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DETERMINANT PHYSIOCHEMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF PARAMETERS PRESENT IN THE TANKER SUPPLIED WATER (CASE STUDY OF ENUGU METROPOLIS)

CHAPTER ONE
1.1 BACKGROUND
Water is one of the most important and most precious natural resources. It is essential in the life of all living organisms from the simplest plant and micro organisms to the most complex living system known as human body. Water is a combination of hydrogen and oxygen atoms, with a chemical formula, H 2O and known to be the most abundant compound (70%) on earth surface. It is significant due to its unique chemical and physical properties.Access to safe drinking water is key to sustainable development and essential to food production, quality health and poverty reduction. Safe drinking water is essential to life and a satisfactory safe supply must be made available to consumers. Water is thus becoming a crucial factor for development and the quality of life in many countries. In individual arid areas it has become a survival factor. Therefore, water intended for human consumption must not contain pathogen,germs or harmful chemicals; because water contaminated with microorganisms is the cause of epidemics. That is good drinking water is not a luxury but one of the most essential requirements of life itself. However, developing countries, like Nigeria, have suffered from a lack of access to safe drinking water from improved sources and to adequatesanitation services. The WHOrevealed that seventy five percent of all diseases in developing countries arise from polluted drinking water. Therefore; water quality concerns are often the most important component for measuring access to improved water sources. Acceptable quality shows the safety of drinking water in terms of its physical, chemical and bacteriological parameters. International and local agencies have established parameters to determine biological and physicochemical quality of drinking water. The problems associated with chemical constituents of drinking water arise primarily from their ability to cause adverse health effects after prolonged periods of exposure, of particular concern are contaminants that have cumulative toxic properties, such as heavy metals and substances that are carcinogenic. Mahmoud etal 2003.also stated that the most common problems in household water supplies may be attributed to hardness, iron, sulfides, sodium chloride, alkalinity, acidity, and disease-producing pathogens, such as bacteria and viruses. In addition to this International Agency for Research on cancer reported that the use of chemical disinfectants in water treatment or construction materials used in water supply system usually results in the formation of the chemical by-products, some of which are potentially hazardous. This means drinking water is a vehicle for disease transmission. Therefore, it is desirable to control the intake of these potentially toxic chemicals from drinking water because the intake from other sources which are food or air may be difficult to avoid. About 97% water exists in oceans that is not suitable for drinking and only 3% is fresh water wherein 2.97% is comprised by glaciers and ice caps and remaining little portion of 0.3% is available as a surface and ground water for human use (Miller et al,.1997). Fresh water is already a limiting resource in many parts of the world. In the next century, it will become even more limiting due to increased population, urbanization and climate change (Jackson et al., 2001).
Over 50% of the Nigerian population depends on Ground water for drinking water. Ground water is also one of our most important source of water, it comes from rain, sleet and hail that soak into the ground.The water moves down into the ground because of gravity, passing between particles of soil, sand, gravel, or rock, until it reaches a depth where the ground is filled or saturated with water.  The source of most tanker distributed water in Enugu metropolis water source is ground water (bore holes). Unfortunately groundwater is susceptible to pollutants which affect their physiochemical characteristics and microbiological quality. Groundwater contamination occurs when man made products such as gasoline, oil and chemicals get into the groundwater and cause it to become unsafe and unfit for human use. Materials from the lands surface can move through the soil and end up in the groundwater. For example, pesticides and fertilizers can find their way into groundwater supplies overtime.  Toxic substances from mining sites, and used motor oil also may seep into ground. In addition, it is possible for untreated faecal materials open defecate from septic tanks and toxic chemicals from ground storage tanks and leaky landfills to contaminate groundwater.

Prevention of groundwater pollution requires effective monitoring of physiochemical and microbiological parameters. In most countries, the principal risks to human health associated with consumption of polluted water are microbiological in nature. The bacteriological examination of water has a special significance in pollution studies, as it is a direct measurement of deleterious effect of pollution on human health. Coliform are the major microbial indicator of monitoring water quality. The detection of Escherichia coli provides definite evidence of faecal pollution; in practice, the detection of thermotolerant (faecal) Coliform bacteria is an acceptable alternative.

