IMPACT OF TRAFFIC CONGESTION ON WORKERS PRODUCTIVITY

CHAPTER ONE 
1.1 INTRODUCTION 
This research work will be carried out to reveal the impact of the Traffic congestion on the productivity of employees using Access Bank Plc (Ejigbo Branch) as a case study. 

Transport in a layman definition, can be defined as the ability to move from one place to another. In other words, it is referred to as mobility, which is said to be as old as creation and civilization. Transport is an epitome of the complex relationship that exists between the physical environment, patterns of social and physical activity, and level of economic development in political negotiation, economic calculation and environmental considerations. Modern economics require and assume relatively sophisticated transport systems, yet changes are frequently contentious. However, inhabited areas underprovided with even rudimentary forms of transport, and the need to facilitate economic development by providing improved transport system. 

Due to the nature of Lagos, the urban population growth of metropolitan Lagos exceeded that of any urban Centre in Nigeria. According to the existence of multi various vehicles lead to the crawling of vehicles on the road. The crawling of vehicles is one of the major transportation problem Nigerians are facing.it is termed “traffic congestion” urban congestion is the price we are all paying for development. Moving from one place to another in the city of Lagos, Ejigbo is an endurance test. Regardless of income and social status, the conditions under which we travel have become more and more difficult.it is absolutely intolerable. Travel speed in this Local council development area has been reduced back to the level of horse carriage, other causes of traffic congestion apart from high increase in rate of car ownership can be categorized into thus, the city, unplanned land used such as concentration of offices within areas which make traffic flow unidirectional during the peak hours. This condition is created where the existing road infrastructure is not adequate to handle ever growing traffic population. 

Some roads are constructed without adequate drainage facilities, which makes them not motor able during rainy season, which in return causes traffic congestion that has been of negatives impact on the road users and environment. 

1.2 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY 
It is generally known that one of the tenets of organizations across the world is seeking to improve the productivity of their employees in order to remain in the business (Levine, 2013). This is so because productivity of an organization determines the organizational performance (Levine, 2013). The morale of an employee is the mental and emotional condition of the employee with regards to their functions, job duties or tasks at hand. Morale is a feeling, somewhat related to spirit de corps and enthusiasm (Olewe, 2011). On the other hand, productivity of employees is described by their total work output which directly translates to organizational performance. However, the researcher is of the opinion that morale and employees of employee particularly in Lagos State is affected by the overwhelming traffic congestion that typically characterizes Lagos roads. 

Traffic congestion refers to the incremental costs resulting from interference among road users. In a similar vein, (Weisbrod, 2010) defines Traffic Congestion as a condition of traffic delay (that is; when traffic flow is abysmally below reasonable speed) because the number of vehicles trying to use a road exceeds the design capacity of the traffic network. It is widely viewed as a growing phenomenon in many urban areas because the overall volume of vehicular traffic in many areas continues to grow faster than the overall capacity of the transportation system. The resulting traffic slow-downs can have a wide range of negative impacts on people and on the business economy, including impacts on air quality (due to additional vehicle emissions), quality of life (due to personal time delays), and business activity (due to the additional costs and reduced service areas for workforce, supplier and customer markets). (Weisbrod, 2012) 

The congestion arising from the relationship between the demand placed on a road by vehicles and the available road capacity impacts directly or indirectly on productivity of workers entrapped in the traffic congestion. It is imperative to observe that all these impacts can differ by industry, by location, and by specific economic market served. Similarly, since activities within organizations are performed by employees, it could be logically inferred that employee productivity translates to overall organizational productivity (Grant-Muller and Laird, 2017). Employee’s productivity therefore can be affected by various factors one of which is commuting to and from workplace. On the other hand, congestion is seen as having significant impact on a number of sectors including the environment and economy as a whole and therefore occupies a prominent place on the public agenda (Grant-Muller and Laird, 2017). Those who argue that this congestion is actually a sign of a productive region are correct in some sense, but they do not account for the fact that users of the system do not pay the full costs of their travel (Grant-Muller and Laird, 2017). For example, because one more person in traffic makes everyone else’s travel slower and contributes to emission level of the surrounding neighbor hoods and urban air sheds. 

In Lagos State, there are increasing concerns about how the growth of traffic congestion may adversely affect the economy (business sales and income) as well as concerns about the relative benefit-cost ratio or returns on investment associated with alternative projects or policies to address those problems (Oni, 2012). Unfortunately, the severity and pattern of traffic congestion, as well as the impactiveness of alternative projects or policies to address it, can vary widely from area to area, depending on the size and layout of the area, its available transportation options, and the nature of its traffic generators. (Oni,2012) sees traffic problems as multi-dimensional and bewildering citing the example of Lagos. Thecountless man-hours lost in traffic congestion and the wastefulness of human energy and motor fuel are factorsthat have a most serious impact on the economic efficiency, productivity and social performance of the area.For everyday travelers, the frustration of traffic is obvious. Understanding the impact on cities and the economy,however, is not as straight forward as many would like (David and Gregory, 2009). From an economicperspective, according to them, congestion’s main impact is the lost productivity from more time spent travelingto work rather than working; delaying (or missing) meetings; foregoing interactions among individuals orpersonal activities due to long travel time; and spending more time to accomplish tasks than would otherwise benecessary if we could reliably plan for accomplishing the same things at free-flow speeds. 

