COMPARATIVE STUDY OF NUTRITIONAL VALUE AND ACCEPTABILITY OF „OGBONO‟“IRVINGIA GABONESIS” AND „OKOHO‟ “CISSUS POPULNEA” SOUPS AMONG FAMILIES IN KADUNA STATE

ABSTRACT
The research work was on comparative study of the nutritional value and acceptability of ‗Ogbono‘ ―Irvingia gabonesis‖ and ‗Okoho‘ ―cissus populnea‖ soups among families inKaduna State, Nigeria.The study was guided by four specific objectives, four research questions and four null hypotheses.The researcher adopted experimental design. The population of the study was all families in Kaduna state. Nineteen (19) panelists were used as sample for the study. Okoho sample were collected from the southern part of Kaduna state while the Ogbono sample was brought from Opanda village in Apa Local Government Area of Benue state. Proximate analysis was used to obtain the nutritional compositions of Okoho and Ogbono while structured scorecard was used to obtain data on physical properties and acceptability of the food product under study (.adopted from Linn Svenson). Frequency and percentages were used to describe the bio-data of the respondents. Mean scores and standard deviation were used to answer all research questions and ANOVA statistic was used to test all the four null hypotheses at significant level of 0.05. Based on the findings the results revealed that Ogbono, dried Okoho and fresh Okoho contained varying percentages of moisture, ash, protein, lipids, fibre, carbohydrates and minerals but the variation is not significant (F=.001, P=.999). Ogbono, dried Okoho and fresh Okoho soups varied in the proximate composition but the proximate variation of the soups is not significant (F=12.00, P=.967). Ogbono, dried Okoho and fresh Okoho soups are different in physical properties and the difference that exists in the physical properties is significant (F=121.625, P=.000). There exists difference in the general acceptability of Ogbono, dried Okoho and fresh Okoho soups. Dried Okoho soup is more acceptable than fresh Okoho and Ogbono soups among family members in Kaduna state (F=23.820, P=.000).This study concluded that the nutritional compositions of Okoho and Ogbono are not significantly different and fresh Okoho soup is more acceptable among families in Kaduna. It was recommended that there should be awareness campaign on the nutritional contents and benefits of fresh Okoho and Ogbono as supplements that can cater for the nutritional deficiency of individuals.


CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1        Background of the Study
Nutrition is nourishment or energy that is obtained from foodconsumed or the process of consuming the proper amount of nourishment and energy. In a broader sense, nutrition is defined as the combination of process by whichthe living organism receives and utilizes the materials necessary for the maintenance, functions for growth and renewal of its components (Begum 2007). Good nutrition is a basic human right in order to have a healthy population that can promote development (Kuhnlein 2002).

In developing countries, one of the ways of achieving this is through the exploitation of available local foods ingredient in the formation of nutritional adequate diet, which incorporate within essential food groups. Food and Nutrition is a major area of Home Economics, which comprises of the principles of nutrition-meal management. There have been many calls for nutrition education for acquisition of knowledge, skills and competencies, which family members require to prevent obesity and overweight and satisfactorily improve family living. (Adebisi, Babayeju & Gbadebo 2016).

Soups are the main sources of proteins and minerals in our diet. One of the ways to improve the diet is to enrich the nutrient content of soups. The traditional soup meals of most societies are good and only minor modifications are needed for them tomeet the nutrient requirements of all members of family. Ogbono and Okoho are a rich vegetable draw soups thatare native to the people of North-central Nigeria.