1.2 Statement of problem
 In developing countries (e.g.Nigeria) the drinking quality of water is continuously being contaminated and hazardous for human use due to high growth of population, expansion in industries, discharging of waste water and chemical effluents into canals and other water sources. According to recent estimates, the quantity of available water in developing regions of South Asia, Middle East and Africa is decreasing sharply while quality of water is deteriorating rapidly due to fast urbanization, industrialization, land degradation etc.
In addition, the physical condition of water (colour, taste and odour) might render it undrinkable as it can be rejected by end-users. For this reason, water quality assessment and continuous monitoring are of utmost importance. 
Enugu metropolis has witnessed remarkable expansion, growth and development activities such as buildings, road, constructions and many other anthropogenic activities that may affect their quality of water

1.3 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
 The aim of this study is to determining the parameters present in the tanker supplied water & its quality through physiochemical and biochemical analysis.
Other objectives are:
I)                   To identify the presence or absence of toxic chemicals
II)                To identify the presence or absence of microbial contaminants
III)             To assess if the water qualityare in order of the Nigerian drinking water standards.

1.4 Significance of study
In Enugu metropolis, most people rely on private water supplies such as wells, tanker supplied water and streams. Quality water is vital to the social, health and economic well being of the people. Monitoring your water quality by having it tested regularly is an important part of maintaining a safe and reliable source. Testing the water allows a knowledgeable approach to address the specific problems of a water supply. This helps ensure that the water source is being properly protected from potential contamination. It is important to test the suitability of your water quality for its intended purpose, whether it is livestock watering, irrigation, spraying, or drinking water. This will assist you in making informed decisions about your water and how you use it. This study is to help provide water quality testing information that will assist residents using a private water supply. It provides information on the importance of water quality monitoring and how you can get it tested.

The quality of a water source may change over time, sometimes suddenly. Many changescan go unnoticed as the water may look, smell and taste the same as it always did.Monitoring your water quality is necessary to ensure your treatment system is workingeffectively, providing the best quality water for your intended use.The water you are using may or may not have problems with it. Many people are aware ofsome of their water quality problems. For example, some people may be plagued withhigh concentrations of iron, which causes aesthetically unpleasing coloring and staining.Unfortunately, not all water quality problems can be easily detected without propertesting. The water may look good but may actually be unsuitable for the specificapplication you are using it for.Proper sampling, testing and interpretation of the results are required to determine thesuitability of your water supply and identify any problems it may have.

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THE EFFECTS OF BROKEN HOMES ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN ESAN WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE

ABSTRACT
The aim of this study is to find the effects of broken homes on the academic performance of secondary school students in Esan West Local Government Area of Edo state. The sample for the study comprises students and teachers randomly selected from five secondary schools in Esan West Local Government Area of Edo state. In achieving the goal of the study, four (4) hypotheses were stated. Twenty item questionnaires was designed to draw out responses from respondents, the responses were used to test the hypothesis. Recommendations were made at the end of the study; findings include the employment of marital counselors at the social welfare office and establishment of marital counseling center by the government. It has also been recommended that similar research should be carried out in other states and Local Government areas.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study
          Education has been viewed by scholars based on their perception of what education is Castle (2005) sees education as what happened to us from the day we are born to the day we die. Yoloye (2000) defines education as a weapon for combating ignorance, poverty, and disease, as a bridge between confusion and comprehension, as a dam for conserving man’s store of civilization and for generating the power to move to greater civilization, as a means for transporting man from a state of intellectual subservience to a state of intellectual sovereignty.
          In a nutshell, education is an all round development of an individual, intellectually, morally, and mentally, so that he will be useful to himself and the society he belongs.
          It is assumed that a broken home retard the progress of those children from such background in that both parents are not on a ground to direct and guide the child towards the achievement of educational goals. It is arguable or believed that children form broken homes are more likely prone to poor academic performance. A child may become a victim of broken home as a result of divorce or separation of the parents. When this happens, the child is entrusted to other people that are different form his parents. This person is expected to play the role of a surrogate parents despite his/her commitment to his/her own children. Without any empirical evidence, it is very clear that nobody will treat a child who is entrusted to his care the way he/she will treat his/her own child. By this token, the child is always confused and frustrated under the leadership style of step fathers or step mothers. The frustration of a child knows no bound. At home under surrogate parents he is discriminated and suffers some psychological deprivations. He carries the same emotional frustration to the school. Instead of listening to the teacher and taking down notes, he is more often occupied with the intimidation, discrimination and deprivation he/she is facing at home. As such, he has little or no interest in the learning materials, as classes are ought to be attended and comprehensible in the course of subject taught or presented at school.
          Apart from the frustration, discrimination, discouragement and deprivation, the child may also be malnourished and segregated by surrogate parents (i.e mother) who feel that she is wasting the family resources on the child she did not give birth to. The child may lack the necessary school materials and in most cases, may grudgingly allow the child to be attending school while the child may not be given the necessary things that are vital for acquisition of knowledge since he know that he will be punished by the teacher for lack of learning materials, he may result to play truancy.
          Single parenthood has been found to adversely affect the learning situation of human being particularly the children. That is to say, children who are reared in homes where parents are separated or divorced are most likely to be faced with sleep disturbance in class while learning and become irritable, fearful, aggressive and withdrawn (Cole and Cole, 2003; Vander-Zanden, 2000). Studies further confirm that children in one parent’s household not only do or perform poorly in school because they tend to lack self-control; but also become disruptive in the classrooms, instead of paying attention to what is being taught in class, they are busy disturbing others ready to learn. In addition, it is also reported that two years immediately after mother’s marriage break up, the mother exercise less control over her children than she did before (Hetherington, Cox and Cos, 2002).
          The problems children from broken homes are facing with the resultant failure in school is a serious affair that calls for the attention of all and sundry including the government.

Statement of Problem
          In Nigeria, divorce is becoming a common phenomenon. Mallon (2008) noted that it is common to see and hear of divorce cases here and there. In Ekpoma, this is a common trend among those who lives as married couples, to file divorce suite on the other. This is usually associated among the educated elites, this bad trend should be noted by teachers and school heads both public and private at the secondary school levels, as it has bear its ugly toll on the psychological, social and most importantly academics performance of school children, who turns out to miscreants “street boys” Products of the society. The popular Lagos weekend and Lagos life reported at least three to four cases of marital disruption weekly in Lagos and its environment. Also in Kwara State, Ministry of Information Youth, Sports and Social development recorded 53,697 marriages were registered for both the churches and registry from 2001 to 2013. Also given in Edo State the issue of divorce was recorded in child welfare centres.
          A total of 97,505 marriages were recorded between 2000 to 2013 and 42,345 out of the total marriages were divorced. Further observation shows the negative effects on our wards. The local government needs to find practical solutions or to minimize the problems.
          Ekpoma, Esan West local government area of Edo State shares cultural, religious and language values with her neighboring local government areas namely. Esan South, Esan North, Esan Central Local Government Area. What this implies, is that if divorce is a problem in Ekpoma West local government areas it, is likely to be a problem in those neighboring local government areas.
          This study was set up to examine the effects of broken homes on academic performance in secondary schools and to find answers to important questions

Research Questions
          The following are research question for the study
i.             What do student in secondary schools in (Esan West local government areas) perceives to be the effects of broken homes?
ii.           Does the student perception of the effects of broken homes affect their academic performance?
iii.        What is the difference of students from broken homes with those from non-divorced homes?
iv.        What is the performance ratio of students from broken home with those from non broken homes?
A good understanding of what students perceive to be the effects of broken home will surely help secondary school teachers approach marital problems with more data facts and understanding.

