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ASSESSMENT OF PATIENT ATTITUDE AND PERCEPTION TOWARDS XRAY EXAMINATION

ABSTRACT
The use of X-rays in medical diagnostic radiology has increased globally. The medical use of X-ray for diagnosis of illness is subject to the principles of justification and optimization for the protection of exposed individuals. Medical X-ray accounts for the largest exposure of humans to man-made ionizing radiation. Exposure of individuals can lead to long-term stochastic effects. Over exposure of humans in interventional procedures can also lead to deterministic effects such as skin burns in the short term. Even though, measures are put in place to protect the operators of the X-ray equipment, including radiologists, there are no systems to protect patients undergoing radiological examinations. To circumvent this problem therefore, this study was conducted to determine whether safety precautionary measures necessary for shielding patients contact to unsafe dose of radioactivity were being adhered to or not. The factors that affect patient protection include equipment performance, operator knowledge and skills in exposing the patient correctly to obtain the best diagnostic image with a minimum dose to the patient and monitoring and evaluation of patient dose to ensure consistency with Institutional Diagnostic reference level.

To achieve the study objectives therefore, the level of protection patients received during simple radiographic examinations in the Korle-Bu Teaching hospital and the Ridge hospital, was evaluated.

A cross-sectional study design was used in this research. A total of 175 participants were selected conveniently from the Korle-Bu Teaching and the Ridge hospitals. A selfadministered structured questionnaire was administered to obtain scientific and personal data. The entrance surface dose of radiation was measured using Multi-Purpose Detector. From the study, the performance indicator of protection measured was 1.6 (80%), Safety operations by management 1.06 (53%), Safety operations by radiographers 1.79 (89.5%), patients’ safety and knowledge 0.89 (44.5%), investigations and quality assurance 1.6 (80%), local rules and supervision 1.29 (64.5) and clinical dosimetry 1(50%).

There were no radiation survey meters in both facilities. Radiographers did not weigh patients to estimate their doses. Majority of Physicians were unaware of the accepted exposure dose of various segments of the human body. Due to poor record keeping, enquiries of previous radiographic examinations from patients were not conducted. Finally, patients at Ridge Hospital were exposed to relatively higher doses of radiation even though both facilities were within the diagnostic reference range for Akwa Ibom.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background
In November 1895, Von Rontgen of Wurzburg, Germany, discovered the X-ray while working with a Crookes’ tube (Berkeley, 1989). In 1896, Henri Becquerel also discovered radioactivity while working on X-ray (Radiation Protection Dosimetry, 2015). Radiology is the scientific use of X-rays and other high energy radiations for diagnosis and treatment (Sharma et al., 2016). Radioactive material or device is any substance that emits electromagnetic waves. The emission of electromagnetic particles is called radiation and the disintegration or breaking down of the atoms into ions is called ionization. Electromagnetic waves that are capable of disintegrating atoms into ions are known as ionizing radiations.

The knowledge of the harmful effects of ionizing radiation has since been documented. However, accidents that result in people getting injured still persist irrespective of the considerable development in radiation safety (Bengtsson, 1978).

Every material in nature has energy called the latent energy, which is an inherent property of the material. All materials have a fundamental elementary unit known as the atom. Each atom has subdivisions know as protons, neutrons and electrons. When the atoms of a particular substance have an unequal number of protons and neutrons, the substance is rendered unstable in electromagnetic energy and will therefore emit the excess energy in order to become stable. A radioactive material is therefore any substance that is unstable due to an unequal number of protons and neutrons and will release energy in a process called radioactive decay in order to be stable.

Radiation protection is a term applied to concepts, requirements, technologies and activities that are aimed at protecting people (Cunningham et al., 2004). Diagnostic and interventional radiology, are vital parts of present day medical practice (Inkoom et al., 2012). Improvements in X-ray imaging technology, coupled with developments in digital technology have had a significant impact on the practice of radiology. This comprises improvements in image quality, reductions in dose and a broader range of available applications resulting in better patient diagnosis and treatment (Heath et al., 2011). Nonetheless, the basic principles of X-ray image formation and the risks related with X-ray exposures have not changed significantly. X-rays have the potential for destroying healthy cells and tissues; therefore, all medical procedures involving X-ray equipment must be carefully controlled. In all facilities and for all types of equipment, procedures must be in place to ensure that exposures to patients, staff and the public are kept as low as reasonable achievable (ALARA).

Diagnostic X-rays account for a greater proportion of exposure of humans to ionizing radiations (Inkoom et al., 2012). On assessment of the global population dose of medical exposures to ionizing radiation from 1997 to 2007, the 2008 United Nations Scientific Committee on the effect of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) reports that medical exposure continues to be the largest source of man-made exposure to ionizing radiation and it keeps growing substantially (Inkoom et al., 2012). Though individual doses associated with conventional radiography are mostly small, examinations concerning computed tomography and radioscopy can be significantly higher. However, a well-designed, installed and maintained X-ray equipment and the thorough use of appropriate procedures by trained operators reduce undue patients’ exposure without decreasing the value of medical information that is derived (Schandorf & Tetteh, 1998). Mostly, X-ray machine operators are aware of the problems associated with over exposures. However, the fundamental requirements are often not adhered to.

Over exposure to X-ray beams, poor infrastructure and unnecessary X-ray referrals are among factors reported to cause high exposure dose to patients above international recommendations (Schandorf & Tetteh, 1998a; Schandorf & Tetteh 1998b).

