DETERMINATION OF SOME HEAVY METALS AND INVESTIGATION OF NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION IN THREE SPECIES OF SNAILS (ARCHATINAFULICA, ARCHACHATINA MARGINATA AND LIMICOLARIAFLAMMEA)

ABSTRACT
Species of snails Archachatina marginata,Archatinafulica and Limicolaria flammea, and Archachatina marginata were assessed for proximate analysis aimed at establishing their nutritive values. The heavy metals levels of the flesh was also investigated. Analysis of the flesh revealed that the composition of crude protein varied from 34.90+ 0.23 to 36. 75 + 0.22% in all species, Ash content, moisture content, crude lipid, and carbohydrateranged from 6.15+ 0.99 to 16.06 + 0.75%, 9.41+ 0.33 to 27. 89+ 0.52%, 7.29+ 0.63 to 9.99+ 0.15%, 14.71+ 0.17 to 38.18+ 0.66% respectively. Crude fibre was not detected in any of the species.The concentration of zinc, copper, cadmium and lead in the flesh of the snails were in the range of 7.58+ 0.03 to 13.10+ 0.03 mg/kg, 0.99+ 0.01 mg/kg to 3.32+0.01 mg/kg, 0.09+ 0.00 to 0.50+ 0.00 mg/kg, and 0.90+ 0.00 to 2.90+0.00 mg/kg respectively.These values were low and within the WHO permissible limit. Amino acid profile indicates the presence of lysine, Alanine, Histidine, valine, leucine and Phenylalanine Arginine, Aspartic acid, threonine serine, Glutamic acid, proline, Glycine, Cystine, Isoleucine, Leucine and Tyrosine in the snail species. Lysine concentration varied from 15.67-16.00mg/g in all species. Histidine was 2.50.73mg/g, Arginine ranged from 16.11-16.85. Aspartic acid ranged from 9.66 – 10.54mg/g, Threonine concentration ranged from 8.34-9.01mg/g, serine (4.55 – 4.99 mg/g), Glutamic acid (11.64 – 11.94mg/g), proline (5.80–6.26mg/g), Glycine (4.01-4.86 mg/g), Alanine (2.98 – 3.31 mg/g), cystine (0.55-0.69mg/g), valine (7.9 – 8.21mg/g), methionine (1.93 -1.98mg/g), Isoeucine (8.91 – 9.00mg/g), leucine (9.51 – 9.98mg/g), Tyrosine (4.63 – 4.80 mg/g), phenylalanine (6.66 – 7.13 mg/g). Ammonia and Norleucine were not detected in all the snail samples. The result shows that snailcould complement the required trace minor elements needed for proper growth and development in human and hence recommended for regular consumption.


CHAPTER ONE
1.0       INTRODUCTION
Snail is a common name that is applied most often to land snails, terrestrial pulmonate, gastropod mollusce. Snail is also applied to most of the members of the molluscan class gastropoda that have a coiled shell large enough for theanimal to retract completely into. “Snail” is used in this most general sense; it includes not just land snails but also thousands of species of sea snails and fresh water snails. Snail-like animals that naturally lacka shell, or have only an internal shell, are usually called slugs, and land snails that have only a very small shell that they cannot retract into are often called semislugs.

Snails are one of the earliest known types of animals in the world. They are able to adapt to a variety of living condition and they do not require large amounts of food. They have been able to continually evolve to survive the condition around them which many researchers find to be very fascinating. All snails are classified as mollusks because of the hard shell that protects their bodies; snails are found in many locations and have a very diverse type of habitat where they can be found. As a snail moves it leaves behind a trail of slims, this allows it to easily move across any type of terrain without injuring itsbody. They are not able to hear at all. So they rely on their sense of touch to interact with each other. They use their sense of smell to help them find food. You will find that snails are the most active at night and may come out during the early morning hours as well(Frederick, 2010).

Snails have prominent tentacles on which, in many species, the eyes are often located, many snails are as small as 0.1cm (0.04inch) long; others, such as conches and the African land snail, are as long as 20cm (8inch). The spiral shell into which the snail withdraws serves mainly as protection against predators and desiccation. Land snails are particularly well adapted to changes in moisture and some desert species are able to remain sealed within their thick shells for two or more years. Land snail species of more moist habitats usually have thinner shells. Slugs, which live in very moist places and are often considered snails, have only vestigial shells.

Snails can be found in a very wide range of environments, including ditches, deserts, and the abyssal depths of the sea. Although land snails may be more familiar to people, marine snails constitute the majority of snails’ species and have much diversity. Numerous kinds of snail can also be found in fresh water.

Most snails have thousands of microscopic tooth-like structures located on a ribbon-like tongue called a radula used to cut food into small pieces. Many snails are Herbivorous, eating plants or rasping algae from surfaces with their radula. However, a few land species and many marine species are omnivores, predatory or carnivores. The life span for snails depends on their habitat and the species. Some of them only live for about 5 years however; others in the wild are believed to live at least 25 years old. The life span of snails is decreasing due to humans destroying their habitat and due to pollution.

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Item Type: Postgraduate Material  |  Attribute: 61 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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