Purpose of Study
          The purpose of this study is to find out:
 i.            The perception of students in Esan West local government areas on the effects of broken homes
ii.            How the students’ perception of the effects of broken homes affect their academic performance.
iii.            The differences of students from broken homes with those from non-broken homes
iv.            The performance ratio of students from broken home with those from non-broken homes

Hypothesis
          Based on the finding from this chapter, the following hypothesis will be tested to guide the conduct of the study.
i.             There is no significant difference between the older married couples and the younger married couple.
ii.           There is no significant difference between male and female married couple in their perception of effects of broken homes.
iii.        There is no significant difference among married home of different villages in their perception of effects of broken homes
iv.        There is no significant difference among couples with different years of marital experience in their perception of effects of broken homes

Significance of the Study
          The family is the basic unit of the society. Modem communities value the family for the contribution it adds to the social life, especially in the socialization of children and adults on the entire population. Earlier studies on marital instability, such as Olusanya (2009) have shown that educational status has positively associated with marital stability. The standard of educational status as a factor of marital stability needs do be clarified.
          Danya (2006), observed that divorce rate is on the increase by the day, that many articles has littered the newspapers stand and other bookselling outfits.
          This shows how concerned the public is with respect to divorce issues.
          This study will thus provide relevant and valuable information to family members, marriage advisers and counselors on how to obtain appropriate solutions to marital problems. It will assist them to be able to render needed help to couples, parents of those children to adjust better in their respective homes for reconciliation. The student will be made aware of the importance of marital stability and factors that leads to marital instability.
          This study is thus, reaching out to this school environment, to the family, unmarried males and females, to those intending couples, so as to be able to discover those social ills that are retarding to the achievements of the aims of education and the academic performance of the learners.

Scope of the Study
          The study was limited to some selected secondary school students in Ekpoma, Esan West Local Government Area of Edo State. It covers the students in Ujoelen grammar school, Ihumudumu secondary school, Ujemen secondary school, Eguare secondary school and Emaudo Secondary School, all in Esan West local government area of Edo State. This study involves only student from divorced/broken homes in the five secondary schools. This is because they are the ones that have experienced with such and so could respond to the instrument appropriately.

Definition of Terms
          The following terms are defined as they are to be used for the purpose of this study.
Marriage: It is the legal relationship between a husband and wife
Marital Instability: Strain and stress in marital relationship, constant quarrelling and fighting. Marital disruption or disharmony between married couples caused by interaction of the spouse.
Learning: A relatively pertinent to permanent change in the behaviour of an individual as a result of learning
Legal Divorce: This is a case where a marriage is totally broken by a court of low or religious order and the two parties (spouse) and free to remarry, if those documents and tendered for rectification.
Broken HomeA home is said to be broken when it lacks stability, fervency, Joy, Zest Excitement that characterized a happy relationship.
Separation: A situation in which a married couple lives apart and operate separately in marriage without being divorced, very often separation leads to divorce.
Married Couples: - These are husband and wife who are legally in a marriage relationship legally contracted under the traditional, religious or court order.
Performance: This is the ability to successfully carry out a given task.

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RELEVANCE OF ENTERPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION IN REDUCING UNEMPLOYMENT AMONG UNDERGRADUATES IN EDO STATE

ABSTRACT
This study is aim to investigate on relevance of Entrepreneurship education in reducing unemployment among Undergraduates in Edo State. Three research questions were used to formulate the hypothesis tested for the study. The study will adopt the descriptive survey design and random sampling technique will be adopted to select five departments in the school. From the study this finding were made which include; it should be infused into the entrepreneurship training programmes in the tertiary institutions and the Federal Government through the SURE-P and corporate bodies in Nigeria partnership by supporting the project through adequate funding of entrepreneurship education. Conclusively, since its benefits are enormous, adequate steps should be taken to requite entrepreneurial education by providing at the various levels of governance-federal state and local government areas. Some recommendations were made which include; the educational sector needs to be revamped with emphasis on science and technology. There is need to change the mind set of young people to embrace self employment rather than waiting for non-existing government job and there is the need to ensure that those with innovative ideas are provided with the financial support to translate such ideas into reality.