According to the 1998 report of UNSCEAR the need for radiation protection exists because exposure to ionizing radiation can result in damaging effects that manifest not only in the exposed individuals but also in their descendants. These effects are called somatic and genetic effects, respectively. Somatic effects are characterized by noticeable changes occurring in the organs of the exposed individual. The changes may appear within a few hours, or after many years, depending on the amount and duration of exposure to the individual (Harrison et al., 1983). Genetic effects however, are characterized by chromosomal damage in germ cells leading to mutation that give rise to genetic defects (abnormalities) such as leukemia (Akrobortu et al., 2013). Busch (1997) reported that, while the amount of dose of diagnostic radiation required to induce genetic defects may be small and may seem to cause no immediate noticeable damage, they are an equal cause for concern because of the ultimate consequences on the exposed individual.

1.2 Problem statement
The regulations for use of ionizing radiations (IRs) in medicine and industry have been in existence for years now, however, some health professionals, X-ray operators and technicians are still unaware of these regulations. As such, the aforementioned individuals are often not compliant to such regulations (Kyei & Antwi 2015). The knowledge, awareness and adherence to these regulations are key to reducing the level of exposure to IRs and the associated deleterious consequences (Dewi et al., 2010).

Secondly, most studies in radiology have focused on the protection of the worker through the use of dosimeter (Breitenstein & Seward, 2001). The perception is that, workers spend more time in areas of ionizing radiation and as such, it is they who need protection. For this reason, during simple radiographic examination, X-ray operators are stationed in a separate protected room, leaving the patient alone in an area that is charged with IR.

Finally, since institutional health and safety practices stipulate that healthcare facilities should be places for acquiring quality healthcare rather than contracting diseases (Brennan et al., 1991), it is imperative to set up safety measures to protect patients undergoing radiographic procedures or examinations.

1.3 Justification
X-rays are very useful in diagnosis and treatment of diseases. However, they are ionizing radiations and can therefore lead to various deleterious health outcomes such as cancers especially when there is over exposure during radiological examinations. In view if this, the findings of this study would enhance accreditation and regular monitoring of X-ray facilities to ensure that only qualified personnel and good equipment are used in radiological examinations necessary to ensure protection of patients against unsafe doses of X-ray.

Also, findings from this research would add to the knowledge of the roles that owners of Xray machines ought to possess in order to ensure protection of clients against harmful dose effects ionizing radiations. This will also serve as a protocol to be followed during employment of qualified personnel and the procurement of certified equipment in radiological examinations.

Furthermore, this study would provide critical knowledge on the need for X-ray facilities to be manned/operated by only technically qualified personnel who regularly undertake refresher courses in order to ensure that patients are exposed to only safe doses of X-ray during radiological examinations.

Lastly, this study would provide the critical evidence needed to support the importance of standardized and regularly maintained X-ray equipment and functional radiation monitoring and control system in administering safe doses of X-ray necessary to protect patients against excessive radiation exposure.

1.4 Research questions
1. Do X-ray facilities at the Korle-Bu Teaching and Ridge hospitals meet International safety standards set for patients?

2. Do Radiographers at the Korle-Bu Teaching and Ridge Hospitals have adequate training and certification?

3. Are patients at the Korle-Bu Teaching and Ridge Hospitals exposed to safe ionizing radiation doses that are consistent with international safety standards?

4. Are physicians at the Korle-Bu Teaching and Ridge Hospitals aware of the harmful effects of X-rays?

1.5 General Objective
To investigate the level of protection for patients against unsafe levels of radiation doses during radiological examination in X-ray facilities in Uyo

1.6 Specific Objectives
1. To assess safety standards at the X-ray facilities in Korle-Bu Teaching and Ridge Hospitals.

2. To assess the level of training and certification of radiographers at the X-ray facilities

3. To determine the actual doses of ionizing radiation that patients are exposed to during radiological examination at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital and Ridge Hospital.

4. To assess the knowledge of physicians on the hazardous effect of X-rays on patients during radiological examination

1.7 Conceptual framework
Figure 1 describes the conceptual framework for this research

Legal owners of X-ray facilities set up rules and regulations that ensure reduction in exposure of patients against radiation. These legal owners also ensure that qualified X-ray machine operators are employed. Periodically, they also advocate for in-service training to increase the knowledge of X-ray technicians, which also help in the reduction in exposure of patients to IR. Legal owners put in place systems to keep records of the patients’ histories at the X-ray facilities. This ensures that technicians keep records of previous encounters, thus reducing unnecessary and repeated examinations. Such practices reduce the long-term effect of patient’s exposure to ionizing radiation. Patients, who are also knowledgeable in radiation related issues are also better equipped to protect themselves from unnecessary exposure to IR by observing and adhering strictly to instructions given. Safety features at the radiological department are also necessary to prevent overexposure of patients to ionizing radiations. Physicians also justify X-rays in patients before they are taken. Lastly, when legal owners ensure quality assurance, there is reduction in exposure of clients to IR in the radiological departments.

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EVALUATION OF SOME COWPEA VARIETIES SUBJECTED TO ALTERNATIVE WETTING AND DRYING

ABSTRACT
African leafy vegetables (ALVs) have a great potential in reducing the gap in nutritional status between low- and high-income households because of their nutrient densities and affordability. Cowpea is one of the major ALVs produced and consumed widely at the Coast and Western regions of Nigeria as a dual-purpose crop (grain and leaf). Although local cowpea accessions are preferred by farmers and consumers, there are still many challenges encountered. There is lack of sufficient information on nutrients and micro-nutrient densities and high postharvest losses. High post-harvest losses have also been reported as a result of perishability. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the nutritional and sensory attributes of five popular dual purpose local cowpea accessions and an improved variety developed by KALRO. In addition, the effect of blanching, solar drying and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the shelf life and quality attributes of one superior cowpea accession was evaluated.

