THE USE OF SELECTED PLANT EXTRACTS IN GREY- WATER TREATMENT

ABSTRACT
Grey water is the left over water from baths, showers, hand basin and washing machine; in some cases water from the kitchen sink. The use of some synthetic chemical reagents in the treatment of grey water has been reported to be cancerogenic. The present study is an investigation into the possibility of using environmental friendly substances like, Agave sisalana leaves extract, Moringa oleifera seeds extract and parkia biglobosa seeds extract as coagulant and antimicrobial properties. Dry leaves of Agave sisalana, dry seeds Moringa oleifera and dry seeds of Parkia biglobosa were obtained from the botanical garden of the Department of Biological Sciences, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria. Grey water sample with turbidity ranging from 68, 67 and 76 NTU over the period of study were collected from Queen Amina Hostel of the Ahmadu Bello University Zaria. A standard jar test apparatus was used for the coagulation test, to the determine the minimal dosage of the extracts which are 100 mg/l, 120 mg/l and 150 mg/l. 500 ml of the grey water from was dosed with increasing amounts of the extracts. Turbidity (NTU), PH, total dissolved solids (PPM) electrical conductivity (┬Ás/cm), dissolved oxygen (ppm) BOD (ppm) and antimicrobial properties were measured using standard methods. The study shows that the extracts could act as a natural coagulant, flocculent and absorbent in grey water treatment. Separately Moringa oleifera was found to be more effective in coagulation than Agave sisalana and Parkia biglobosa with a turbidity removal from 76 NTU to 47 NTU and 18 NTU (85 % and 90 %) removal, and also Moringa olerifera separately was more effective in antimicrobial analysis with coloy reduction from 80 cfu to 40 cfu. while in combine, Parkia biglobosa seeds extract and Agave sisalana leaves extract in ratio 1:1 were more effective with turbidity removal of 35 % from 76 NTU to 62 NTU. In terms of antimicrobial analysis there was no synergistic action between them. The extracts can be used as alternative coagulants in grey water treatment. Similarly, the separate use of the extracts is more effective than in combine.


CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1       Preamble
Grey water got its name from its cloudy appearance and from its state as being between fresh potable water known as white water” in a household context. Grey water is the left over water from baths, showers, hand basins and washing machine only some definitions of grey water include water from the kitchen sink. Any water containing human waste (feces) is considered as black water. Grey water reuse can be reuse for subsurface irrigation and for toilet flushing (Mcconnachie, 1993).

Water is life. The importance of water to man’s existence cannot be overemphasized. Adequate supply of water is central to life and civilization. Of the five basic human needs (water, food, health, education, peace) water is a common factor to the other four (FRN, 2004). Safe water is a precondition for health and development and a basic human right, yet it is still denied to hundreds of millions of people throughout the developing world. Water-related diseases caused by insufficient safe water supplies coupled with poor sanitation and hygiene causing 3.4 million deaths a year, mostly among children. Despite continuing efforts by governments, civil society and the international community, billions of people still do not have access to improved water sources (UNICEF, 2008).

The fact that 70 % of the human body weight and 98 % of neonatal body weight are accounted for by water underscores the importance of water to man’s survival (Okuofu, 2010). Moreover, water covers about 70 % of the total earth surface. This obviously explains why many ancient civilizations in history have thrived around water bodies.

Water bodies that played this vital role include the Euphrates, Tigris, Thames, and Nile just to mention but a few (Okuofu, 2010). The importance of water cuts across food production as well as recreation. The sufficiency of water for these uses depends largely on proper harnessing and management of the little available.

The use of water also extends to disposal of waste from domestic and municipal sources. This is often where the problem arises especially when the waste is pre-treated to conform to specified standards and the water may be re-used for other purposes such as irrigation and even for drinking as obtainable in some localities. This may result in physical, chemical or biological (including microbiological) problems with respect to quality of water (Okuofu, 2010).

As pressures on freshwater resources grow around the world and as new sources of supply become increasingly scarce, expensive, or politically controversial, efforts are underway to identify new ways of meeting water needs. Of special note are efforts to reduce water demand by increasing the efficiency of water use and to expand the usefulness of alternative sources of water previously considered unusable, Among these potential new sources of supply is “grey water” (Allen et al., 2010).

By appropriately matching water quality to water need, the reuse of grey water can replace the use of potable water in non-potable applications like toilet flushing and landscaping. In most modern wastewater systems, treated wastewater is then disposed off into the ocean or other water bodies, voiding the reuse potential of this treated wastewater. In other places, once used wastewater may be disposed of directly into the environment. This system wastes water, energy, and money by not matching the quality of water to its use (Allen et al., 2010).

1.2       Statement of Problem
The use of some synthetic chemical reagents in the treatment of grey water has been associated with health problems, for example chlorine which reacts with natural organic materials during pre and post chlorination to form by products, some of which have been reported to be carcinogenic (Herbert, 2007).

The adoption of a sustainable technology is a major factor that determines the success of the treatment of grey water. The use of conventional technologies is not only capital intensive, but also requires sophisticated equipment, and requires skilled operators, with the use of natural treatment additives and processes, and these problems can be greatly reduced or totally eliminated.

1.3       Justification of Study
Grey water which is gotten from bathrooms, washing machines and kitchen sinks, contains organic and inorganic substances. The use of chemical reagent like (Chlorine, Ozone etc.) can cause serious health hazards e.g. cancer. However, the present study is an investigation into the possibility of using environmental friendly substances like, Agave sisalana leaves extract, Moringa oleifera seeds extract and Parkia biglobosa seeds extract as coagulants and to test for the present of antimicrobial properties. These extracts are natural sources of reagents that are affordable, with less health hazards and are easy to handle.

1.4       Aim and Objective
1.4.1    Aim
The aim of this research is to use Agave sisalana leaves extract, Moringa oleifera seeds extract and Parkia biglobosa seeds extract to treat grey water for the purpose of irrigation and toilet flushing.

1.4.2    Objectives
i. To characterize the antimicrobial properties of Agave sisalana leaves extract, Moringa oleifera seeds extract and Parkia biglobosa seeds extract in grey water treatment.

ii. To evaluate Agave Sisalana leaves extract, Moringa oleifera seeds extract and Parkia biglobosa seeds extract as grey water treatment coagulant, individual and in combination.

iii. To attest the feasibility of Agave sisalana leaves extract in the treatment of grey water.

1.5       Scope of the Study
This research is a laboratory based study. Its scope includes: the coagulation studies and antimicrobial anayisis of Agave sisalana leaves extract, Moringa oleifera seeds extract and Parkia biglobosa seeds extract.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 78 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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