Cissus populnea is a woody climber whose mucilage is currently used in the home as thickening agent in soup especially among the Idomas of North Central Nigeria where it goes by the name Okoho. It is also used as a form of stabilizer in ‗Akara‘ balls. The plant belongs to the family of Vitaceal/Amplidacea and the genus Cissusthat comprises of about 350 species (Brotherton, 1969). The plant occurs in Northern and Southern Nigeria. It grows in diverse Eco zones of Nigeria, Uganda, Niger Republic, Cameroon and Ivory Coast. Studies from herbarium collections indicate that it is confined to the savanna zones of the country (Nigeria) and thus is more abundant in the northern region where it is used by the Fulani to feed their cattle ostensibly to increase milk production as reported by Brotherton, (1969) in the West Africa, it is mostly used in medical preparation

Cissus populnea is among the tropical plants used to correct male infertility factor in south-western part of Nigeria. Extracts from the roots of the plant have been used for the treatment of skin diseases, boils, infected wounds and treatment of urinary tracts infection. The vernacular names include; ‗Okoho‘ by the Idomas and Igala, ‗Obolo Ajala‘ by the Yoruba‘s and ‗Dafaaraa by the Hausas Burkill, (2000).

Invingia gabonesis (sweet bush mango also known as Dika nut) is common in the southwestern part of Nigeria. It is a drupe with a thin epicarp, a soft and fleshy mesocarp and hard endocarp encasing a soft dicotyledonous kernel. Sweet bush mango in all its parts serves as food for humans with the exception of its endocarp. The mesocarp and epicarp can be eaten fresh, while the cotyledon encased in the endocarp serves as an ingredient for soup.In recent times, there have been claims verified by clinical trials that the seed extract of Irvingia gabonesis commonly known as ―African Bush Mango‖ is an effective weight reducing herbal medication with no side effects (Ngondi et al., 2005).Both Cissus populnea and Irvingia gabonesis are used as soup thickeners and medicine by many tribes in Kaduna state.

Kaduna state is one of the six North-west states in Nigeria. Kaduna was created on May 27th, 1967 but the prominence of the state dates back to thecolonial periods when the

state was made the Northern capital sta tes. Being a central state, all the other Northern states are accessible from Kaduna.There are over about 60 tribes in Kaduna.

Popular soups taken in Kaduna include Maiyan Kuku, Yakuwa, Okra Taushe, Zogile, groundnut soup amongst others. Apart from the indigenous settlers in the state, many people from different tribes in other parts of Nigeria such as Yoruba, Igbo, Tiv, Idoma, and others also settle in Kaduna.

Despite having a variety of soups to choose from for consumption, some healthy and beneficial plants that can be used for soup are either not popular or not accessible.The focus of this work is to compare the nutritional value of Cissus populnea (Okoho) and Iruingia gabonesis (Ogbono) and its acceptability among families in Kaduna State.

1.2       Statement of the Problem
Home Economics is the study that tries to improve goods and services which families use, especially in terms of food it also concerns itself with the economy of the home. With the present state of the country‘s recession, people tend to look for alternative to almost everything especially in terms of food. In the same vain people tend to value food they have idea on its nutritional value and the desire for such increase when they know the health benefits. People can also shift value when they are given proper information and counsel on the nutritional values of food they eat. Ogbono and Okoho are soups eaten by people in different parts of the nation. Presently, a cup of ogbono goes for five hundred naira (₦500) which will serve as soup for just once or twice in some homes while a short stem of okoho cost one hundred naira (₦100) which will serve as soup for once or twice in some homes. Both plants are used as soups in different parts of the country and are also associated with medicinal uses ,the researcher feels that when the nutritional value is known, it will help to make it more acceptable and can also be used as a substitute for ogbono because it is cheaper and will be more economical with the present recession.

Every day we read and hear of the importance of different kinds of foods either for their medicinal or nutritional content. The researcher observed that though both plants are used in soup, Irvingia gabonesis (Ogbono) has high popularity even though its price keeps rising every day; while Cissus populinea (Okoho) even though cheap has not gained much popularity.

The gross increase in health problem of nutrition such as obesity or malnourishment will help prompt families in the types and quality of consumption of these soups and it might aid the combination of the soups.