CHAPTER ONE
                                         INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study
          Entrepreneurship education as a functional education which can be used as a panacea for unemployment, and poverty eradication for national security, because education has remained the major instrument for national development for many countries of the world. That is the reason most nations of the world spend huge sums of money to provide education for their citizens. Thus education becomes a veritable platform for tackling socio-cultural, economic, political, scientific and technological challenges facing many nations.
           According to Agi and Yellowe (2013) education is important to the development of human resources, impartation of appropriate skills, knowledge and attitude. It is the basis for transformation, industrialization and a high way to global knowledge economy. Relating to security, Agi and Yellowe (2013) explained further that education is regarded as a means of achieving culture of peace, gender equality and positive African values. It is therefore the understanding of many that education leads to national transformation and development, through reduction in poverty with ensured peace and security.
The National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (2004) document lends credence to the place of education by clearly explaining its role in self-reliance and development, Agi and Yellowe (2013) also supports this when they asserted that the goals of wealth creation or generation, poverty reduction and value re-orientation can only be attained and sustained through an efficient education system which impacts the relevant skills, knowledge, capacities, attitudes and values.
         In view of the benefits of education enumerated above, Nigeria has provided education for decades with abundant available manpower. However, what keeps agitating the nation endlessly borders on the slow and inefficient economy, near primitive democracy and violent social co-existence in society (NEEDS, 2004). Evidenced with many primary and secondary schools and tertiary institution’s graduates not gainfully employed either by self or government. Supporting this Ochonma (2011) reported that about 2.8 million fresh graduates enter the labour market yearly and only 10% of these are gainfully employed. Unemployment or joblessness, as defined by the International Labour Organization (1982) occurs when people are without jobs and they have actively sought work within the past five weeks. The unemployment rate is a measure of the prevalence of unemployment and it is calculated as a percentage by dividing the number of unemployed individuals by all individuals currently in the labour force. The Newsweek (2011) reported that more than 200 million people globally are out of work, a record high, as almost two-thirds of advanced economies and half of developing countries are experiencing a slowdown in employment growth.
           Dependence on jobs to make money to buy food and shelter was the beginning of unemployment. Because it has not always been acknowledged or measured systematically, there are limited historical records on unemployment. Recognition of unemployment occurred slowly as economies across the world industrialized and bureaucratized. The recognition of the concept of “unemployment” is best exemplified through the well documented historical records in England. For example, in 16th century England no distinction was made between vagrants and the jobless as they were simply categorised as “sturdy beggars”, to be punished and moved on (Business Week, 2011). An individual who cannot either join an enterprise or create a job is unemployed. As individual farmers, merchants, and artisans organize themselves into large enterprises, those who cannot join or compete favourably become unemployed. As population was rising, those unable to find work had a choice: starve or break the law.
          Youth unemployment across the world has reached a new high and is likely to climb further. The youth population in sub-Sahara Africa was estimated at 138 million people in 2002-2003, with 28.9 million or 21% of them unemployed (ILO, 2004b). There are notable differences in youth unemployment with regard to gender. The unemployment rate for young women in sub-Sahara Africa is 18.4%, lower than the rate for young men (23.1%) even though young women’s participation rate is lower.  Youth unemployment in Africa also has a geographical dimension. It is generally higher in the urban areas than in rural areas. Several factors account for higher youth unemployment rate in Africa, most notably low economic growth, low economic activity and low investment. These related factors contribute to low job creation and because of sustained (increase in some cases) population growth the small labour market is unable to absorb the resulting army of job seekers.
        Youth unemployment has been increasing because most graduates lack relevant marketable skills. The Federal government recently acknowledged that about 80 percent of Nigeria’s youth are unemployed while 10 percent are underemployed (Daily Trust, 2008). According to the National Bureau of statistics (2010) the national unemployment rates for Nigeria between 2000 and 2009 showed that unemployed persons constituted 31.1%, 13.6% in 2001, 12.6% in 2002, 13.4% in 2004, 13.7% in 2006, 14.9% in 2008, and 19.7% in 2009. With respect to age group, education and sex NBS (2010) data showed that persons aged between 15 and 24 years had 41.6% unemployed. For persons between 25 and 44 years, 17% were unemployed. For persons with primary education 14.8% were unemployed while those with post secondary education had 21.3% unemployed. As regards sex, data showed that males constituted 17.% of the unemployed while females constituted 23.3%.
          Entrepreneurship is not just skill acquisition for acquisition sake; it is an acquisition of skills and ideas for the sake of creating employment for oneself and also for others. It also includes the development based on creativity (Oseni, Momoh and Momodu, 2012). Entrepreneurship leads to the development of small, medium and sometimes large scale businesses based on creativity and innovation. The success of these businesses in turn helps in developing the nation’s economy. It equally reduces poverty rate with visible increment in employment rate among the youth. Entrepreneurship shifts young people from being “job seekers” to “job creators” and also from social dependence to self sufficient people. However, training is very essential in entrepreneurship.
          In a similar vein, Chiguta (2001) notes that entrepreneurship has been receiving increasing recognition as a source of job creation, empowerment for the unemployed and economic dynamism in a rapidly globalizing world. Unemployment rate was discovered to be negatively related to entrepreneurial development (Oladele, Akeke and Oladunjoye, 2011). High rate of unemployment has been associated with low level of entrepreneurial development in any country. This justifies the need to increase entrepreneurial activities to reduce the high rate of youth unemployment.