The cowpeas were planted in The University of Uyo field station during the short rains from October to December 2014 and long rains from March to May 2015. The cowpea leaves were randomly sampled in the experimental plots. One superior accession was chosen for post-harvest treatments. The treatments were, solar drying without blanching, blanching in pure water and solar drying, blanching in salty water and solar drying and fresh non-blanched leaves as control. The samples were then analysed for proximates, vitamins, minerals, anti-nutrients, sensory characteristics, colour change during processing and packaging, cumulative water loss and wilting in The University of Uyo and Jomo University of Agriculture and Technology laboratories.

In the first objective on evaluating and comparing nutritional attributes of local cowpea accessions with an improved variety, beta carotene content of M66 which is an improved variety was the lowest at 29.71mg/100g whereas Sura Mbaya had the highest beta carotene content at 36.4mg/100g. On the other hand, M66 had the lowest ascorbic acid content of 192.8 mg/100g whereas Usimpe Mtu Mdogo had the highest ascorbic acid content at 213.1mg/100g in season 1. The iron content of Usimpe Mtu Mdogo was the lowest at 395.9PPM compared to Mnyenze at 1034.3 PPM in season 1.

In the second objective of evaluating the efficacy of post-harvest treatments on the quality of fresh and processed cowpeas, it was found that blanching and dehydration had little effect on

most proximate and mineral elements. However, vitamin and total phenolic contents were the most affected. Solar drying without blanching recorded the highest vitamin retention levels at 68.02% for beta carotene and 68.39% for ascorbic acid unlike blanching in pure water and solar drying at 55.58% for beta carotene and 21.08% for ascorbic acid and blanching in salty water and solar drying at 52.78% beta carotene and 20.24% ascorbic acid. In addition, solar drying without blanching recorded the highest retention total phenolic content at 149.91%. Blanching in pure water and solar drying and blanching in salty water and solar drying recorded retention levels of 62.58% and 65.79% of total phenolic content respectively. On the other hand, solar drying without blanching, blanching in pure water and solar drying and blanching in salty water and solar drying recorded a loss of 5.87%, 10.77% and 11.17% of oxalates and 37.22%, 69.98% and 58.7% of nitrates respectively.

In the samples subjected to MAP, the end stage of control, ordinary polythene bag and Extend® bag under room conditions was 1 day, 4 days and 6 days respectively. By the end stage control, ordinary polythene bag and Extend® bag had lost 28.84%, 0.93% and 3.27% cumulative weight for season 1 and 23.84%, 0.89% and 2.31% for season 2 respectively.

The results of the present study indicated that evaluated local cowpea accessions were comparable with each other but slightly superior to the improved variety developed by KALRO. Solar drying without blanching was found to be effective in maintaining the quality attributes of cowpeas. In addition, MAP was found to be effective in preserving quality of fresh cowpea leaves and improving shelf life. Therefore MAP and solar drying without blanching are simple and convenient technologies for preserving cowpea nutrients and improving shelf life.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Agriculture has been the mainstay of Nigeria’s economy for decades. The sector contributes to nutrition, food security, employment and foreign exchange earnings. According to The Nigeria Economic Report (2013), agricultural sector directly accounts for about 26% of Nigeria’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 27% indirectly through linkages with manufacturing, distribution and other service related sectors. The sector declined from a growth rate of 4.2% in the year 2012 to 2.9% in 2013 partly due to inadequate rainfall received in some growing regions in the country but increased to 3.5% in 2014 (Economic Survey highlights, 2014 and 2015). Agriculture industry accounts for 65% of Nigeria’s total exports, 18% and 60% of the formal and total employment, respectively. In addition it directly and indirectly supports the livelihood of 80% of the population living in the rural areas (Nigeria Economic Report, 2013). According to economic survey (2015), the value of marketed agricultural production declined marginally from Ksh 334.8 billion in 2013 to 333.2 billion in 2014.

The horticulture sector has been a major contributor to the good performance of the agricultural sector. In the year 2012 and 2013, the subsector contributed 26% and 25% respectively to the agricultural growth by value (Economic survey, 2014). By quantity, fresh horticultural produce contributed 205,700T in 2012, 213, 800Tin 2013 and 220,200T in 2014 becoming second after tea (Economic Survey highlights, 2014 and 2015). These statistics should be taken as an estimate to the actual horticultural growth since most of the horticultural commodities such as African leafy vegetables do not reach formal markets or export. In addition, many surveys do not inform of the farm gate prices of vegetables, farm level production quantity and value at the local and informal markets. Considering this situation, the horticultural subsector may be having far much more positive impact to the population than it is estimated.

The horticulture sector is made up of subsectors which include flower and ornamental, fruit and vegetable production. According to HCD report (2014), vegetables occupied the largest production portion at 32% by value, followed by flowers at 30%, fruits at 30%, and nuts at 5%. The major export destination is the European Union where the horticulture industry command about 30% market share. In general, vegetable production in Nigeria has been increasing steadily over the past years. In 2012, the quantity of vegetables exported was 66,352 tonnes valued at Ksh.20226 million. In 2013 exports increased to 77172 tonnes valued at Ksh.22923 million and in 2014, exports slightly reduced to 70335T valued at Ksh.18781 million (HCD Annual Report, 2014). Considering the report touched on exports, it means that the production is larger since the consumption in the country is larger compared to the exports. The major producing counties as reflected by exports include Meru, Bungoma, Murang’a, Kiambu and Kirinyaga in that order (HCD Annual Report, 2014).

