The research aims at determining the effects of socio-economic characteristics as well as the level of participation of the residents in Kaduna metropolis in tourism with a view of identifying the hindering factors that determines their tourism habits and making recommendations for suitable tourism participation. A structured questionnaire was designed, validated and administered through cluster sampling procedure. The review of literature was made on determinants of tourism and its inter-related activities. The results from the analysis of the data provided by the respondents revealed that the residents were involved more in local travels as compared to international tours. From the test of association between selected variables with tourism habits, variables like ethnic group, religious affiliation, financial capability, work schedule were the significant determinants of tourism habits among the residents to improve tourism participation, the study outlined some recommendations which included; funding by Government through creation and implementation of policies that will support tourism participation financially, construction and maintenance of good roads, improved security, awareness programmes on the importance of tourism and its participation.

1.0       Introduction
Tourism is defined as a composite of activities, services, and industries that delivers a travel experience to individuals and groups travelling fifty miles (about eighty kilometres) or more from their homes for purposes of pleasure. Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel to and stay in places outside their usual environment for more than twenty-four (24) hours and not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited.

In 1941, Hunziker and Krapf defined tourism as people who travel "the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity." In 1976, the Tourism Society of England's definition was: "Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destination outside the places where they normally live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes." In 1981, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined tourism in terms of particular activities selected by choice and undertaken outside the home. The terms tourism and travel are sometimes used interchangeably. In this context, travel has a similar definition to tourism, but implies a more purposeful journey. The terms tourismand touristare sometimes used pejoratively, to imply a shallow interest in the cultures or locations visited by tourists.

In recent times tourism is one of the largest industries that has contributed to the socio-economic growth of many countries especially countries were tourism is the main stay of her economy, World Tourism Organization (WTO, 1998) However, despite the fact that that industry is a vehicle for promoting cultural exchange that enhance international understanding and goodwill among the diverse peoples of the world, it is also a catalyst for enhancing many country destination employment opportunities, foreign exchange and infrastructural facilities (ESCAP, 2002). Tourism in Africa has been seen as a means of enhancing economic growth and development (Kester,2003) as well as launching the image of the continent to the outside world (Gbadel, 2007).

Today, the tourism industry has contributed in the Gross Domestic Products (GDP) and experts in many developing countries has been improving overtime. A document by WTO (2009) shows that there has been tremendous growth of about 4% the level of international tourist arrivals in Africa, in spite of the global economic meltdown that has affected tourist arrivals to many developed countries. Today, records have shown that about 2.5% of the GDP in the region is attributed to tourism industry that has generated about 5.5% of all employment in the region (Karreen, 2008). In Nigeria, about 8.1% of the GDP has been generated from the tourism sector as a result of the 2007). These potential ranged from natural to manmade such as the table mountain, colourful folks, beautiful landscape, overwhelming serenity and agreeable climate welcoming fun seekers to the highlands of Nigeria (Larry, 2005). Today, the level of tourist arrivals in Nigeria is quite commendable especially during the festival periods in which all the cultural artifacts and other attractions in Nigeria are usually paraded (Eja, 2010).

However, it has been observed that in spite of the laudable tourism attractions in Nigeria which has made the region a natural paradise where most fun-seekers wish to visit, the level of tourist inflow in most of these potential sites Nigeria still pose problems (Aniah, 2006). Beside, lack of adequate empirical data has hindered policy makers and other stakeholders on the viability of most of the existing tourism destinations in Nigeria.

1.1       Background to the Study
Over the last two decades, there has been a sustained growth of tourism as both an activity and industry. According to Cooper, J. Fletcher, D. Gilbert, S. Wanhill, (1993) tourism was the world‘s most important industry in terms of export earning next to oil and motor cars by 1990. Tourism has been remarkable in its resistance to adverse economic and political conditions. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel to and stay in places outside their usual environment for more than twenty-four (24) hours and not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited. Tourism is the stay of one or more nights away from home for holidays, visits to friends or relatives, business conferences or any other purpose except such things as semi-permanent employment.

Nigeria has a lot to offer for tourism because it is richly endowed with ecological physical, cultural and human resources and a range of unique species of tropical wildlife. In Nigeria the essential and optional components of tourism products are available in abundance. These essential components include transportation (conveying visitors), accommodation (providing shelter, security and comfort), and sustenance (food and beverages). On the other hand, the optional components are recreation facilities (swimming pools, tennis courts, indoor games; entertainment facilities (theatre, cinema shows); historical and scenic attractions, favorable climate and shopping facilities (Kerg, 2004) All these are available in the 36 states of the federation, including the Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja, Nigeria.

There are differences in tourism habits among individuals because the factors that influence tourism habits are different and are closely linked to models of consumer behavior in tourism. Hence, no two individuals are alike, as differences in attitudes, perception and motivation have an important influence on travel habits. Attitudes depend on individuals perception of the world. Perceptions are mental impressions of, say, a place and are determined by many factors which include family and work experiences. However, attitudes and perception in themselves do not explain why people travel but rather, it is the inner urge which initiate travel demand (travel motivators). These may be a combination of needs and desires, availability of time and money, or images, perception and attitudes.

