ANALYSIS OF THE PATRONAGE CHARACTERISTICS OF TOURISM DESTINATIONS IN JOS

ABSTRACT
Tourism destinations patronage is not uniform. They vary according to the uniqueness of the destinations. For a destination to be successful, it is imperative to address tourist‟s expectations and satisfactions in other to determine the areas of strength to utilize and areas of weaknesses to improve. This study advances the understanding of tourist demographic characteristics, trip characteristics and travel motivations of tourists in the study area. Using krejcie and morgan sample table, 380 questionnaires were administered. The study found that tourists were typically highly educated, young adults and mostly males, working full time with high income. On average tourists stayed in Jos for 1-7 days and traveled alone for adventure, leisure or educational purposes. The study also reveals and ranked the factors motivating and militating tourist‟s choice of Jos. Visiting of relations and friends, weather/climate, scenic beauty and unique attractions ranked higher in motivating tourist choice of Jos, while frequent and incessant crisis ranked highest in discouraging tourist choice of Jos. An Important Performance Analysis Technique (IPA) was used to determine the most important and performing tourism component in the study area. It was discovered that attraction is the most important performing component of Jos as a tourist destination. In the light of the above, the study makes recommendations to improve the study area‟s attractiveness and to satisfy tourist needs and expectations in other to enhance patronage.


CHAPTER ONE
1.0       INTRODUCTION
Tourism destination is the primary location of supply or the focus of resourceps, facilities and services (tourism infrastructure) that are available to cater for the needs of tourists (Keyser, 2009). For destination to function properly and compete effectively all the component must be in place. Destinations are outlets for tourists who desire to experience places, people and environments away from where they live. People‟s views about the tourism experiences and resources available at the tourism destinations draw tourists from originating areas or markets along routes to the destination or tourist receiving area.

Nigeria lies in the tropical region of West Africa, it is a great country endowed with vast landforms, art and culture, wildlife, rich historical background, natural and mineral resources. It is so endowed that almost every destination has a unique characteristics worthy of inviting travelers. Over the years tourism had developed with the effort of both public and private investors in the industry. Tourists have also been trooping in continuously to engage in different tourism activities at various destinations (Obudu Ranch Resort in Cross River State, Yankari National Park in Bauchi State, Ibeno Beach in Akwa Ibom State, Ogbunike Cave in Anambra State, NOK village in Kaduna State, Birnin Kudu Rock Painting in Jigawa State, Oguta Lake Holiday Complex in Imo State, etc.). Jos is the capital of Plateau State and is blessed with abundant tourism potentials, such as spectacular rock formations, hydrological bodies, wildlife, rich festivals and craft which necessitated the existing tourism drive in jos. The tourism activities that take place in Jos can be categorized into cultural/heritage tourism, ecotourism, leisure tourism, geotourism and educational tourism.

1.1       RESEARCH ISSUE
To achieve competitive advantage, any destination must ensure that its overall attractiveness and the experience offered is superior to the alternative destinations open to potential visitors (Dwyer and Kim, 2003). It is widely acknowledged in the marketing field that, knowing customers, predicting and meeting their expectations are the keys to success. Therefore tourism practitioners need detailed characteristics of tourists and their patterns of consuming tourism products and services in other to effectively plan for them (Kotler et al, 2002; Swarbrooke and Horner, 1999).

Jos is a well known, important and interesting tourism destination, identified and classified in the Nigeria Tourism Development Master Plan under the scenic nature cluster, because of its attractiveness, quality, uniqueness and potentials of attractions (NTDMP, 2006). Government also made efforts to make it an attractive tourism destination for tourists from within and outside the country. Despite its attractiveness no action has been taken to study and understand the patronage characteristics of the visiting tourists and the factors motivating them. The knowledge of patronage characteristics and factors motivating tourists to visit tourism destination is significant in other to address the tourists‟ expectations and satisfactions which will help to determine the strength and weakness of destinations which will be further used to improve the destination attributes and develop marketing strategies to compete with other destinations (Pakaleva-Shapira, 2007).

This observed that, because of the lack of knowledge on tourist patronage characteristics and motivations in the study area, government lack the understanding of the areas of strength to utilize and maintain, and areas of weakness to improve upon in developing its tourism potentials. This has led to a poor development of its tourism sector, thus making it difficult for the destinations in the study area to compete effectively with other destinations internationally.

Attempt at addressing tourist expectations and satisfaction to determine areas of strength and weakness of destinations has gained wide attention from various researchers; Gadja, 2008; Siri, 2009 and Gillett, 2011 analyzed participants characteristics (demographic characteristics), travel patterns, motivations, perceptions and satisfaction of tourist visiting tourism destinations. Other studies on Jos tourism only classified the tourists into domestic and international tourists (Aniah et al, 2009 and Eja et al, 2009), thus creating a gap in knowledge on the patronage characteristics of tourism destinations and factors motivating tourists to visit Jos. Hence this study attempts to analyze destinations patronized and tourist‟s motivations to visit the study area.

1.2       RESEARCH QUESTIONS
i.                    What are the patronage patterns of tourism destinations in Jos?

ii.                  What are the factors motivating tourists‟ choice of destinations in Jos?

1.3       AIM
The aim of this study is to analyse the patronage characteristics of tourism destinations and the factors motivating tourist to visit tourism destinations in Jos, with a view to make appropriate recommendations to improve patronage.

1.4       OBJECTIVES
i.                    To review the concept and technique for analysing tourism destination patronage.

ii.                  To analyse patronage characteristics of tourism destinations in Jos.

iii.                To identify factors motivating choice of tourism destinations.

iv.                To identify factors militating against tourism patronage in Jos.

v.                  To make recommendations for improvement of tourism destinations patronage in Jos.

1.5       SCOPE
This study will centre on the analysis of patronage characteristics of tourism destinations in Jos, focusing on tourist demographic characteristics, tourist patronage of destinations and the factors motivating them to visit. The study will be limited to Jos as a region (covering the three local government areas; Jos North, Jos South and Jos East) in regards to data collection, analysis and recommendations.

1.6       DEFINITION OF TERMS
Tourism destination: Tourism destination as a physical space in which the visitor spend at least one night and is made up of tourism products such as support services and attractions, and tourism resources with physical and administrative boundaries that defines its management, images/perceptions of market competitiveness (world tourism organization, 2003).

Tourism: is defined as the entire activities of person(s) travelling to and staying in a place(s) outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited (UNWTO, 2010).

Tourist: a tourist is someone who satisfies the conditions of travelling at least fifty miles from home for any period of less than a year and that while they are away, they spend money in the place they visit without earning it there (Morley, 1990).

Patronage: patronage is the business that comes into an establishment generating revenue; it can also be seen as business or activity provided by a patron. For this study the above definition was adapted to be: the business or activities provided by patrons (tourists) in a destination, generating revenue.

Characteristics: Trait, Quality or property or a group of them distinguishing an individual, group or type.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 83 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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