Vegetable production is widely practised in the country. The development of the sector is due to the readily available markets with a higher marginal return per unit areas compared to cereal crops. Vegetable production has short growth cycles enabling farmers to have two to three seasons in a year. This combination, in addition to emerging health issues has placed vegetable production at a strategic position to expand even more.

Vegetables can be classified as exotic or indigenous depending on their origin, utilization and commercialization. Some exotic vegetables commercialized in Nigeria include kales, spinach, snow peas, French beans among others whereas indigenous vegetables include African nightshade, spider plant, cowpeas, amaranth among others. Major export vegetables comprise of exotic and Asian vegetables (EPC, 2014). Current trends have seen the incorporation of value addition strategies to ensure continuous availability and reduction of postharvest losses. Such strategies include canning, freezing, solar drying and/or roasting in addition to pre-packs for fresh produce meant for supermarkets. Unlike other type of vegetables, trade and consumption of African leafy vegetables had been side-lined to serve the local population especially in the rural areas or among the poor and denied entry to formal markets. However, the HCD report,(2014) indicated that there has been a tremendous increase in production in ALVs in the country. This can be attributed to the awareness created to the population on the health benefits and nutritional superiority of these vegetables (Abukutsa, 2007) and value chain support by non-governmental organisations. As a result, in 2014 the acreage under ALVs increased by 10% and the yields and value rose by 5.6% and 6.2%, respectively (HCD Annual Report, 2014). According to AVRDC (2010), it is estimated that approximately 9000 tonnes of ALVs have been sold to formal and informal markets in the period between 2008 and 2010 in central Nigeria only.

Nigeria, like many other tropical countries, is endowed with a great diversity of ALVs. These vegetables have a great social and economic importance for the local communities therefore making them part and parcel of their culture. The priority species grown and marketed in Nigeria include African nightshades (Solanum spp), amaranth (Amaranthus spp.), spider plant (Cleome gynandra), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata), Ethiopian kale (Brassica carinata), ‘mitoo’ (Crotalaria ochroleuca and C. brevidens)), ‘kahuhura’ (Cucurbita ficifolia), jute plant (Corchorus olitorius) and pumpkin leaves (Cucurbita maxima and C. moschata). (Irungu et al., 2007). Among the ALVs, African nightshade accounted for 27% of market value followed by Spider plant and Cowpeas at 23% and 22% respectively in 2014 (HCD report, 2014). However, in terms of quantity produced, cowpea outperformed all other ALVs from 2012 to 2014 as shown in Table 1.

Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an important grain legume in tropical and subtropical regions where a shortage of animal protein sources is often experienced (Tshovhote et al., 2003). Although a lot of emphasis has been put on the grain crop, the high potential in the vegetable has not been fully exploited (Abukutsa, 2003).

1.1. Problem statement
Cowpea leaves has been viewed as a woman’s crop and therefore it has received little attention from stakeholders (Abukutsa, 2003).Nutritional information and quality among the cultivated cowpea varieties is scanty (Muchoki et al., 2007). However, the situation is worse among local cowpea accessions although they are preferred by farmers because of superior taste and palatability compared to improved varieties such as KVU, K-80 and M66 (KARI, 2010). The information available on the nutritional quality of cowpea leaves has been restricted to improved varieties and some few local accessions (Mamiro et al., 2011). However, the nutritional information available for the few lines studied has recorded a very large variability. For instance Mamiro et al., (2011) indicated that cowpeas crude protein ranges from 18 to 25%, Okonya and Maass (2014) found the protein content to be between 29.4 to 34.3% whereas, Ono et al., (1996) recorded as high as 43% crude protein content. On the other hand, ascorbic acid levels reported range of between 33.5mg/100g to 308 mg/100g (Muchoki et al., 2007; Ahenkora et al., 1998; Njoroge et al., 2015).

The potential of cowpea leaves has not been maximized due to post-harvest handling limitations (Affognona et al., 2014). It is estimated that post-harvest losses contribute to about 50% of total losses in the cowpea value chain (Masarirambi et al., 2010). The high losses can be attributed to lack of proper post-harvest knowledge, high perishability, poor processing practises and inefficient or high cost of post-harvest technologies. The situation is worsened during the periods of glut where production of these vegetables exceeds market demand.

1.2. Justification of the study
Local cowpea accessions have important significance to farmers although their nutritional quality has not extensively assessed (KARI, 2010). Nutritional profiling of superior local cowpea accessions study will compliment or add new information that will help in sensitizing the entire population to enhance utilization of cowpea vegetable. Ilelaboye et al., (2013) indicated that adequate nutritional information on ALVs will be useful for nutritional education to the public especially the vulnerable groups as a means to improving their nutritional status. The information will also enable further improvement of the local accessions which are thought to be adapted to wide range of climatic conditions (D’Andrea et al., 2007).

