This study was conducted to determine the consumption pattern of lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) foods and standardization of the commonly consumed foods among 400 households randomly selected from three Local Government Areas, spread within the three senatorial zones of Kaduna State. The standardized foods were then subjected to proximate, minerals, amino acids, antinutrients and sensory analyses using standard procedures and analytical methods. Data revealed that less than one fifth (13%) of the respondents consumed lima beans at least once a week. The three most commonly consumed foods (lima bean porridge 35%, lima bean-benniseed 8% and lima bean-hungry rice 6%) were standardized. Proximate composition of these foods shows that lima bean-benniseed food had significantly (P < 0.05) higher content of crude protein (8.33%), crude fat (13.46%), crude fibre (4.09%) and ash (2.28%) while lima bean porridge had significantly (P < 0.05) higher carbohydrate (24.58%) content than the other foods. Lima bean-benniseed recorded higher content of essential amino acids (leucine 6.97g/100g, lysine 7.10g/100g, methionine 2.60g/100g and threonine 3.81g/100g). Mineral content (Mg, Ca, K, Zn) of lima bean-benniseed food was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the other foods. However, lima bean porridge had higher content of iron and sodium. Antinutrients (cyanide, tannin and phytate) content in the standardized foods decreased significantly (P < 0.05) when compared with raw lima beans. All the foods were considered acceptable however, lima bean-benniseed food with the best nutrient profile and chemical score (100) is consumed by only 8% of the population. Increase consumption of lima bean foods has potential to combat malnutrition and its debilitating effects.

Diets usually consist of complex food aggregates and an inadequate diet results in malnutrition (David and Jacobs, 2012). According to the World Health Organization (WHO, 2013), malnutrition is one of the leading causes of death globally. In Nigeria more than half of the children under five years of age are either stunted or wasted (National Nutrition and Health Survey [NNHS], 2015). Food-based approaches such as; dietary diversification, fortification and biofortification are necessary strategies to prevent the debilitating effects of malnutrition by promoting the consumption of foods that are naturally rich in micronutrients. Dietary diversification has been advocated internationally for the improvement of micronutrient intake and status (Hedwig et al., 2012). Dietary diversification reflects household access to variety of foods and can also act as a proxy for individuals‟ nutrient adequacy. Brian and Leslie(2011) suggested some dietary strategies that could be implemented at the household level to prevent malnutrition, these include; increasing energy and nutrient density of food; increasing the production and consumption of micronutrient dense foods; incorporating enhancers of micronutrient absorption in household diets and employing germination, fermentation, and soaking to reduce antinutrient content of cereals and legumes.

The limiting factors affecting dietary diversification include; poverty, ignorance on dietary pattern, preferences, taboos and the work load of caregivers (Adam, 2005). Most people especially in poor or developing countries base their diets on starchy staples, lacking in important minerals and vitamins which are found in abundance in vegetables, flesh foods and legumes. Oboh et al.,(2000) stated that lima beans are important sources of protein and dietary fibre. It can be substituted for animal protein especially for people who cannot afford to obtain protein from animal sources (Gashaw, 2010). This can help in combating protein malnutrition especially in developing countries and among vulnerable groups. In developing countries, research attention is being paid to better utilization of legumes in addressing protein malnutrition and problems of food security (Subuola et al.,2012).Some legumes are commonly used as commercial food crops while some are lesser known, neglected or underutilized outside their indigenous areas.

Lima beans are underutilized in many parts of tropical Africa probably due to its hard-to cook phenomenon or lack of information on its potential as a good food source (Subuola et al., 2012).Lima beans is a leguminous plant that originated from Peru in western South America, its name was derived from Peru‟s capital city “Lima”. In Nigeria lima beans is locally called „Jinjiyokanpak‟ in Kataf, „Waken rumfa‟ in Hausa language, „Papala‟ in Yoruba and „Agwa‟ in Igbo. Including legumes either fresh or dried as food promotes health and is important in meeting dietary recommendations to reduce chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (Bhandari and Megha, 2014).

Most legumes are poorly utilized due to the presence of antinutritional factors (Egounlety and Aworh, 2003), which can cause stomach cramping, diarrheoa, flatulence and vomiting. Antinutritional factors interfere with nutrient utilization and protein digestibility (Oboh et al.,2000). Cooking and some traditional methods of processing cause significant reduction in antinutritional factors (Nakittoet al., 2014). Therefore, as efforts are being made to incorporate foodbased strategies in the fight against malnutrition, there is needtostandardize food recipes and determine their nutritional composition in order to increase awareness of the nutritional composition of thesefoods.

1.1       Statement of Research Problem
The existence of multiple micronutrient deficiencies is still a major problem in developing countries that can be abated by nutrition intervention (WHO, 2013). Food based strategies such as dietary diversification is still very low in most developing countries, where people feed mostly on starchy staples. This practice makes it difficult for individuals to be adequately nourished with vitamins and minerals that can be found in abundance in fruits, vegetables, flesh foods and legumes.

Animal protein is expensive, therefore there is need to supplement diets with legumes which are cheaper sources of protein and an important source of minerals. Research has also shown that lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) contain some antinutritional factors which can be reduced by different processing techniques (Oboh et al., 2000) thereby improving legumes organoleptic and nutrient quality which makes nutrients bioavailable and help in combating various metabolic disorders.

1.2       Justification of the Study
Very little is known about the intensive utilization of lima beans varieties as a value-added product even though it can be easily grown in home gardens with a well-drained and loose textured soil.

An in-depth study of the utilization and dietary diversification towards lima beans will bring to lime light its contribution to the nutritional well-being of people. Combined processing will reduce the content of flatus causing oligosaccharide of these beans varieties; this can help to increase its utilization.

Information on the nutrient composition of processed lima beans will serve as a source of developing a food composition database and tables in Nigeria and it will enrich existing food databases. This information will also help in developing therapeutic diets for people suffering from different diseases.

1.3       Aim and Objectives

1.3.1    Aim
The aim of this research is to provide nutritional basis for increase utilization of lima beans (Phaseolus lunatus) as a value-added product in households.

1.3.2    Specific objectives are to:
i.            determine the consumption pattern of lima beansin Kaduna State.

ii.             ascertain the type of foods processed from lima beans and standardize their recipes.

iii.             determine the proximate, amino acids,minerals and antinutrient content of standardized foods from lima beans.

iv.            evaluate the sensory characteristics and acceptability of the standardized foods from lima beans.

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