TAKAICIN MATA A FINA-FINAN HAUSA

TSAKURE
Tun zamani mai tsawon gaske, an sami mata da suka yi rubuce-rubuce, suka bayyana yadda matsayin mace yake tun a wancan lokaci. Ire-iren waxannan mata sun dubi matsayin mace ta fuskar al’ada da addini da siyasa da ilimi da tattalin arziki da zamantakewa da sauransu vangarorin rayuwa, inda bayanansu suka fito da cewa duk a waxannan vangarori na rayuwa mace ta kasance qasqantacciya kuma rarrauna, har wasu ma ke xaukar ta ba ‘yar’Adam ba ce. Ganin wannan bincike ya faxo cikin wannan fage na irin takaicin da mata ke fama da shi a rayuwa ya sa aka shiga cikin duniyarAnnazarigina dominwananxorabinciken bisakanturbarra’indamatantakadace. da niyyar fito da abubuwan da ke sa mata shiga halin quncin rayuwa da xauki fina-finan Hausa a matsayin madubi da suka hasko waxannan abubuwa. An yi haka ne saboda an hangi wani givi da ke akwai a bincike-bincike da nazarce-nazarcen ayyukan da suka shafi mata da fina-finan Hausa. Mafi yawan manazarta sun fi bai wa ayyukan da maza da sauran sassan adabi muhimmanci, duk kuwa da cewa su akwai abin da ya kamata a binciko a kansu. Sannan su ma fina-finai matsayinsu na wani vangare na adabin Hausa xauke suke da abin da rayuwar al’umma musamman mata.
Domin daidaita binciken an dubi yadda addinai da al’adu daban-dabam ke kallon matsayin mata a zamanin jahiliyya har zuwa wannan qarni. Haka kuma an kawo matsayin mata da irin gudummawar da suke bayarwa a vangaren shirya fina-finan Hausa.
Domin fito da fasalin binciken fili an kawo bayanai game da samuwar fina-finan Hausa. Sannan aka kawo bayanai dangane da kalmar takaici da nau’o’insa. Haka kuma an kawo abubuwan da ke jefa mata cikin takaici da suka haxa da zamantakewa tsakanin miji da mata da kishi tsakanin kishiyoyi da kishi tsakanin faccaloli (kishiyoyin sauri) da kuma tsakanin da suruka da sarakuwa, sai kuma rashin haihuwa da haihuwar ‘ya’ya mata . Sannan kuma an kawo yadda fina-finan Hausa suka nuna yadda yara mata kan shiga qunci da takaici a sauran al’amuran rayuwa, kamar a sanadiyyar auren dole da irin yadda matar uba ke quntata wa ‘ya’yan miji, da kwaxayi da son abin duniya da kuma yadda maza kan yaudari matan su saka su cikin takaici


ABSTRACT
For a long time there have been women who have written a lot about the situation of women. Some of these women writers used many dimensions in looking into the problems of women, some look into the problem from cultural, religious, political, educational, economic, social and other aspects of life. Using the above factors, the position of women is at the lowest ebb, in fact in certain areas women are even considered as sub-human. Consequently, since the research is gender oriented towards understanding the vexation of women in Hausa films, it is vital to delve into history so as to place the research on its proper base.
Feminist’s views are taken into consideration in order to find out the factors that push women into these difficult conditions. In this research Hausa films are taken as a case study. These films have portrayed the difficult conditions into which women have found themselves. Hausa films were taken as a case study, because of the gap into research in the position of women in Hausa films. Most of the researchers have concentrated on male and other literary genres despite the fact that researches on women are needed. Even Hausa films as literary genres deal with some social problems especially those dealing with women.
To make the research balanced, the work probes into so many areas like feminist’s views and historical situation of women’s rights from the ignorant (jahiliyya) period to the present century. Furthermore, the role and contribution of women to the development of Hausa films are taken into consideration.
To achieve the set goal, the research looks at how Hausa films emerged. Then information is provided on the meaning of vexation and its genres. Moreover, the factors that throw women into difficulties such as the co-existance among married couples (husband and wife) and rivalry between co-wives, among mother-in-law and daughter in-law and between sisters-in-law.
Finally, information is provided from the Hausa films on how girls fall into trouble or difficult conditions in their lives.