The researcher intends to compare the nutritional composition of both plants [okoho and ogbono] and their acceptability as soups

1.3        Objectives of Study
The General objective of the study is to compare the nutritional value and acceptability of Ogbono and Okoho Soup among families in Kaduna state. Specific objectives are:

i.                    To evaluate the proximate composition of Cissus populnea (Okoho) and Irvingia gabonesis (Ogbono).

ii.                  To compare the proximate composition of Okoho and Ogbono soups

iii.                To compare the physical properties of Okoho and Ogbono soups

iv.                To compare the acceptability of Okoho and Ogbono soups among families in Kaduna State.

1.4       Research Questions
The following research questions were answered:

i.                    What is the proximate composition of Cissus populnea (Okoho) and Irvingia gabonesis (Ogbono)?

ii.                  What is the difference in proximate composition of Okoho and Ogbono soups?


iii.                What is the difference in the physical properties of Okoho and Ogbono soups?

iv.                What is the difference in the general acceptability of Okoho and Ogbono soups among families in Kaduna State?

1.5       Hypotheses
Consequent upon the above research questions the following hypotheses were formulated for the study.

Ho1: There is no significant difference in the proximate composition of Cissus populnea (Okoho) and Irvingia gabonesis (Ogbono).

Ho2: There is no significant difference in the proximate composition of Okoho and Ogbono soups.

Ho3: There is no significant difference in the physical properties of Okoho and Ogbono soups.

Ho4: There is no significant difference in the general acceptability of Okoho and Ogbono soups among families in Kaduna State.

1.6        Significance of the Study
Every day we read and hear of the importance of different kinds of foods either for their medicinal or nutritional content. The researcher observed that though both plants are used in soup, Irvingia gabonesis (Ogbono) has high popularity even though its price keeps rising every day; while Cissus populinea (Okoho) even though cheap has not gained much popularity.

The study therefore, will be a point of reference to

Individuals/Families: With respect to individuals this study will be an eye-opener to individuals on one‘s choice of food or soup based on the insight from the result of the study. This choice can be fashion by the various desire of the individual. The result from the findings in comparative nutrient content analysis of both Cissus populnea and Irvingia gabonesis will help families to determine the right type of nutrients they need and should take.

Agriculturalist: In the field of agriculture, the findings from this study can help to increase concentration in the cultivation of the both plants. Cissus populnea and Irvingia gabonesis are not mostly planted rather they usually grow in the wild before claimed, this study can encourage the personal intentional planting and cultivation of these plants. The result from the study will also help in encouraging the propagation of Cissus populnea as cash crop.

Marketers:Though the business activity of Irvingia gabonesis is already highly propagated, the result from this study can also lead to market focus on Cissus populnea where it could be marketed nationally or even globally as a cash crop for soups and industrial use.

Medical World:From the chemical analysis result that will be gotten from the research on the plants, concentration of medical world on research and utilization of the both plants to tackle medical issues will increase. Phytochemistry revealed the presence of tannins, flavonoids, saponins, and steroids (Anthony et al., 2006), which are important pharmaceutical target for drug development.

Home Economist: The research will be of benefit to the Home Economist and future researchers to develop more recipes for the preparation of okoho and ogbono soups. This category of people will have access to the findings of this study through departmental library and seminars.

Curriculum Planners: The research will be of benefit to the curriculum planners, to include cultivation of okoho and ogbono plants as part of economy tree production in the curriculum.

1.7        Basic Assumption
It is assumed that Cissus populnea (Okoho) has little or no nutritional value It is assumed that Irvingia gabonesis (Ogbono) have more nutritional value

It is also assumed that Irvingia gabonesis Ogbono is more acceptable and given preference over Cissus populnea (Okoho).

1.8        Delimitation of the Study
This study is delimited to Ogbono as well as dried and fresh Okoho product and soups. This is because both Ogbono and Okoho are good soup materials but many people do not know their proximate compositions and physical properties. The study is confined to two high institutions of higher learning in Zaria,Kaduna state (Ahmadu Bello University and Federal College of Education Zaria). This is because families from different local government areas of the state are well represented and they will be in better position to give accurate information on the acceptability of Cissus populnea and Irvingia gabonesis.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 75 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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