the 7up Bottling Company use the bottles before they are returned to Sunglass for recycling?

1.7       Significance of The Study.
To evaluate the environmental profile of 7 up bottle, through its life cycle stages and determining its improvement opportunities. , towards having more sustainable and more environment friendly 7up bottle. The outcome of the study will help us to understand the requirement and potentiality of 7up bottle packaging industry.

1.8       Basic Assumption
The basic assumptions of this study are:

* There are adverse environmental impacts in the life cycle of 7up container glasses that need to be addressed.

* There will be possible solutions to minimize the adverse environmental impacts by 75%.

1.9       Delimitation of the Study
The delimitation of this study is to work with data collected from Sunglass Nigeria Ltd, Kaduna on a particular batch of feed consisting 50% of Virgin materials for glass and 50% Cullet.

1.10     Scope of the Study
The study covers raw materials extraction and processing, heating and melting stage of the raw materials, bottle formation, distribution, usage and end of life.

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POLLUTION AND SELF PURIFICATION STUDIES OF RIVER ROMI, CHIKUN LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA KADUNA STATE

ABSTRACT
Angwan Romi is a place in the Chikun Local Government Area of Kaduna State in Nigeria at 10°25'48" north of the equator and 7°25'12" east of the Greenwich Prime Meridian. Romi River is a body of running water moving to a lower level in a channel on land. It is on Latitude 10.45 decimal degrees, Longitude 7.37 decimal degrees, DMS Latitude 10° 27 min 0 sec, DMS Longitude7° 22 min 0.012 sec. Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM): LS25. The people living in Angwan Romi village and environ use the water of River Romi to supplement their daily water demand which has not been met by government. They may be at health  risk as a result of usage of  Romi River water. The study was carried out to determine the extent of pollution and self purification of River ROMI. The study covered a distance of 15Km from the point of effluent discharge from the Kaduna Refining Petrochemical Company to the point of outflow into the River Kaduna. The data was collected from July 2009 to February 2010, to capture the dry and wet seasons and repeated again in July 2011 for validation. The number of sampling points was four with six different samples collected for each, with composite sampling at site 1 employed. The samples were analyzed for Dissolved Oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD), Biological oxygen Demand (BOD),pH , nitrogen nitrate, ammonia nitrate, phosphates, coliform count (serial dilution), heavy metals, total dissolved solids, temperature, electrical conductivity and discharge and self-purification capacity. The methodologies employed for the analysis were according to the standard methods for the analysis of water and waste water.

Most of the water quality parameters were depleted especially at site 3 where a tributary from Nigerian National Petroleum Company Housing estate flows into the river. The observed die-off for bacteria colony count along the Romi River 15 Km course suggested that the stream still can purify itself. The results show deterioration in river water quality for the stretch with only a figment of recovery for some parameters seen at site 4. A model of BOD against Distance was developed from the results obtained. The average DO value was 6.8 mg/L,6.5 mg/L,6.7 mg/L and 6.8 mg/L at sites 1,2,3 and 4 respectively in the rainy season and in the dry season it was 5.5 mg/L,6.0 mg/L,6.5 mg/L and 6.3 mg/L respectively. The de-oxygenation rate was 1.143 d-1. The re-aeration rate was 0.934d-1 which shows that there is appreciable self purification within this 15Km course. Also the results show that the concentration of the heavy metals at each site is in the order of Pb > Cu > Cd. All the parameters monitored indicate serious water quality impairment along the 15km stretch studied. The deterioration is due to discharges from KRPC Plant and NNPC housing estate.


CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1       GENERAL
Rivers have many tributaries that may spare them from pollution as much as possible. Rivers provide a myriad of in-stream and consumptive uses; they support flora and fauna, improve aesthetic and landscape quality, moderate climate and even generate hydropower. However many rivers are not able to provide some of these because of pollution.

The primary objective of water quality monitoring is to deliver clean safe water. Water is essential to sustain life, and a satisfactory (adequate, safe and accessible) supply should be available to all.

Seven people died and twenty three hundred people became ill in the town of Walkerton, Ontario in May of 2000 because the drinking water became contaminated with a lethal strain of bacteria. This tragedy cost the government of Ontario $65 million to conduct the inquiry. The loss of life and suffering is estimated at an additional $91 million with costs totaling more than $156 million. This tragedy could have been prevented with an effective water quality monitoring program that included the use of continuous water quality surveillance Colin N Perkel (2002).

