THE EFFECT OF COMMUNITY SANITATION PRACTICE ON WATER QUALITY IN SELECTED COMMUNITIES IN JALINGO, TARABA STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT
The study was conducted on communities along Lamurde floodplain between Latitude 8˚52’0” and 8˚56’6” and Longitude11˚19’0” and 11˚22’8”. The study areaoverlain the shallow well fields where public water supply system and main private water vending were extracted to service the entire Jalingo city. Sample points were selected among the few available functional water points during the month of April when dry season was at its peak. Seventeen water points were randomly sampled, assessed and quantified for sanitary risk using standardized checklists. Biophysicochemical constituents of the water samples were also conducted using international standard methods of water samplings and analytical application principles. The sanitary inspection identified different degree of sanitary risk factor at the sample points, with a common practice at the dug wellsource where fetching tools were left in pools of stagnant water. All the sample points quantified with high sanitary risk were noted with faecal coliforms. There were significant differences between faecal coliform counts (F2,14= 17.31; p = 1.64 x 10 -4) in the dry season and (F2,14= 5.39; p = 8.54 x 10 -4) in the wet season at 95% confidence level along borehole, tube well and dug well sources. Nitrate contaminations were localized to sources closed to either pit latrines or solid waste dumpsites. No effect between nitrate concentrations (F2,14=1.75; p =0.21) in the dry season and (F2,14 =1.65; p =0.23) in the wet season 95% confidence level along the boreholes, tube wells and dug wells. The summary of the analysis indicated that fecal and chloride contaminations were widespread over borehole, tube well and dug well water sources while all other chemical contaminations were localized.


CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
The soil formation has the capacity of self-cleaning and equilibrium maintenance of groundwater quality to preserve its quality so that every generation finds it the same as the one before it (Bhatia, 2002). However, with man’s expanded population and his quest to develop industrial and agricultural sectors to provide food and other basic amenities to the increasing population, there has been enormous amount of wastes generated and released with varying compositions onto the environment on a continuous basis. The contaminants arising from these wastes may be carried from the sources by infiltrating water through long distances to the groundwater table before natural processes such as adsorption, biodegradation, radioactive decay, ion exchange and dispersion could remove them. Studies have shown that Nigeria urban groundwater quality is influenced by geology and geochemistry of the environment, rate of urbanization, industrialization, landfill/dumpsite leachates and effect of seasons (Ocheriet al., 2014).

In urban settings, the risk of groundwater contamination are likely to be most significant, due to the higher density of contaminant sources, issues of contaminant legacy and greater concentrations of anthropogenic activity (Sorensen and Pedly, 2015). Additionally, as the impervious and un-vegetated ground of urban developmental areas have little or no retention during rains, human and animal wastes are flushed into the river systems polluting urban water supplies, rivers and coastal waters (Mafutaet al., 2011). Principal water contaminants arising from poor community sanitation practices include but not limited to faecal matters, nitrate and chloride. Faecal contamination may occur because there are no community facilities for waste disposal, because collection and treatment facilities are inadequate or improperly operated, or because on-site sanitation facilities (such as latrines) drain directly into aquifers (Bartram and Ballance, 1996). Ammonia in the environment mainly results from feedlot and the use of manures in agriculture, or from on-site sanitation or leaking sewer. Ammonia in water could also be an indicator of sewage pollution (WHO, 2006). Chloride is abundant in human faeces; its presence in water is an indication of faecal contamination.

Of primary concern is the quality of groundwater exploited for drinking as well as other domestic purposes. Many human bacteria and virus are transmitted through faecal contaminated groundwater supply, making them waterborne. High prevalence of diarrhoea among children and infant can be traced to use of unsafe water and unhygienic practice (Bradford et al., 2013). Heavy metals enter groundwater through natural leaching from the rock or runoff from industrial wastes and pollution fallout of pervious surface of roads, motors parks and commercial areas, which percolate down, into groundwater tables. They persist in the environments and tend to accumulate in soils, sediments and biota. Heavy metals can cause neurological disorder and any contact with water with highly polluted heavy metals can result in skin irritation (Davis and Susan, 2004).

This concern has attracted overwhelming studies on the quality status of groundwater abstracted from shallow wells and deep wells for human consumption in urban areas of the country (Ocheri et al., 2014). Jalingo, which is one of the fast growing cities in Nigeria, is not exceptional. The urban abstraction wells are mainly within the informal congested city limit with wells and boreholes constructed close to pit latrines. The solid wastes management and pollution control within the city is characterized by insufficient methods of collection, transfer and storage, insufficient coverage of the collection system and uncontrolled disposal of the waste (Yavini and Musa, 2013).

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 103 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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