Tourism as an agent of development, leads to a lot of benefit‟s, Nigeria as a country richly endowed with a wide range of cultural and natural resource‟s relative to other nation‟s in Africa and on a global level, most of which are largely untapped. There are many approaches to assess these resource potentials of which studies have been done in some parts of the world. but despite the availability of these potentials in Kaduna state, the level of tourist influx still remains low, which forms the basis of this study, to assess the tourism potentials, there challenges and prospects in Kaduna state. Opinion‟s of experienced tourist, experts in different fields of study, were sampled with questionnaires at different potential spot‟s to cover the three geographical zones of the state. Data were collected and analyzed using weighted sum model (WSM), through ranking and scaling techniques. The outcomes suggest major shortcomings are traced to inadequate infrastructures, funding, advertisement, and insecurity in these potentials among others. The study determine the potential values of different potentials site‟s, and proposes clustering of the tourist spots to enhanced their potentials values and made recommendations to improve the industry in other to boost tourism industry in the state.

The profitability of international tourism industry has garnered widespread recognition of tourism as a promising development agent for developing countries. Throughout the past fifty years, tourism has rapidly spread and has emerged as a major export sector in many countries (UNWTO, 2007). The decision to adopt tourism as an agent of development has been largely based on the expectation that tourism can:(a) increased foreign exchange earnings,(b) create employment,(c) attract foreign investment, and(d) positively contribute to local economic and the national balance of payments (Sharply and Telfair, 2002). In other cases it has been said that tourism is turned to as a last option by countries that lack extractable resources, are burdened by foreign debt, and rely on international aid (Brown, 1998).

Kaduna state richly endowed with a wide range of natural and cultural resources relative to other state in Nigeria and on a global level most of which are largely untapped. These resource‟s fall into protected ecosystems (game reserves and recreational parks), protected landscapes or natural sceneries, cultural sites, coastline, traditional festival and historic relics and monuments (Okechuku, 1990 and Okoli 2001).Kaduna state tourism resources are highly distributed from the south-northern part of Kaduna, which has a geo-cultural pattern, (Okoli 2001).

The availability of these potentials has made the development of tourism industry to undergo a gradual evolution, which each phase reflecting its growing importance in the economy. Despite all these economic, political, cultural and social benefits, tourism development has not been strong politically in Nigeria, especially in Kaduna state. What is really wrong with Nigerian tourism? This is why Ayibe (2007) said that tourism in Nigeria is at low ebb not only because of economic hardship, but because of all the factors militating against the industry, stating further, he said that unless the challenges facing tourism are identified and solved, Nigerian tourism industry will remain at nascent state.

Tourism development in this research refers to the positive transformation of tourism potentials to tourism products. Also Okoli (2007), defined tourism development as the provision of infrastructures and superstructure, he further stated that, these infrastructures (roads, water supply communication system etc) and superstructure (hotels, motels, guesthouses etc), must be adequate and maintain for tourism to develop. Okoli (2001), Noted that the development of an area for tourism results to economic benefits of foreign exchange earnings, government revenue, employment etc.

The benefits of tourism development have not been fully exploited in Kaduna state, due to nascent state of tourism industries, caused by numerous problems facing the industry (Ayibe, 2008), to tackle these problems we need to uncap and rehearse our potentials as a nation.

The future for tourism in Nigeria is dependent on the opportunities and challenges being exploited and addressed. The diversity of cultural attractions, the friendly disposition of the people, a revamped National Tourism organization, Human Resources Development and new convention Bureau provide key opportunities.

Implementation of Tourism Development master plan will be a major challenge for the government and industry, as will changing the international image of Nigeria. Improving the quality of the product and facilities and putting in place a comprehensive training program me will require a very strong partnership between the public and private sectors.

This study will therefore assess the tourism potentials, there challenges‟ and prospects in Kaduna state.

The tourism industry in Kaduna state was not given much priority by the state government in the past, (Kaduna state position paper on tourism, Dec, 2004). It was only recently that the industry started receiving the attention it deserves. A ministry of culture and tourism was created in 2003 and charged with the responsibility of preserving, developing and providing all aspect of culture and tourism. A tourism policy was drafted, which is an offshoot of the National tourism policy of Nigeria.

Thrust of the policy implementation with respect to tourism was to: generate foreign exchange, encourage even development, promote tourism based rural-urban integration and cultural exchange, strategies included:

1.      Provision of basic infrastructure and tourism facilities.

2.      Establish effective organs for the planning, development, promotion and marketing of tourism in and outside Kaduna state.

3.      Joint ventures with private and public.

4.      Incentives such as tax holidays and soft loans. (KDSG, 2002).

5.      Patrol and regulation of the industry.

In line with this the state government identified several tourism development potentials across the state that will boost the tourism sector.

However, it has been observed that in spite of the laudable tourism potentials in the state, coupled with the government interest and afford in developing the tourism sector, the level of tourist inflow in most of these potentials sites identified by the government is still not encouraging (Aniah, 2006). Beside, the lack of adequate empirical data has hindered policy makers and other stakeholders on the viability of most of the existing tourism development potentials in the state. Studies by Eja, Iwara, et-al, (2012), on the success factors determining Nigeria as a tourist destination shows that most of the states with great tourism potentials still witness a decline of tourist influx, from 5,103 in 2008 to 2,549 in 2011, due to the fact that most of the potentials within there environment has not been provided with adequate facilities and attention. There is no data base or model that has clearly defined the visibility and success factors that have put Kaduna in the league of other states with great tourism potentials.