BABI  NA FARKO : SHIMFIXA 
1.0 Gabatarwa

Masana adabin Hausa sun yarda kalmar adabi ta samo asali ne daga harshen Larabci (Yahaya 1973 da Xangambo 1985 da Gusau 1991 da sauransu). Daga Larabci kalmar ita ce adab ko adb (tilo) ko d’ab (jam’i) wasu kuma suna ganin daga addaba (tilo) ko adab (jam’i) aka sami asali na kalmar. A Larabce, ta hanyar lugga, kalmar na iya zama: fasaha, qwarewa, halaye kyawawa, shirya liyafa da sauransu (Gusau, 2011). A wajen Hausawa, manazarta adabin Hausa sun bayyana ma’anar adabi ta fannin ilimi ta hanyoyi daban-dabam, misali, Yahaya“Adabi(1973)watacewababbaryayi: hanya ce da xan’Adam yake yin

amfani da ita don ya sadar da abubuwan da suka shafi rayuwarsa da ta ‘yan’uwansa (iyali ko dangi ko qasarsa) ga su ‘yan’uwan ko wasu dabam. Abubuwan da yakan bi ya sadar xin nan kuwa sukan shafi wani abu ne da ya daxaxa masa zuciya ko wanda ya sosa masa rai ko wanda ya shafi siyasa ko addini ko wayar da kai wato
Adabi abu neilimi”qagagge,. tsararre a kan wani tunani na musamman da gabatar da shi da harshe mai zalaqa. Ashe shi adabi zubi ne mai jan

mai daxi, wani lokaci kuma mai xaci, mai bayyana farin ciki ko ban ko ban takaici. Abu ne mai jefa jin daxi ko tsoro, ko sanya nadama ko ko gamsuwa ko girsuwa. Haka kuma yakan qunshi kwaikwayo a sauwara tunani ta yadda za a tsara aukuwar wani abu ko a yi faruwarsa. Matanonin adabi suna yi wa rayuwa hannunka-mai-sanda koyar da darussa iri-iri da yin ishara da nuni cikin nishaxi ta yadda za mutane bisa rayuwa tagari kuma a shiryar da su zuwa ga tafarkin (Gusau, 2011: 5-6). Adabin Hausa ya yi ta samun qare-qare waxanda nashewa su haxe su zama xaya. Waxannan qare-qare da adabi ya same su ne a dalilin shigowar manyan al’ummun nan guda biyu, wato Larabawa a wajen qarni na 13 zuwa na 14 da kuma Turawa a wajen 19.
Daga cikin abubuwan da adabin Hausa ya qaru da su ya kuma gaba a kai, sun haxa da fim. Shi kuwa fim ya samu ne a sanadiyyar ci da wasan kwaikwayo. Bisa al’ada, duk wani abin da za a gudanar, musamman abin da ya shafi adabi, ko na waqa, ko zube ko wasan kwaikwayo, ya dace a ce yana da dalili ko sanadin yin sa. Domin su bayyana halayyar al’ummarsu ta hanyar lura da abubuwan da ke cikinta, su kuma yi qoqarin faxakar da sauran jama’a. Fina-finan


Hausa ba wai hakanan kara-zube ake yin su ba, akwai manufa da kuma hujja da

ta sa ake yin su. Halayyar da al’umma suka kasance ciki ita ke yin tasiri a cikin fina-finansu. Wato masu shirya fina-finai za su xauki wani hali da al’umma ta sami kanta ciki idan mai kyau ne su nuna hakan, idan ma aka sami akasin haka, haka za su bayyana, don yin kira ga al’umma da a yi gyara.

Kowace al’umma ta duniya tana da wasu tanade-tanade da tsarabe-tsarabe da ta yi domin tafiyar da rayuwarta ta yau da kullum, waxannan tanade-tanade su ke jagorancin yadda rayuwa baki xaya za ta kasance tun daga haihuwa har tsufa zuwa mutuwa. Waxannan abubuwan sun shafi xabi’u da al’adu da tarbiyya da zamantakewa da kuma al’amarin ci gaban al’umma, kamar neman ilimi da sha’anin siyasa da aure da haihuwa da sauran al’amauran rayuwa na yau da kullumWaxannan. al’amuran zamantakewa da na ci gaban al’umma dogara ne bisa irin matsayin da al’umma ta ba mace. Saboda Allah shirya cewa rayuwa ta duniya da lahira ba ta namiji ne shi kaxai ba, mace da namiji ce su biyu. Hasali ma dai ita rayuwa ba ta yiwuwa sai haxuwar biyun, domin rayuwar duniya kamar tsuntsu ce, da mace da

su ne fuka-fukansa guda biyu. Don haka idan al’umma ta ba mace kula da ita, ta kuma mutunta ta, to sai al’ummar ta ci gaba, kuma yi daxi, domin idan mata suka sami natsuwa, tarbiyya za ta inganta, mata su ne tushen tarbiyya. Idan kuwa aka sami akasin haka, to sai ta ci baya kuma a sami tavarvarewar tarbiyya.