An overview of the multiple use character of water resources (which includes community /industrial water supply, electric power generation, recreation, navigation, irrigation , fishing and disposal of residual waste) and the impact on waste assimilation capacity of streams provides an orientation to the science and art of applied stream sanitation.(Oguejiofor, 1995)

The pollution profile of a stream is easily determined by either measuring levels of pollution at reasonable intervals along the river course or by using the Streeter-Phelps dissolved oxygen sag equation. It is also possible to forecast the waste assimilation capacity and resultant water quality of a stream using the rational method of stream analysis. This can be obtained for any residual waste effluent loadings under the range in hydrological variations expected and the impact of man-made river developments and uses (Oguejiofor, 1995)

1.2       STATEMENT OF THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
Angwan Romi is a place in the Chikun Local Government Area(see Figure1.1) of Kaduna State in Nigeria at 10°25'48" north of the equator and 7°25'12" east of the Greenwich Prime Meridian. Romi River is a body of running water moving to a lower level in a channel on land (see Figures 1.2,1.3 and 1.4). It is on Latitude 10.45 decimal degrees, Longitude 7.37 decimal degrees, DMS Latitude 10° 27 min 0 sec, DMS Longitude7° 22 min 0.012 sec. Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM): LS25. The people living in Angwan Romi village and environ with a population of 60,000 ( Nigeria, 2006 Census figures) use the water of River Romi to supplement their daily water demand which has not been met by government..They may be at health risk as a result of usage of Romi River water. Diseases related to contamination of drinking-water constitute a major burden on human health. Interventions to improve the quality of drinking-water provide significant benefits to health.

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PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF TREATED RICE HUSK ACTIVATED CARBON IN WATER TREATMENT AND REMOVAL OF PHENOL

ABSTRACT
Rice husk, a potential source of activated carbon, is locally available in Nigeria but underutilized thereby constituting solid waste menace in the environment. Incidentally, large volume of wastewater containing high concentrations of toxic contaminants such as phenol and other contaminants are continuously being generated as a result of increased industrial activities. Agricultural waste materials including rice husk, when suitably modified could serve as activated carbon for efficient removal of wastewater contaminants. In this study, rice husk activated carbon was produced by carbonization followed by activation with phosphoric acid. Batch adsorption experiment was conducted on effect of process variables (carbonization temperature, initial phenol concentration, adsorbent dosage, contact time, solution pH and temperature) on the adsorption of phenol onto rice husk activated carbon. Equilibrium isotherm, kinetics and thermodynamics of the adsorption process were studied. Response surface methodology was then employed for modeling and optimization of the process variables. Under the optimum condition for the production of rice husk activated carbon developed, characterization of the rice husk activated carbon was carried out and column adsorption experiment was conducted in two modes: Rapid Small Scale Column Test (RSSCT) and Large Scale Column Test (LSCT) using process wastewater collected from Kaduna refinery and Samaru stream water. RSSCT was utilized to study the effect of process variables: flow rate and bed depth and the experimental data obtained were fitted into column models (BDST, Thomas and Yoon-Nelson), while the LSCT was employed to obtain the peak adsorption performance. For the batch adsorption, process variables were observed to have significant effect on the performance of the adsorption process. Adsorption capacity and removal efficiency of 2.4 mg/g and 96 % were attained and equilibrium was found to occur between 10-20 minutes. Adsorption capacity and removal efficiency were also observed to be maximum at pH=4 and better favoured at lower temperatures. The adsorption process was found to be inconsistent with the assumption of Langmuir monolayer but conformed to Freudlinch assumption of multilayer and physical adsorption. The data followed pseudo-second order kinetic model and intra-particle diffusion was not the only rate-limiting step. The adsorption process was also found to be exothermic. The model equations developed have correlation coefficient (R2) values of 0.9979 and 0.9981 for removal efficiency and adsorption capacity respectively. Optimization revealed that the optimum temperature for the production of rice husk activated carbon is 441.46 oC. The models were experimentally validated under optimum condition. Phosphoric acid modification of rice husk was also observed to enhance the surface area from 12.47 to 102.4 m2/g and micropores from 2.4 to 1.82 nm. This was confirmed from the SEM micrographs while FTIR analysis revealed the existence of oxy- and phosphorous-oxy-containing functional groups. RSSCT shows that performance of the column adsorption was significantly affected by bed depth and flow rate. The column experimental data fitted well to Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models. LSCT shows that the column experiment attained relatively high adsorption capacity of 55.106 mg/g at exhaustion point of 0.9; this implies the peak adsorption capacity of the rice husk activated carbon.


CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1       Preamble
Biomass waste especially agricultural wastes have, in recent times, been receiving increased attention for many reasons; among which are depletion of global fossil fuel reserves, economic and environmental benefit, availability and renewability (Deng et al., 2010; Igboro, 2010; Mohamed et al., 2010; Liu and Zhang, 2011; Wang et al., 2011a; Lim et al., 2012; Chen et al., 2013). These agricultural wastes constitute a great source of emerging bio-products (bio-fuel, bio-chemicals and bio-materials) and their efficient utilization will provide a viable platform for effective solid waste management (Kalderis et al., 2008a; Singh et al., 2008; Purnomo et al., 2011; Boumaza et al., 2012; Sahin and Saka, 2013). Adsorbents that are used in removal of contaminants from water and wastewater include activated alumina, zeolites and activated carbon (Ahmaruzzaman, 2008; Lin and Juang, 2009; Soto et al., 2011; Ali et al., 2012; Han et al., 2013). Nowadays, activated carbons (bio-materials) prepared from agricultural wastes are receiving increasing attention due to their relatively low cost, availability and ease in processing (Krishnani et al., 2008; Sahu et al., 2009b; Chand et al., 2009; Njoku and Hameed, 2011).

Water is an essential necessity for the well being of all living things. It is unique in its physiological roles to all living resources and hence indispensable to all life forms. Therefore, among the various forms of pollution, water pollution is of greatest concern (Bhatnagar and Minocha, 2006). It is a known fact that increasing global industrialization has led to the continuous generation of large amounts of wastewater containing toxic pollutants. The presence of these toxic contaminants is associated with adverse effect and has therefore led to increased strict regulation of water pollution hence; making the treatment of wastewater generated from industrial activities a necessity before being discharged into the environment (Sahu et al., 2009b; Calero et al., 2013; Moussavi et al., 2013).

Consequently, pollution control and management have evolved many technologies for the treatment of wastewater (Qadeer and Akhtar, 2005; Bhatnagar and Minocha, 2006). These technologies and methodologies which differ in their performance and effectiveness include coagulation, filtration, ion exchange, sedimentation, solvent extraction, adsorption, electrodialysis, chemical oxidation, disinfection, chemical precipitation and membrane separation (El-Naas et al., 2010; Liu et al., 2010). Among the various available technologies for water pollution control, adsorption process is considered relatively more promising because of its convenience, ease in operation and simplicity of design (Han et al., 2008; Kadhim and Al-Seroury, 2012; Song et al., 2013). Various kind of contaminants can be removed from polluted water by adsorption process due to the availability of diverse form of adsorbents especially activated carbon which makes it have a broader applicability in water pollution control (Kalderis et al., 2008b; Fierro et al., 2008; Liu et al., 2010; Aidan, 2012).