1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 
Researchers have argued that a region’s economy does better when people spend more time working and doing things they find valuable and less time traveling to do them. An impactive transportation system is supposed to provide access to people and places they want to go.Time loss due to congestion has no significant impact on quality of work carried out by workers. Several hour traffic congestion in almost all large and growing metropolitan regions around the world is almost certain to get worse during the next few decades because of rising populations and wealth, no matter what policies are adopted to combat congestion. The typical example is Lagos State. This outcome should not be regarded as a mark of social failure or wrong policies. In fact, traffic congestion often results from economic prosperity and other types of success. People congregate in large numbers in those places where they most want to be. 

Despite the overwhelming traffic congestion in Lagos State, new businesses are opening in Lagos while some visible development is manifesting in the business sector which indicates better organization performance. This made the researcher to see the need to examine the impact of the Traffic congestion on the productivity of the employees of Access Bank Plc Ejigbo. 

1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 
The general objective of this study is to analyze the impact of the Traffic congestion on the productivity of the employees of Access Bank Plc Ejigbo while the following are the specific objectives: 

· To examine the impact of the Traffic congestion on the morale and performance of the employees of Access Bank Plc Ejigbo. 
· To evaluate the ways that Access Bank has boosted the work and performance of its staff. 
· To determine the impact of the Traffic congestion on the organizational performance of Access Bank Plc Ejigbo. 

1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS 
· What are the psychological impacts of the traffic congestion on the employees of Access Bank Plc Ejigbo? 
· What are the financial implication of traffic congestion on employees of Access bank? 
· What are the impacts of the Traffic congestion on the performance of employee of the bank? 

1.6 STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESES 
H0: There is no significant relationship between Trafficcongestion and morale and performance of employees of Access Bank Plc Ejigbo 

H1: There is no significant relationship between cause of traffic congestion and traffic control measure 

1.7 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 
The following are the significance of this study: 

Outcomes of this study will educate the government, policy makers, transport stakeholders and the general public on how Traffic congestion can affect firms and industries. It will also enlighten on how the Traffic congestion has influenced organizational performance. 

This research will be a contribution to the body of literature as it reveals the impact of traffic on the productivity and performance of employees of Access bank Ejigbo branch, with its financial implications as it possibly makes them spend more and also causes delays in appointments. 

1.8 JUSTIFICATION OF THE STUDY 
1.8.1 Research Design 
The study employed a cross section study. The cross sectional type of research design to which a study was conducted at Ejigbo branch of Access bank analyzing influence of road traffic congestion on employee’s performance. The study was conducted once and involved only time spends on traffic congestion and time spends on work as determinant of construct performance of the bank which seemed essential to the bank insomuch that without a positive performance of the employee the bank cannot achieve its goals. A cross sectional survey method was used to collect information through asking questions to representatives of the population at a point in time. The study was conducted because it was relevant in analyzing the problem of traffic road congestions and employee’s performance. 

1.8.2 The Population Size 
A target population was a group of individuals, objects or items from which samples are taken for measurement. Population refers to an entire group of persons or elements that have at least one thing in common. Target population also refers to the larger group from which the sample was taken and about which information was desired. The target population was basedon the workers of Access bank plc at Ejigbo with a population of 25 employees. 

1.8.3 Source of data 
Data are facts, figures and other relevant materials past and present serving as bases for study and analysis. There are two types of data namely primary data and secondary data on which the study is kept in mind. The study ensured in impactive and reliable in bringing good value of the data collected, the study employed secondary data 

1.9 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 
Thescope of the study is limited toAccess BankPlc at Ejigbo Branch, Lagos State and has a population size of 25 employees. 

The time frame of the study is between 6:30am-8:00am on weekdays been Mondays to Fridays and 7:45am-8:30am on Saturdays. 

1.10 DEFINITION OF TERMS 
Transportation: This is referred to as a state of being conveyed from one place to another. 

Traffic congestion: Traffic congestion is when vehicles travel slower because there is too much traffic on roads. This makes trip times longer, and increases queueing. This is also known as a traffic jam. Congestion may result from a decrease in capacity, for example accidents on the road or roads being closed. 

Morale: The confidence, enthusiasm, and discipline of a person or group at a particular time. 

Productivity: The efficiency of a person or group of persons. 

Employee performance: Refers to the output in terms of quantity and quality that helps the organization to realize its set objectives. In other words, performance can be measured by traits, behaviors' and/or outcomes. Employee performance management is a process that organization’s use to ensure their employees are contributing to producing a high quality product or service 

Construction: This is the process of building structures. Population:This refers to an entire group of persons or elements that have at least one thing in common.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 52 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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