Although    many    works    has    been    done    on    the    study    of    tourism    in    many
destinations,(Chon,1990,Chukwuemeka,2009,,Muazu,2010,Bako,2012,Adeyemi 2012). Most of these works focused on identifying, classifying and analyzing destinations attractiveness , nevertheless there exist a gap about knowing the touristic value of some natural and ancient potentials in Kaduna state , this study will therefore assess these potential in the state to determine there challenges in its development with the view of making recommendation for improvement.

The research will address three fundamental questions

1.      What are the tourist  values of selected tourism potentials in the study area

2.      What constrains the development of tourism potentials in the state?

1.3 AIM: The aim of this study is to assess tourism development potentials values in Kaduna state, with a view to making recommendations for improvement. .

1.      To review the tourism concepts, technique‟s for assessment of tourism potentials.

2.      To examine the status of development in some tourism potentials spots in Kaduna State.

3.      To assess selected tourism potential values in the state.

4.   To make appropriate recommendation‟s in enhancing tourism    in Kaduna state.

The scope of this study includes, assessing, tourism potentials using social and physical aspects, which includes accommodation, accessibility, intensity of fairs and festivals, tourist information and guide, food and market, average duration of stay and car parking facilities in potential site‟s in Kaduna State.

It however does not cover assessment of tourist receipts, statistics of tourist influx, bed occupancy, and was limited to selected natural, historic, parks and resort potentials in the study area.

Ø    This study will enable policy makers to assess tourism as a tool for development in the state, so that challenges can be identified and recommendations may be made towards more effective Tourism development.

Ø    It will serve as a relevant document for individuals, government, and corporate organizations interested in developing tourism.

Ø    This study will also contribute to knowledge, which will be useful to researchers in tourism development studies.

Kaduna State lies between Latitude 09o 02‟ N, 11o 33‟N and longitude 06o 10 E and 08o 50‟E, occupying a landmass of about 48,473.km2 and total population of 6,066,562 with 3,112,028 males and 2,954,534 females as reflected by the 2006 census result. The state share common boundaries with Niger, Katsina,Kano,Bauchi,Plateau,Nassarawa, and Zamfara states as well as the federal capital, Abuja.

River Kaduna is the only major river in the state and takes its source from the highlands around the Jos plateau. it is, however fed by many tributaries and in turn, runs into the river Niger.

Kaduna state is mostly an undulating plateau with parts of the state like Zaria town, kagoro and kwoi areas having protruding hard resistant granite rocks which are as a result of weathering through the ages of previously existing pre-Cambrian rocks. The erosive activities resulted in the outgrowth of rocks forming Inselbergs and large rocky upland region which are attractive for sight- seeing, examples are the Kufena rocks in Zaria, the Kagoro Hills and other interesting rock formations which abound in the state.

The state has two distinct seasons-the dry season and the rainy season. The temperature is hot during the dry season and cool during the rainy season, from November to February and cold dry harmattan wind blows across the state, the northern part of the state being affected most. The southern part of the state enjoys heavier rainfall than the northern part.

The state extends from tropical grassland (savannah) in the south to Sudan savannah in the north. The savannah region of the state covers the southern part stretching to Gwantu, south of Kafanchan with prevailing vegetation of tall trees and few shrubs. The Sudan savannah or Sahel covers the northern part of the state, stretching from Zaria down to Ikara and its environs.

Major urban cities:
The state has three major cities, Kaduna, Zaria and Kafanchan, other towns includes, Birnin-Gwari, Ikara, and Saminaka, Manchok, Kwoi, Kachia, Kagoro, Zonkwa, Kagarko, Giwa and many others

Tourist Attractions in Kaduna State:

1.  General Hassan Usman Park

2.      Lugard Hall.

3.  St, Bartholomew‟s Anglican Church.

4.  Sultan Bello Mosque.

5.  The Emir of Zazzau‟s palace.

6.  Matsirga water falls.

7.  Kagoro Hills.

8.      Zaria dam.

Parks, Gardens, and Resorts in Kaduna:

1.      General Hassan Usman Park.

2.      Kamuku National Park.

3.      Trappco Ranch and Resort.

4.      Pixie-Dixie Amusement Park and 5TH Chucker.

Cultural and religious Festivals (National Festivals):

1.      Durbar.

2.      Afan.

3.      Tuk-Ham.

Religious Festivals:

1.  Eid-EL-Fitr.

2.  Eid-EL-Kabir

3.  Maulud

3.  Christmas

4.  Easter.

There are a host of other ethnic groups within the state that have similar colorful festivals where some boisterous theatrical performances are displayed which can also carry one to a sheer exhilaration of fun. Amongst them are:

The Ikulu Festival, known as Unum Akulu carried out last Saturday of every year.

The Akat Festival.

The Sholio.

The Baranzan.

The Fantswam.

The Angham.

At yap.


The Gbagyi Festival.

Ancient Settlements of historic importance in the State:
1.      Turunku Site.

2.      The Ancient Nok Settlement.

Others: There are other similar Ancient Sites that exist across the state, these include-Kamuru Dustse (Gupang-Akong), Dutsen Bako and Fansil Settlements in Zango-Kataf Local Government Area. Also found are Kufena Settlement Site, Kufai Kajuru, among other

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