1.2       Rice and Rice Husk
Rice is the third most important cereal crop grown around the world with an annual output of more than 650 million tons (Song et al., 2013). Nigeria has an annual local production of 3-4 million tons of paddy rice (Cadoni and Angelucci, 2013) and about 20-25 % of this is rice husk. Rice husk which is a layer protecting rice grain (Nhapi et al., 2011) is the major by-product obtained from rice processing (Zhang et al., 2011a). It consists of cellulose (32.24 %), hemicelluloses (21.34 %), lignin (21.44 %), water (8.11 %), extractives (1.82 %) and mineral ash (15.05 %) as well as high percentage of silica in its mineral ash, which is 94.5-96.34 % (Ngah and Hanafiah, 2008; Demibras, 2009; Masoud et al., 2012). Rice husk also has an average particle diameter of 4-5mm and bulk density of 96-160 kg/m3 (Bansal et al., 2009). In recent times, there have been deliberate attempts to utilize large quantities of rice husks from rice mills for useful purposes. These include the use as animal feed, bedding materials, soil conditioner, fertilizer, solid fuel for steam generation, bio-fuel, a source of organic and inorganic chemicals, porous carbon, catalyst, abrasives components, refractory and insulating materials, paper and board manufacturing, among others (Patel, 2005; Srivastava et al., 2008; Lin et al., 2013). Rice husk is insoluble in water, has good chemical stability, high mechanical strength and possesses a granular structure, making it a potential adsorbent material (Ngah and Hanafiah, 2008; Chakraborty et al., 2011). It constitutes approximately 20-25 % of the total grain weight depending on the variety and it is abundantly and locally available at almost no-cost but underutilized thereby constituting solid waste in the environment (Masoud et al., 2012). It is very difficult to decompose and traditionally, it is being disposed on land resulting in aesthetic pollution, eutrophication and perturbation in aquatic life (Foo and Hameed, 2009; Li et al., 2011a; Zhu et al., 2012). Application of heat treatment on rice husk can lead to different type of residue depending on oxygen supply (Foo and Hameed, 2009). When rice husk is burnt in air, a residue, white rice husk ash consisting of pure silica (95 %) is obtained. But heating rice husk in limited supply or absence of oxygen (pyrolysis) produces a black rice husk ash containing varying amount of carbon and silica. This residue when appropriately modified can be of useful purposes such as in water and wastewater treatment. The suitability of rice husk for removal of wastewater contaminants largely depends on its modification processes (Ye et al., 2010).

1.3       Phenol
Over 2000 wastewater chemical contaminants have been identified among which over 600 are of organic origin (Agarry and Aremu, 2012a). Phenolic compounds are among the most common organic pollutants and are present in effluents from coal processing, plastic, disinfectant, pesticides, pharmaceutical, petroleum and steel industries (Kennedy et al., 2007; Beker et al., 2010). Phenol, an aromatic compound with the following properties, molecular formula: C6H5OH, molecular weight: 94.11g/mol, molecular size: 0.42-0.72 nm, cross sectional area: 0.414 nm2, melting point: 40.9 oC, boiling point: 181.75 oC, water solubility: 93 g/l, has always been chosen as a model pollutant in the field of environmental research (Busca et al., 2008; Liu et al., 2010; Liu et al., 2011; Song et al., 2013). Phenol is an important toxic compound listed as a priority pollutant by environmental protection agencies because of its high toxicity and possible accumulation in the environment (Suresh et al., 2011; Moreno-Virgen et al., 2012). Phenol is the 11th of the 126 chemical priority pollutants by United State Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) with odour threshold of 0.04 ppm (Omar, 2012). The concentration of phenol in wastewater varies from 0.1-6,800 mg/l and the permissible limit of phenol concentration in wastewater by Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA) is 0.5 mg/l (Otekunefor and Obiukwu, 2005) while concentration in portable water by World Health Organization (WHO) is 0.001 mg/l (Bada, 2007; Kamble et al., 2008). Long exposure to low level of phenol in water can cause severe health hazard which include liver damage, diarrhea, dark urine and mouth ulcer. Phenol is a strong eye and respiratory irritant (Belgin et al., 2008). Bad taste and odor is an indication of the presence of phenol in water (Kermani et al., 2006). As a result of toxic and inhibitory characteristics, phenols are very difficult or impossible to remove by biological treatment processes, hence studies are being conducted with the
aim of decreasing their concentrations to allowable limits or converting them to less toxic and hazardous forms that may be released easily into the environment (Ahmaruzzaman 2008; Blanco-Martinez et al., 2009; Soto et al., 2011; Girish and Ramachandra, 2012). In view of these characteristics, it was chosen for focus in this study.

1.4       Statement of the Problem
High concentration of chemical contaminants in industrial wastewater can cause hazard when discharged into the environment (Abdelkareem, 2013). These hazards include aesthetics, health disorder, damage to aquatic life and environment (Girods et al., 2009; Nabais et al., 2009; Lazo-Cannata et al., 2011). Phenols are among the most common water pollutants that can cause hazards including health hazard which may lead to death. Amongst hydrocarbons present in refinery wastewater, phenol is one of the main dissolved components and it is also one of the most difficult hydrocarbons to degrade biologically (Benyahia, 2004; Kamble et al., 2008). Industries such as Kaduna Refinery continuously generate large volume of wastewater that contains high concentration of phenol (Alhamed, 2009; Nadavala et al., 2009) thereby making wastewater treatment an integral part of their activities. Ultimately, this results in increased cost of production and has led to the continuous search for simple, cleaner and cost-effective treatment approach.