The high post-harvest losses on cowpea vegetable have led to led to decreased availability of the vegetable in households and markets (Shiundu and Oniang’o, 2007). The existing technologies to reduce post-harvest have been inefficient or expensive to the resource constrained farmer. Such technologies include sun drying, fermentation, charcoal cooling and refrigeration (Muchoki et al., 2007). However, very few technologies that suit small scale farmers been evaluated. Low cost methods of improving and lengthening shelf life such as modified atmosphere packaging and solar drying have been proposed (Chavasit et al., 2002) but have not been tested for ALVs. The reduction in post-harvest losses will be improved nutritional and food security and income.

1.3. General objective
To evaluate the nutritional quality attributes of local cowpea accessions and reduce loss of the quality attributes to improve the shelf life and enhance availability of quality vegetables and improve food security.

1.3.1. Specific objectives
1. To compare the nutritional quality attributes of selected superior local leafy cowpeas accessions with an improved variety.

2. To evaluate the effect of blanching, solar drying and modified atmosphere packaging on the quality attributes and shelf life of cowpeas leaves.

1.3.2. Null hypotheses
1. Selected superior local cowpea accessions have similar nutritional content compared to the improved variety. Blanching, solar drying and modified atmosphere packaging does not preserve quality and does not improve the shelf life of cowpea leaves.

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THE EFFECT OF SELECTED FACILITIES ON RENTAL VALUES OF RESIDENTIAL PROPERTIES

ABSTRACT
A house is a structure that provides shelter for humanity. Studies have shown that in most parts of the world, urban rents are determined by various factors. These factors include location, level of facilities and services, neighborhood characteristics, space etcetera. Among these factors, the most influencing factor of rent in FirstGate Ikorodu is the level of facilities and services provided for tenant use. The objectives of this research FirstGate Ikorodu s to examine the cost of housing construction, to determine the role played by government in housing provision, recommend policies for housing provision, determine the portion of household income spent on rent. The methodology of this research is base on interplay of deskwork and fieldwork and these took the form of data collection, presentation and data analysis of findings. In the course of this study, both qualitative and quantitative primary and secondary data were collected. A summary of the findings from the research indicates that: cost of building materials is the major contributory factor to the cost of construction aside land and labour cost, the existing rent control law as currently operated have little or no impact on rent charged in the Municipality, current rent levels in the municipality are deemed to be satisfactory, besides the already documented rent determinants, population, occupation, and prospective duration of lease were also identified. One other major finding FirstGate Ikorodu s that landlords do not take into account the room let but take into consideration the number of people occupying the room to charge their rent and as such tenants who cannot afford to pay the full recoverable rent has to search for tenants they don‟t know. The group recommends that, There should be given a high priority to local building materials, which could reduce the cost of building and the improvement of the supply chain of various building materials; there should be a mechanism that would ensure that the Rent Control Board, the house owners and tenants would be provided with a platform where consensus building can be done in order to ensure transparency in rent charge

Finally, the government should also urge the exemption of value added taxes on building components sourced locally as well as import duties on imported goods.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.0 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Housing is an economic unit of investment, meaning investing in housing involves the purchase, ownership, management, rental and/or sale of real estate for profit. Improvement of real property as part of real estate investment strategy is generally considered to be a sub specialty of real estate investment called real estate development. Real estate is an asset form with limited liquidity relative to other investments. It is capital intensive and is highly cash flow dependant. It can also be said to be an important aspect of human wellbeing. Universally, housing is acknowledged as the second most essential human need after food and a major economic asset in every nation (Oladapo, 2006). It is seen as the total socio-cultural and physical environment in which the family lives. The world over, the need for accommodation cannot be over emphasized. Many developing countries such as Nigeria are face with problems in housing provision for their people due to population growth, rapid urbanization. Available data put the housing deficit in Nigeria in excess of 1.7 million housing unit to be able to address the deficit and accommodate new household, there is the need for a minimum annual delivery of about 85,000 housing units over the next 20 years. (Ministry of Works and Housing, 2014). Presently, due to the scarcity of resources, inadequate equity capital as well as unfavourable loan agreements, a large proportion of the population in both the developing and developed countries resort to rental housing for accommodation as an alternative to home ownership. To rent means payment made by a tenant to an owner or landlord for the right to occupy or use property for a stipulated period of time. Renting of houses as an alternative is practised in most parts of the world. For example in South Africa, about 1.8 million South African households in the middle- to lower-income groups live in rented accommodation, as opposed to about 5.2 million households that own property. The demand for rental housing nationally FirstGate Ikorodu s expected to increase by about 105,670 units a year until 2006 in the middle- to lower-income groups (Baumann, 2000).

1.1 Problem Statement
There appears to alFirstGate Ikorodu ys be shortage in accommodation in the urban areas such as FIRSTGATE IKORODU , Kumasi and Accra. This is as a result of the influx of people from one city to another city. The high rents paid for basic accommodation are a product of the failure to supply sufficient land for housing, and the weakness in the housing system to finance and construct sufficient accommodation to meet the demands of the rental market. (Baker, 2002).

Despite the need for housing facilities and the efforts being made by the private sector and the government to meet this demand, the issue at hand is the ability of both tenants and prospective tenants such as students and workers to afford these rent charges and still afford a decent living. This problem is predominant in the urban areas of the country including FirstGate Ikorodu , where rental housing facilities are most sought after by both migrants and the city dwellers and it runs across all income groupings. In some countries the attempts to increase rents have even led to mass refusal to pay rents at all. (Baker, 2002). The result of these developments may well still be a rapid deterioration of housing and in consequence a risk of ultimate loss of great amounts of capital invested in housing (Baker, 2002). Preliminary survey indicates uncontrolled rent charged. As a result landlord and private developers take advantage of the housing market by manipulating the market forces in place (the demand and supply factors). In relation to the supply of rental housing the factors that also contribute to this increasing rent is the high price of building materials. Most building materials on the market today even though manufactured in the country have their raw materials imported. For example, cement produced by GHACEM has its major raw material clinker imported into the country thereby inflating the selling price of the finished product hence increasing the cost of building construction.