Statement of the Problem
       Analyzing the problem of education in Nigeria, Agi and Yellowe (2013) argued that the problem is not about curriculum or investment in education neither is it non-availability of manpower for the sector, but that many have tended to look in the direction of management of education which include lack of policy analysis to make students to fit into society, yet not relying on the government of the day but the managerial ingenuity of educational managers and administrators to make education a building block of socio-economic empowerment, prosperity, self-reliance, employment crime reduction and national security, through improved access to quality, functional eduction at all levels.
        Quoting Mills, Nwadiani (2011) noted that education embraces not only the deliberate processes of schooling but it includes even indirect and incidental influences. This concept of education discusses formal and informal education; seeing education as going beyond the formal school system and includes non-formal education which makes the whole process of learning a continuous one terminating at dearth. However, because of recent happenings – unemployment, underemployment, poverty and their re-occurring effects, many people have hitherto criticized formal education for lack of its relevance while some others also strongly looked down on informal education as being unable to promote the much needed development, scientific and technological breakthrough.
         According to Nwadiani (2011) there are misconceptions that non-formal education is cheap, designed and meant for the poor and it is only suitable to developing countries. It must therefore be noted that these fallacious misconceptions are forces against the acceptance and popularization of the entrepreneurship in Nigeria’s educational policy making and implementation.

Purpose of Study
The main purpose of the study is to examine relevance entrepreneurship education in addressing unemployment challenges in Nigeria. Specifically, the objectives were to:
i.     Students’ perceptions on the causes of unemployment in Nigeria.
ii.   Students’ perceptions on the effects of unemployment in Nigeria.
iii.  Students’ perceptions on the need for entrepreneurship education in solving the problem of youth unemployment in Nigeria.

Research Questions
          The following research questions have been highlighted to guide the study.
i.     What are students’ perceptions on the causes of unemployment in Nigeria?
ii.   What are Students’ perceptions on the effects of unemployment in Nigeria?
iii.  Students’ perceptions on the need for entrepreneurship education in solving the problem of youth unemployment in Nigeria.