Most of the treatment methods for wastewaters are not without their drawbacks such as high capital and operational cost, regeneration cost and residual disposal (Bansal et al., 2009; Lakshmi et al., 2009; Chowdury et al., 2011). Treatment cost for these methods ranges from 10-450 US Dollars per cubic meter of treated water except for adsorption which is in the range of 5-200 US Dollars (Ali et al., 2012). Consequently, adsorption
has been identified as one of the most efficient techniques for the removal of wastewater contaminants because of the potentials of low-cost adsorbents especially activated carbon from agricultural wastes (Singh et al., 2008; Krishnani et al., 2008; Naiya et al., 2009). More so that the increasing demands for food production will lead to additional generation of agricultural wastes such as rice husk which increase additional challenges in solid waste disposal. For example, in an attempt to become self-sufficient in rice production, Nigeria has been on the path of boosting its rice production (Cadoni and Angelucci, 2013) which will invariably lead to increased generation of rice husk (as solid waste) in the environment.

As a result of the above, there is ongoing research into modification of these agricultural wastes with the aim of improving their efficiencies and effectiveness in adsorption process. Rice husk is an agricultural waste material that is cheaply available as a by-product of rice processing but requires pretreatment (modification) for better performance as an adsorbent. These modification processes may be very complex, sometimes comprising of several stages of production, elevated temperatures for pyrolysis and gas activation as well as being time-consuming (Kalderis et al., 2008a; Liu et al., 2011). Influence of thermal and chemical pretreatment of rice husk for phenol adsorption from wastewater has been studied but little is known of the combined techniques in batch and column studies especially direct pyrolysis preceding phosphoric acid activation. Therefore, this research is on the production of rice husk activated carbon by direct pyrolysis preceding phosphoric acid modification for adsorption of phenol and other wastewater contaminants.

1.5       Justification of the Study
The outcome of this research will be of immense economic benefit to the rice processing centers that generate rice husk by adding value to their by-product. It will also be of benefit to industries that generate phenol-containing wastewater like petroleum refinery through the availability of simple and cost-effective treatment approach. It will also be of benefit by adding value to the by-product (bio-char) of pyrolysis of rice husk for the production of bio-fuel and/or chemicals. It will also be of environmental benefit to the government and public.

1.6       Aim and Objectives
The aim of this research is to produce combined thermal and chemical pretreated rice husk activated carbon and apply it in the adsorption of phenol and water treatment.

The obtectives of this research are:

i. To investigate the influence of combined thermal and chemical pretreatment of rice husk on phenol adsorption.

ii. To investigate the effect of adsorbent dosage, initial phenol concentration, contact time, pretreatment temperature, pH and temperature on batch adsorption of phenol using the thermal and chemically treated rice husk activated carbon.

iii. To study the equilibrium isotherm, kinetics and thermodynamics of the adsorption process.

iv. To develop model equations for the process variables and determine the optimum operating conditions (using Response Surface Methodology).

v. To characterize the rice husk activated carbon under optimum condition.

vi. To investigate the effect of flow rate and bed depth on column adsorption of phenol using the thermal and chemically treated rice husk activated carbon as well as to analyze the column experimental data using column models.

1.7       Limitation of the Study
This study is specifically limited to the use of thermal and chemically treated rice husk activated carbon in the adsorption of phenol from simulated and refinery wastewater and treatment of general contaminants from communal raw water. While the use may have prospects in application to no-phenolic wastes in industrial effluent, these were not specifically covered in this study due to obvious constraint of finance, equipment and time. Another limitation encountered in this study was that the heating rate of the furnaces available could not be preset thereby making it difficult to study the effect of heating rate. However, heating rate was estimated by taking note of the temperature attained in 1 hour and dividing it by 60 minutes.

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Item Type: Ph.D Material  |  Attribute: 222 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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