KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDE ON THE CAUSES OF MISCARRIAGES AMONG PREGNANT WOMEN IN ILORIN METROPOLIS KWARA STATE

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1       BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Biochemical pregnancy loss or miscarriage is the pregnancy loss, which occurs after positive urinary or serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), but before ultrasound or histological detection of pregnancy (<6 12-21="" 22="" after="" and="" as="" before="" between="" by="" clinical="" conception="" confirmed="" consecutive="" defined="" detection="" divided="" early="" embryology="" eshre="" evidence="" gestational="" histological="" human="" intrauterine="" is="" late="" loss="" losses="" miscarriage="" miscarriages="" occurs="" of="" or="" pregnancy="" products="" reproduction="" rm="" sac="" society="" span="" the="" to="" ultrasound="" uropean="" weeks="" which=""> Miscarriage is one of the most common complications in pregnancy [1]. It is estimated that one out of four clinically recognised pregnancies will end in miscarriage during the first-trimester, and approximately 1% of pregnant women will experience a second-trimester miscarriage [2].
Despite the prevalence of miscarriage, 50% are attributed to chromosomal abnormalities [3], and a considerable percentage are classified as unexplained [4]. Therefore, identifying risk factors and effective interventions to prevent miscarriage has become a priority in the medical and scientific community [5]. Well-known risk factors include advanced maternal and paternal age, heavy smoking, alcohol consumption, infertility and previous miscarriage [6–10]. Preconception health care aims to identify and increase awareness to reduce risk factors before pregnancy that might affect the future maternal, child and family health [11–13]. An effort has been made to develop effective intervention plans and to include preconception risk factors in prenatal prevention programs internationally [14–18].
One of the main recommendations is to promote effective preconception health care interventions to develop curricula of preconception risk factors at undergraduate and postgraduate level [15]. Insight into students’ awareness of miscarriage might help to assess the effectiveness of preconception care education at a hospital level, but also to highlight the gaps of knowledge among this targeted population..

1.2       STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Miscarriage is represent one of the most serious health problem in pregnant women and community-based problem. Most previous studies reported that one in five pregnant women end in miscarriage. [1,2] Other prospective studies had reported fetal loss rates were approximately one-third. [3,4] There are many factors contributing to miscarriage and they were regarded as wellestablished and controversial risk factors. The well-established risk factors include: increased maternal age. [5,6] history of abortion and infertility. [7,8] In our region, these factors may show some differences and might not be the same as demonstrated in the previous studies since there were many factors that were variable. There are different types of miscarriage depending on cause and stage of pregnancy. Miscarriage is ordinary classified as incomplete or complete, threatened and inevitable, on the basis of clinical history and findings of digital pelvic examination. [9] The purpose of the study is to determine these types and to identify the risk factors in the first trimester. Ultrasound plays effective role in detection and evaluation of miscarriage and display a variety of sonographic appearances according to the stage of miscarriage.

1.3       OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The following are the objectives of this study:
i.                    To examine the determinant of pregnancy miscarriage among women in Nigeria.
ii.                  To examine the risk factors of miscarriage at the first trimester of pregnant women.
iii.                To identify the types ofpregnancy miscarriageprevalent among women.

1.4       RESEARCH QUESTIONS
i.                    What are the determinants of pregnancy miscarriage among women in Nigeria?
iv.                What is are the risk factors of miscarriage at the first trimester of pregnant women?
ii.                  What are the types of pregnancy miscarriage prevalent among women?

1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The following are the significance of this study:
i.                    The outcome of this study will be beneficial to all categories of women and the society at large.
ii.                  The results from this study will help individuals identify the negative effect or disadvantage associated with the involvement of pregnancy miscarriage and how it affects the society at large.
iii.                This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area.

1.7       SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study will cover the causes and the consequences, Knowledge and attitude on the causes of miscarriages among pregnant women in Ilorin metropolis kwara state.

LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint- Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint- The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 33 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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