1.2 Research Questions
The study would seek to find answers to the following questions:

1. What accounts for the cost of housing construction in FirstGate Ikorodu ?

2. How does government‟s role in housing provision affect rent in FirstGate Ikorodu ?

3. How does housing policies influence rental values in FirstGate Ikorodu ?

4. What proportion of a tenant‟s income is spent on housing or rent in FirstGate Ikorodu ?

1.3 Research Objectives
The issues outlined below are the objectives that this special study would seek to achieve when it is fully implemented:

1. To examine the cost of housing construction.

2. To identify the role played by government in the housing sector.

3. To recommend policies for housing provision. To determine the proportion of household income spent on housing.

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THE COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF RECREATIONAL FACILITIES FOR HOUSING ESTATES (A CASE STUDY OF ADEWOLE HOUSING ESTATE, ILORIN KWARA STATE)

ABSTRACT
From time immemorial recreation, like walking, shopping and worshipping has been an important aspect of living. Festivals, dances, games and music’s, have always been a part of life, although at time they have been looked upon in groups. However, recreation it’s various forms, had expanded to an unprecedented degree especially in developed world. Life in an unplanned city and town is an unnatural type. As a result, well designed town or city should contain sufficient play, grounds, local recreation and organized open spaces. This does not make the area beautiful, but also grants it a special character and a personality on its own, however, the importance of recreation to the individual and the society in general is treated, and this dissertation is based on the residential of Adewole Housing Estate in Ilorin. The study aimed of appraising the functionality of recreation facilities available in the Estates through the use of questionnaires concepts of recreation is done and the classification of recreational activities in chapter two and chapter three contains the explanation of the analysis. It also deals with review of the existing recreational facilities for the estate. Chapter four deals with implementation and management strategies and chapter five deal with summary, recommendation and conclusion.

CHAPTER ONE
1.1 INTRODUCTION
In all settlements, it is explicit that man should work and also play whenever he is free from established routines of work and domestic duties, and since man cannot work throughout the day, it then become necessary that during the free time man can engage himself in different forms of recreation activities.

Recreation has been regarded as an integral part of social life. It is growing important aspect of physical planning which is often neglected. The benefits derivable from recreation cannot be over looked. The average adult must ‘spend a certain number of hours daily at some kind of work in order to earn a living or to care for a family. The growing child must attend school regularly. Eating, sleeping and other task usually take a definite amount of time each day. But it is seldom necessary for people to devote all their time for this occupation. Most people have sometimes in which they do things for the sole reason that they find pleasure in doing them, such activities are called recreation.

Different people all over universe achieve varying forms of satisfaction from this different activities, whereas, some achieve theirs, outside their daily routine work and other achieve satisfaction during their daily route work. There are some other conflicting ideas in take and satisfaction for one individual to another makes the issue of recreation vague and ambiguous. This is because what serve as recreation for one man, may be an economic venture to another, where as to others, is a disgusting idea to be engaged in these activities.

As the estate are the new open and planned areas within Ilorin metropolis, that are suppose to have contained social life facilities such as recreational facilities are not applicable or in some cases not functioning.

Therefore, recreation cannot only gives pleasure but also helps to renew or recreate the mind, soul and body. For this reason, if well organized recreational facilities are provided for the estate, resident of the estate will be able to satisfy themselves by engaging in various recreational activities and they will also have the opportunity to develop their personalities and interacts to fullest possible extents.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
These are the problem identified in the study areas: this problem includes inadequate and poor planning of recreational land uses: inadequacy of existing recreational facilities and poor attitude of resident is towards recreational activities.

1.3 AIM OF THE PROJECT
The aim of this project is to appraise the functionality of the recreational facilities in selected housing estate in Ilorin, so as to recommend the required and standard facilities for the estates.

1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The objectives of the study include the followings:

i. To identify the existing recreational facilities available in the estate,

ii. To evaluate the recreational behavior of residents in the estate toward recreational uses.

iii. To examine the adequacy of existing recreational facilities available in the estate.

iv. To recommend the required and standard recreational facilities for the estate.

1.5 JUSTIFICATION
As the estate are the new open-up and planned areas in Ilorin metropolis, that are suppose to have contained social life facilities such as recreational facilities which are not applicable in some cases not functioning. The traditional and other developed part of the city lack element of physical planning, such that the social life facilities were not incorporated in the system.

Therefore, the benefits derived from recreation cannot be over emphasized. It must be realized that, play for children addescent and adult is not a negative operation. Since "all works are not play makes jack a dull boy", and that since people cannot work throughout the day it then become necessary, that during the time not working people should engaged themselves in different forms of activities.

I therefore fell contempted that, the pattern of distribution of recreational facilities within the estate should be viewed and recommendation should be made.

1.6 SCOPE AND LIMITATION
This project covers the pattern and distribution of recreational facilities in ADEWOLE housing estates in Ilorin. Due to financial and time constraint, this project will be limited to active recreation.

1.7 PROJECT METHODOLOGY
In carryout this project, information and materials used were obtained from various sources which area grouped into two as follows:-

PRIMARY SOURCE this includes the followings:

Personal observation: This is otherwise known as reconnaissance survey. It involves moving round the study area to identify the available facilities for recreation and the condition. It also involves interacting with the people to know their need for recreation.