Significance of the Study
          This study will be of benefit to university lecturers, students, government and the university management. The study will show to them the causes, the effects of unemployment and the need for entrepreneurship education in solving the problem of youth unemployment in Nigeria.
To university lecturers, the study will unveil to them the areas to concentrate in the school syllabus in order to develop entrepreneurial minds of students for creative employment and also help the show the need for introducing entrepreneurship education into the school curriculum in Nigeria.
To the parents, the study of their children during child birth and training cannot be determined towards the course of study in higher institution. Lastly, the findings from the study will show to the government the role of entrepreneurship education in solving the problem of youth unemployment in Nigeria.

Scope of the Study
This study examines the relevance entrepreneurship education in addressing unemployment challenges in Nigeria. The study will be undertaken among undergraduates from the two public universities in Edo state which are: Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma and university of Benin.

Definition of Terms
          For the better understanding of this research work, some of the terms and concepts used need further explanation. These includes
Unemployment: Unemployment occurs when people are without work and actively seeking for work. It is a situation where someone of working age is not able to get a job but would like to be in full time employment. Unemployment is a measure of the prevalence of unemployment and it is calculated as a parentage by dividing the number of unemployed individual by all individuals currently in the labour force.
Entrepreneurship Education:  Entrepreneurship Education seeks to provide students with the knowledge, skills and motivation to encourage entrepreneurship education focuses on realization of opportunity, where management education is focused on the best way to operate existing hierarchies. Both approaches share an interest in achieving “profit” in some form and variations of entrepreneurship education are offered at all levels of schooling from primary or secondary schools through graduate university programs.
Perception:  Perception is the act or facility of perceiving or apprehending by means of the senses or of the mind, perception is the organization identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the environment. All perception involves signals in the nervous system, which in turn result from physical or chemical stimulation of sense organs. 

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IMPACT OF INDUSTRIAL TRIANING EXPERIENCES ON STUDENTS AND ORGANIZATIONS IN ESAN WEST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF EDO STATE

ABSTRACT
This study was carried out to look at the impact of Industrial Training Experience on students and organizations in Esan West Local Government Area of Edo State. In other to direct this study, four (4) hypotheses were drawn up for the study. The instrument used for data collection was the questionnaire. The data collected for this respondent were then analysed and the hypotheses and the questions tested by using the simple percentage method. It was found out that the application for placement of Industrial Training was stressful and students gain a lot of benefits from the program. And it was discovered that student’s performance depends on the remuneration given them and employers agree that students helps the organization in their projects. Conclusively, it was recommended that students should be posted to companies and departments related to the students course of study. However, it was suggested that higher institutions should assist students in getting organizations to undertake their industrial training. There is also the need for the organizations to give the trainees some stipends and remunerations.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study