1.2       Statement of the Research Problem
Studies on tourism habits of individuals in developed countries have mainly emphasized demographic and socio-economic characteristics such as income, education, employment, residence type, age, race, gender, marital status, family size and work period as determinants (Ashworth and Dietvorst 1995). Also, John (1991) and Pearce (2004) have identified cultural and demographic factors as more important in the formation of habits in the third world countries. This understanding has influenced planning and development of leisure facilities and destinations. However, Observation in Kaduna has revealed that residents in Kaduna have habits towards tourism than what is expected. These determinants of tourism habits are generally poorly understood in newly developing tourism countries like Nigeria, where there is not much difference in the demographic and socio economic characteristics of the different occupational groups to give and appropriate explanation to differences, studies are required to help understand which characteristics determine motives and pattern of tourism habits of different occupational groups.

Thus, what constitutes the determinants of tourism habits of the residents of Kaduna metropolis is the gap in knowledge that the study attempts to fill. This sets the basis of this study which seeks to identify and compare the destination and pattern of tourism habits of the residents of Kaduna metropolis in terms of domestic (national) and international travels.

It will also to look at the tourism habits among the different occupational groups within the study area.

Based on the above, this study is designed to explore the pattern of tourism habits in Kaduna. The study therefore, seeks to answer the following questions.

1.                   What is the level of engagement of the residents of Kaduna in Tourism?

2.                   What is the pattern of tourism of the resident of Kaduna?

3.                   What are the factors influencing these patter of tourism habits?

1.3       Aim
The aim of the research is to analyze the effect of socio economic characteristic on tourism habits of residents of Kaduna metropolis with a view to identifying the factors responsible for habits among the different occupational groups and the implication for tourism.

1.4       Objectives
1.                   To examine the effects of socio-economic characteristic on the tourism habits of residents of urban centres.

2.                   To determine the pattern of tourism habits among residents of Kaduna metropolis in relation to local and international trips

3.                   To identify the factors influencing tourism habits among the residents of Kaduna metropolis.

4.                   To draw out the implications of findings for tourism management and to make recommendations for improving tourism participation.

1.5       Significance of the Study
In Nigeria, tourism is a new field of study and as such not much attention has been given to the analysis of habits and patterns among people participating in it. Therefore, this research is a contribution which will guide planners in the provision of appropriate tourism facilities.

The findings of this research will enable tourism planners and other decision – making bodies understand their roles and enable them participate fully in boosting tourism. It will broaden awareness on tourism more especially in Nigeria. It will also provide a reference point for both local (national) and international tourism data, which will optimize compatible tourism plans.

1.6       Scope and Limitation
The scope of this research is to establish the pattern of tourism habits within Kaduna metropolis. A research on pattern of tourism habits may include other aspects such as places of patronage, available facilities, resources availability, components of the destination such as ancillary services, amenities etc. But the focus of this research is to establish pattern based on frequency of travel, determinants of tourism habit as well as the challenges faced by residents within Kaduna. The research is limited to assessing the habits of residents within Kaduna metropolis consisting of Kaduna North, Kaduna South, part of Chukun and Igabi Local Government Areas.

1.7       Definition of Operational Terms
The following terms ad concept upon their operational value were defined and described for this study:

Pattern:- A regular or repetitive form, order or arrangement. (Microsoft Corporation, 2009).

Habit:-     An act acquired by experience and performed regularly and automatically. Habits include mannerism; A habit is influenced not only by elements that bring the behavior. It is also an acquired pattern of behavior that often occurs automatically. (Wikimedia foundation, inc. 2010).

Tourism:- According to Kotler et al (2006) tourism is the stay of one or more nights away from home for holidays, visits to friends or relatives, business conferences or any other purpose except semi-permanent employment.

Leisure:- It is one's discretionary time spent in non-compulsory activities, time spent away from cares and toils. Because leisure time is free from compulsory activities such as employment, running a business, household chores, education and other such day-to-day stresses, not including eating, and sleeping, it is often referred to as "free time". This category is for leisure activities such as those which one voluntarily spends away from such stresses, so called 'down time activities'. The distinction between leisure and compulsory activities is not strict, as compulsory activities (yardwork and gardening, for example — which circumstantially might on another day be a stressful demanding need) may be done for pleasure as well as for long-term utility (Wikimedia foundation, inc. 2010)

Destination:- A destination area is a place having characteristic which is known to a sufficient number of potential visitors to justify its consideration as an entity, attracting travel independent of the attraction of other locations (Mathieson 2006). The natural and human made features, infrastructural characteristic, economic structures and the attributes of the host population of destination are of interest.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Size: 74 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.


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