Questionnaire Survey: - Here, questions relevant to project were formed to obtain information from the resident of the estates. The results of this were discussed in chapter three of this project.

Photographic Survey:- The pictures of some of the existing facilities were taken so as to know their location and their conditions.

B. SECONDARY SOURCE
Literature review: - Several textbooks and past projects relevant to the project topic were consulted. Other materials such as population data, maps, layout plan, socio - cultural information were obtained from appropriate ministries/ parastataLs and cooperation in Ilorin. Such as ministry of land and housing, Kwara state property investment cooperation/ and town planning development authority etc.

1.8 STUDY AREA HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF ILORIN
Ilorin/ the state capital of Kwara state is located in the southern part of the state and on longitude 40°E I and the 82°N. It is 293 kilometers by road away from Ikeja Lagos state capital and 500-kilometer from Abuja (Federal Capita! Territory). Ilorin was made as the state capital/ when the state was created in 1967. This led to rapid extension of towns from it's original area which was 9.37 square kilometer but ten (10) years later it has increase by about 50 percent. In general, the city's growth is greatest along the major arterial.

In 1963, population census confirmed that Ilorin as a population of 208,546. However, provisional figures made available by national population commission for 1991 census reviewed that Ilorin as a population of 474,385.

1.8.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF ADEWOLE HOUSING ESTATE
The creation of state dated 1967 by federal government of Nigeria which led to creation of Kwara state from northern region, consequently led to creation of Kwara state housing cooperation in which Adewole Housing Estate was established in 1976.

One of the problems confronted al! The newly created state then where the acute shortage of accommodation for the masses. In its efforts to cushion the inadequate supply of housing cooperation whose primary responsibilities was to increase supply of housing at affordable cost. The Kwara state housing corporation was set-up in 1975 to manage all the government staff quarters in the state and construction of more housing state in the state, this led to the conceivement and construction of Adewole housing estate in 1876.

1.8.2 LOCATION OF ADEWOLE HOUSING ESTATE
Adewole housing estate is located in the southern part of the state. It is located in Ilorin West Local Government with its headquarter in the emir's market near central mosque Ilorin. It is situated immediately after government high School Ilorin main gate and linking up to university of Ilorin (Mini campus) and Kwara state college of education, Ilorin. The estate is bounded by western reservoir road that links Geri-Alimi and Umar Saro Road Ilorin (Ilorin-Lagos road)

1.8.3 POPULATION OF ADEWOLE HOUSING ESTATE
Adeweoie as a planned neighbourhood area comprises of different photo type housing unit categorized into 2 bedrooms bungalows, 3 bedrooms bungalows, 4 bedrooms bungalows and 4 bedrooms manssionattee. Presently the total number of photo type housing units in Adewole housing estate was put at six hundred and twelve ( 612) housing units, he present population of the people at Adewole Estate is about is about fifteen thousand four hundred and eighty. (15,408).

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ANALYSIS OF MAINTAINANCE CULTURE EMPLOYED IN PUBLIC INFRASTRUCTURE IN NIGERIA

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the study
Over the years, there has been increasing abandonment of building projects and infrastructural facilities which has led to the dilapidation, degradation and deterioration of these building structures within the Nigerian contemporary urban metropolis.

Recently there has been a lot of research investigations and analysis of which points unshakeable to the fact that certain features such as client’s perception, cost of maintenance works, unskilled maintenance technicians, inflation rates, effect of taxation on building owners, Government policies, inability to prepare and follow maintenance schedules are direct causes of neglect which leads to dilapidations and deterioration of building structures (onibokun 1997). There are also the remote causes of lack maintenance such as force majeur, cultural problems, state of the economy, the receding global economic meltdown, lack of time and general illiteracy of the occupants of the building or structure and users of the facilities.

However there has also been growth in the significance of building maintenance as a proportion of the output of the construction industry which takes place against a backdrop of mounting pressure on new build activity and a growing awareness of the need to manage the condition of the nation’s building and infrastructure more effectively (chanter 2007).

Though, it is still the case that such maintenance activity takes place in a context that does not create a fully integrated approach to managing building performance and thus the full potential of many buildings and infrastructures are never wholly realized.

Basically in virtually all the towns and city centers within the Nigerian, buildings and infrastructural facilities are gradually and systematically decaying, dilapidating and deteriorating with reduced or no degree of maintenance programme and activity.

From a normal visual perception in the urban metropolis, it can be noted that majority of the

(a) constructed buildings both private and public

(b) road network

(c) water supply systems

(d) sanitary and drainage systems

(e) transmission poles and electricity lines

(f) government owned telephone networks

(g) telegraph and postal systems

(h) sign post and route l0ocation posts are deteriorated and badly in need of maintenance. The lack of maintenance of these buildings and infrastructures negatively affects the populace which thus affects the output of the working class, capacity of the populace is thus lost, time value for achievement of goals and objectives minimized , it also causes all forms

of ill-health and psychological effects thereby reducing the economic growth of the nation.

1.2 Statement of the problem
All three spheres of government, together with the state owned enterprise (SOEs), manage major portfolios of immovable infrastructural assets. While there is much emphasis on delivery of infrastructure, delivery does not in fact end with the commissioning of the infrastructural asset. Once the infrastructure has been commissioned, various activities must be carried out which are necessary to ensure that it continues to perform- such as the allocation of necessary budgets and the retention of appropriate staff to maintain the operation of the assets.