Tun a da can har zuwa yanzu mata ba su da ta cewa, wai varawo a hannun mata. Matan sun daxe suna cikin quncin rayuwa da matsi da takura da shiga halin qaqa-nika-yi. Duk da cewa su ne iyayen al’umma kuma mataimakan mazan a fannonin rayuwa daba-dabam, amma kuma ana xaukar su kamar qananan yara, wani lokacin ma ana xaukar su kamar bayi, suke fuskantar azaba iri-iri da wahalhalu, daga qarshe kuma, a yi watsi da su (Badamasiy, 1998 : 1). Tsawon lokuta mata sun sha gwagwarmaya domin yunqurin fitar da kansu daga cikin quncin rayuwa. A qasashen yamma, kamar Faransa da Birtaniya an yi ta samun mata ‘yan gwagwarmaya, waxanda suka fi mai da hankali wurin ganin mata sun sami ‘yanci, musamman daidaito ga haqqinsu, da ba wa mata ‘yancin mallakar dukiya da ba su damar samun albashi daidai da maza da ‘yancin jefa quri’a da sauransu.


A qasashen Hausa ma, an xauki mata a matsayin raunana, ba a cika ba su ilimi ba . Kuma al’umma sun amince maza su ne ke jagorancin komai, domin Musulunci ma maza ya ba shugabanci. Kamar yadda ya zo a cikin Al-qur’ani mai girma:

“Maza masu tsayuwa ne a kan mata, saboda abin da Allah Ya fifita sashensu da shi a kan sashe, kuma saboda abin da suka ciyar daga dukiyoyinsu…….”(suratu Nisa’i

A vangarenayata gida34). maigida shi ne da iko a kan kowa da komai na gidan, duk yadda ya ce, haka za a yi. A fagen sana’a ma, maza ne suka mamaye, domin suke yin mafi yawancin sana’o’i. A fagen mulki da sauran abubuwan rayuwa maza ne kan gaba, su mata na kulle a gida, suna bautar aure. Wannan matsayi na mata ya taimaka wajen barin su a baya, da kuma xaukar su a matsayin raunana a cikin al’umma. Har ma ana ganin mace ba ta iya fitar da kanta daga matsala balle ta fitar da wani, duk kuwa da cewa ba dole ne hakan ya kasance ba, shi ya sa wasu ke cewa sai mace ta kai shekara arba’in sannan qwaqwalwarta ke kai matsayin ta tunkiya, wanda wannan an san irin takun saqar nan ne da ke aukuwa tsakanin jinsuna, ba wai don haka tabbas ba ne (Ibrahim, 2009 : 19).

Akwai nau’o’in zamantakewar al’umma daban-dabam da suka haxa da zamantakewar miji da mata da zamantakewa tsakanin kishiyoyi da ta tsakanin suruka da sarakuwa da tsakanin faccaloli da makamantansu. A irin wannan zamantakewa wani lokaci akan sami ‘yan rigingimu da hatsaniya da kan faru tsakanin mutanen da ke zaune da juna. A sanadiyyar haka, wani lokacin akan jefa matar da abin yaAbubuwanshafacikindaquncikejefda damuwamatacikinda takaici .suna da yawa, kaxan daga ciki su ne, yanayin zamantakewa tsakaninsu da mazaje, da kishi da rashin haihuwa da haihuwar ‘ya’ya mata da auren dole da quntatawar matar uba da kwaxayi da yaudara. Waxannan abubuwan takaici su za a duba a wannan aiki.

Ganin cewa akwai bambancin da kan wanzu tsakanin jinsin namiji da jinsin mace ta vangaren matsaloli ko abubuwan da kan sa su takaici, binciken ya ga ya dace a fara da fahimtar yadda wannan taqaddama ta jinsi ta samo asali, da yadda take taimakawa wajen gina rayuwKalmar matajinsi. ta samo asali daga harshen Larabci. Daga kalmar ita ce jinsu ko al-jinsu (tilo), ajnas ko junus (jam’i). A Larabce, kalmar na nufin dangin wani abu, wato kalmar jinsun ta fi kalmar Nau’i kaxan ne daga jinsun. Haka kuma, ana cewa mujanasa wato,


kamanceceniya ko dangantaka, sannan ana cewa tanjiinsun wato dangantakar wani abu da wani ko kuma a kamanta su (Ar-razi :101). wasu malamai kamar na falsafa idan suka ce jinsi suna nufin tarin masu nau’i daban-dabam, misali dabbobi, jinsi guda ne, a cikin jinsin kuma za a iya ware wani nau’i, misali, jinsin mutum ( Al-Wasid :140).