Industrial training is a program that can never be overemphasized in a country. This program is one of the greatest tools used in helping in the development of a growing society. In every aspects and stages of education of a country, vocational and technical training is always advised to be included in the curriculum of a school and students should be sent to the outside world to practicalize what has been taught them theoretically in school.
Industrial training helps the students in developing his or her manipulative skills and increase experiences which will prepare him or her for the future. Also, industrial training is one of the yardsticks used for the growth of an organization to gain the opportunity to identify and evaluate potential employees, amongst others.
A country’s development also depends on the practical and manpower growths of its citizens which will help the economy of the country go grow and develop.
One of the greatest secrets of a developed country is the increase in entrepreneurship and manpower development. Entrepreneurship is in vogue. A wide range of factors have contributed to the revival of interest in entrepreneurship and small business all over the world. In recent years, many industrialized countries have suffered from economic recession, high unemployment rates and fluctuation in international trade cycles to a degree not experienced since World War II. This situation has tended to increase the attention paid by policy makers to the potential decision makers to the potential role of entrepreneurs as a possible solution to rising unemployment rates and as recipe for economic prosperity.
Human resources development can be said to embrace all the diverse processes more effectively aimed at transforming people, so that they can contribute more effectively to social, political and economic development of the nation. The development and effective utilization of human resources has always therefore been a primary concern for all governments and organizations in the whole world because of its importance to production and national development. In this respect, it can be said that a nations human resources can be improved and transformed by better health care, food availability, house care as well as conducive environment by education and training
It has been noticed by various interested stakeholders that in this present state of economic vicissitude, this country must make the most use of her one of her greatest asset; our working population. Perhaps, we cannot continuously increase the number of workers in our efforts to increase production; we must make do of those available at every level more efficient. This is obvious, but not the only justification for training.
Whatever the state of the economy and the labour market, training is always desirable and it seems self evident that with adequate trained and developed manpower, organizations are better ruined. Our economy’s future obviously depend son our making the utmost use of our human resources and it therefore becomes important that human effort should not be wasted either through lack of skill, interest or through indifferent management.
Definition of Manpower: manpower is a basic and primary resources of any kind of setup, be it a business or an entire nation. It is such an important asset that without it, all the other assets such as capital, machinery etc can never function.
As would be fully discussed later and in detail in this study, Industrial Training Fund is a training body established on 8th October 1971 aimed at promoting and encouraging the acquisition of skills in industry and commerce even in higher schools of learning with a view of generating a pool of indigenous trained manpower in the economy. The objective for which the fund was established has been vigorously and efficaciously. In the three decades of its existence, the industrial training fund has not only helped in generating a corps of skilled indigenous manpower which has been manning and managing various sectors of the national economy.
As part of its responsibilities, the ITF provides direct training, vocational and apprentice training, research and consultancy service, reimbursement of up to 60% levy paid by employers of labour registered with it, and administers the students industrial work experience scheme (SIWES).
What this study would want to find out generally is how students response to this scheme or training, that is do student gain practical knowledge from the training or do they pass through it because it is compulsory. In addition, do they respond more to the scheme or training because of remuneration they get from industrial training fund and sometimes companies or organizations that engage them in Industrial Attachment, do students contribute to the progress of firms or organizations that they use
In conclusion, the students’ industrial training experience scheme is one of the numerous programmes of Industrial Training Fund where students are engaged in industrial training at the different companies or organizations to enhance their manpower capacity and in-house training delivery effort.

Statement of the Study
Manpower development through training has become a compelling priority in our economic, social and political endeavours. We must recognize the fact that general education activities done is not enough as preparation for the world of work. The people need to be trained, retained constantly to keep pace with the changing needs of technological and economical progress.
It is this idea of general education not being enough that the Students Industrial Training Experience program was initiated by the Industrial Training Fund to give students future work experience.
Therefore, our problem on this study is to ascertain the acceptability and positive usage of the program by students and organizations in Nigeria. If the process for getting placement of Industrial Training was easy. If there is any relationship between remuneration and students performance. If industrial training program is a means of helping the organization in their projects

Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the study includes the following
-          To find out the impact of the program on practical work experiences of students
-          To know whether the students’ industrial training experience program can be said to have fulfilled the  objectives for which the program was set up
-          To check students’ contribution to organizations where they are attached
-          To make recommendations to the Industrial Training Fund program.

Hypothesis
i.                    If the application for placement of Industrial Training was stressful.
ii.                 If the purpose of Industrial Training is of any benefit to the students
iii.               If there is any relationship between remuneration and students performance
iv.               If Industrial Training Program is a means of helping the organization in their projects

Significance of the Study
It is expected that this study shows the following significance that;
i.                    Students acquire industrial skills and experiences in their course of study.
ii.                 The missions and objectives of the industrial training fund are met
iii.               Organizations also contribute to training of future employees as their corporate social responsibility
iv.               Organizations benefit from continuous students’ attachment which brings about new perspective and fresh ideas into the working environment.

Delimitation of the Study
Industrial Training Fund (I.T.F) has many programs on manpower and human resources development. This study would be restricted to one of its programs which is the Industrial Training Experiences on students and organizations.
This study would be based on the Industrial Training in Esan West Local Government Area, Ekpoma Edo State. Students to be interviewed are those in Ambrose Alli University Ekpoma, Edo State and different organizations in the local government area. 

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 79 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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