“Delivery” needs to be universally understood as embracing not just constructing the infrastructure, but the appropriate operation and maintenance thereafter for the whole design life of the asset.

There are so many problems associated with the maintenance of buildings and infrastructural facilities on the economy. One of the serious problems if finance; government financing as regards to maintenance of buildings (both public and private) is minimal. The grant towards maintenance of infrastructural facilities is on its lowest ebb. Most buildings and infrastructures have been neglected by subsequent tenures of government while the private sectors; the individual property owners have little or nothing to contribute towards effective maintenance of their buildings, so long as the buildings affords the owner annual income he could not care less for the maintenance and so long the interior of the building is conducive for the occupants they could not care for outward appearance or other necessary maintenance activity. Another problem to effective maintenance of the built environment in Nigeria is corruption. Certain governments which have the welfare of the populace at heart will foster a well finance programme to cater for the maintenance of certain facilities such as road networks bore hole systems, bridge construction, elevation of the power grid for alleviation of suffering and eventual welfare of the populace but certain corrupted officials will channel these funds for personal aggrandizement. Another serious impediment to maintenance in Nigeria is the state of the economy, according to the united research on profitability index as regards to income per capita of nations of the world; Nigeria is rated as fifth poorest country (UN 2010), which implies that the average Nigerian lives below one dollar per day. As a result of this economic hardship residents and citizens has little or nothing to contribute in terms of effective maintenance of their abode thus leading to neglected effects visualized in our cities and metropolis.

Also certain buildings in Nigerian cities were constructed during the pre-colonial era therefore most of these buildings are aged due to wear and tear, weathering and climatic factors over the years thus resulting in dilapidated nature which might not respond positively to modern day maintenance day techniques, the reason for this assertion being 51% repair – replacement strategy, such buildings, the cost of their repairs might equal over 50% cost of new construction.

Buildings and infrastructural decay also stems from poor workmanship and poor supervision (Amobi 2003), most of these defects arises from the fact that the skill employed during the production of these buildings are defective, the supervisory most at times is minimal or left in the hands of unskilled foremen thus creating a chasm which will be filled by unprofessional ethics thus resulting in failure in the life of the structure which will eventually be translated to the overall life span of the building/structure.

This study aims to identify the shortcomings which militate against the effective maintenance of buildings and infrastructures. Therefore there is need for effective maintenance of all these buildings and infrastructures and also identify the external factors militating against effective maintenance of building and infrastructural facilities to perform its functional requirement.

1.3 Aim and Objectives of the study
The aim of this research work is to discover how maintenance of buildings and infrastructures can be effected, effectively to help increase the workers output thus increasing labour efficiency and increasing the income of the nation leading to increased income per capita of the populace.

The objectives of this research work are as follows:

(a) Have a proper look at the level of maintenance attention that buildings and infrastructures within Nigeria receive.

(b) Now the current building and infrastructural maintenance practice with a view to improve on them.

(c) To pin-point the various difficulties and problems that hamper the efficient execution of an effective maintenance management on buildings and infrastructure in Nigeria.

(d) To examine the causes that lead to the deterioration and dilapidations of buildings and infrastructures.

(e) To proffer solutions to the menace of lack of maintenance of buildings and infrastructures within Nigeria.

In emphasis, this project will show the need for proper maintenance schemes for buildings and infrastructures, that will help reduce maintenance cost, minimize loss of use, improve safety conditions, improve aesthetic values and improve appearance of buildings thereby reduces the cases of collapse of structures and the inherent dangers to life and investment.

1.4 Significance of the study
Maintenance of buildings and the general infrastructures has not been given full recognition as an activity of primary importance in Nigeria. Maintenance activities on building and infrastructures in the country are mostly based on expediency, which over a period of time represents a series of ad hoc measures and unrelated compromise between the immediate physical needs and the availability of funds. Thus only about 15% of the total maintenance are remedied. If serious deterioration are not adequately taken care of future generations will be faced with a major capital burden.(Amobi 2003).

It is therefore imperative that maintenance activities should be increased/ intensified in order to ensure that the nation’s stock of buildings( factors of production and accommodation) which are considerable investments are used effectively as possible.

1.5 Scope and delimitations
This project work covers the entirety of maintenance as regards to buildings and infrastructures with requisite effect it has on the Nigerian nation with reference to shell-camp housing estate, owerri, Imo state.

From the conception, design, construction and post construction, the various problems being faced by property developers, owners, users as regards to maintenance of buildings and infrastructures. Much emphasis is placed on the infrastructural aspect of maintenance work such as social and economic infrastructure as well as scope management and its application on the scope of this project.

1.6 Limitation.
Enough effort has been put to exhaust the scope aforementioned but time and cost constraint relative to the magnitude of maintenance problems are the major forms of limitations for the total achievement of the project objective.

1.7 Research questions
This research work aims to answer these questions

(a) What is infrastructural and building maintenance?

(b) What are the direct effects of lack of maintenance to buildings and infrastructures?

(c) Does lack of maintenance affect the economy of Nigeria as a nation?

(d) What are the direct causes of poor maintenance value in Nigeria?

(e) Does poor maintenance value affect the Nigerian citizenry? How? And why?

(f) Is poor maintenance value as a result of illiteracy, negligence, contractor’s failure as regards to materials, labour and supervision failure, design failure or activities of the occupants? These and many more are some of the questions this research work aims to satisfy.

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