A harshen Hausa kuwa jinsi shi ne fanni ko iri ko bambancin halitta (Bargery, 1934: 506). Ko bambancin mace da namiji ko kuma bambancin mace da namiji na kalmomi a Nahawu (Qamusun Hausa, 2006). Maganar jinsi ta wuce bambancin halitta kawai, ta haxa da bambance-bambancen da ake samu ta vangaren abubuwan da al’umma ke shatawa a al’adance a kan yadda ya kamata mata ko maza su kasance. Haka kuma, waxannan qa’idojin sun shafi kowane vangare na rayuwa, kamar yanayin zamantakewa na yau da kullum da makamantansu. Har wa yau, waxannan tsare-tsare na al’ada su ne suke haifar da matsalar xaukakar wani jinsi a kan wani ko danniyar da ake yi wa jinsin mata a cikin wata al’umma. Haka kuma ana bayyana jinsi a matsayin tsare-tsaren al’umma a kan xabi’u da ayyuka da matsayin da ake ganin ya dace da maza da waxanda suka fi dacewa da mata (Riley, 1997 : 2-6).

Jinsi abu ne wanda mutum kan iya zava wa kansa (De Beauvair, 1949). Wato irin rayuwar da mutum ya zavar wa kansa ita ce ke nuna jinsinsa, ba yadda aka halicce shi ba.
Duk idan aka haxa ra’ayoyin masana dangane da ma’anar jinsi, wannan bincike zai iya cewa, jinsi na nufin bambancin da ke akwai tsakanin namiji da mace ta fuskar halitta da kuma bambancin rawar da kowane vangare yake takawa ta fuskar al’ada da xabi’a da wasu vangarorinWariyarrayuwajinsi.kuwa, ta wanzu ne a sanadiyyar ra’ayi ko aqidar cewa, akwai bambanci ko fifiko tsakanin namiji da mace a cikin (Jennifer, 1985: 6). Daidaiton jinsi kuwa, bai wuce bai wa mata damar kamace su ba, domin su sami ‘yancin kai a fagen ilimi da kiwon lafiya siyasa da sha’anin gudanar da rayuwa na yau da kullum, da kuma faxa a ji (Ibrahim, 2009 : 2). Alal haqiqa, jinsin mata na da matuqar muhimmanci a tsakanin al’umma waxanda kusan ma iya cewa, mutum ba ta yiwuwa sai da mace. Kuma sai da macen al’amuran sukan tafi yadda yake buqata. Ya zama dole sai da mace gida yakan gida, sannan namiji yakan cika namiji. Don haka ne ma ake yi wa kirari da ‘mata iyayen giji, in ba ku ba gida, in kun yi yawa gida ya suka fi bayar da gudummawa ga al’umma musamman ta vangaren

yara. Su suka fi xaukar kaso mafi yawa wajen xawainiya da sadaukar tare da yin qoqari wajen tarbiyya. Shi ya sa ma aka ce idan an mace xaya, tamkar an ilimantar da al’umma ne.

Saboda la’akari da irin muhimmancin da mata ke da shi a wajen shekarar 1960 zuwa 1975 Majalisar Xinkin Duniya ta vullo da wani shiri mai taken ‘shekarar mata’. Sannan aka yi wani babban taro wanda yake shi ne irinsa na huxu da aka tava yi a kan mata duk duniya, a birnin Beijing na qasar Sin, wanda aka yi masa laqabi da ‘Taron Beijing’ a shekarar 1995, wanda ya sami mahalarta daga ko’ina cikin duniya, ya kuma yanke shawara a kan sha’anin daidaita jinsi na in-ba-ka-yi-ba-ni-wuri. Tun daga wannan taro ne maganar daidaiton jinsi take a bakin kowa; ‘yan jarida ne ko masana ko manazartaWannanko marubutaka-ce-na-(Ibrahim,cedaake2009:yi kan41). wariyar jinsi, shi ya sa wannan bincike ya xauki wani fanni daga cikin abubuwan da suka shafi mata don gudanar da bincike a kansa, ta yadda binciken kan iya bayar da gudummawa a kan abin da ya shafi rayuwar matan Hausawa.

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Item Type: Postgraduate Material  |  Attribute: 185 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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