SALON TALLATA YAN TAKARA A WAQOQIN JAMHURIYA TA HUXU: NAZARI A KAN WASU WAQOQIN SIYASAR JAMHURIYA TA HUXU

TSAKURE
Siyasar Jamhuriya ta huxu a Nijeriya, ta zama tamkar kakar waqoqin siyasa. Saboda a wannan jamhuriya ce aka samu yaxuwa da bunqasar waqoqi da ake shiryawa ko dai a kan jam‟iyyu ko wasu xaixaikun „yan siyasa. A wannan lokacin ne aka samu waqoqi da jigogi iri daban-daban. Wasu game da aqidun siyasu ko „yan siyasa,wasu kuma masu nuna bijirewa ga jam‟iyyun siyasa ko shugabanni, wasu kuma ma xaixaikun „yan siyasa ne kawai suke wasawa. Wasu waqoqin ma duk da kasancewarsu na siyasa, ba su shafi jam‟iyya ba. Suna magana ne game da yanayin mulki da xabi‟un shugabanni. A wannan binciken an wasu waqoqin siyasa a jamhuriya ta huxu da suka zo da wani irin sauyi da aka samu na salon waqoqin, inda maimakon su mai da hankali ga yaxa manufofi da aqidun jam‟iyyu, sai suka karkata ga shirya waqoqi da suke wasa ko tallata xaixaikun „yan siyasa a cikinsu. Duk da cewa waqoqi ne na siyasa, amma wani lokaci, ko sunan jam‟iyyar da xan takarar ya ke ba a ambata. A wasu waqoqin ma, a cikin amshin ne kawai ake jin xuriyar sunan jam‟iyya. Kamar yadda Bahaushe ke cewa, „Ruwa ba ya tsami banza,‟ don haka ne a cikin aikin an gano wasu daga cikin dalilan da suka haifar da irin wannan salo waqoqin da ake shiryawa, musamman don tallata xan takaran ga jama‟a. A cikin babi na xaya an gabatar da aikin inda aka bayyana ginshiqan da aka shimfixa aikin a kan sa. Wato dalilin bincike da muhimmancin bincike da manufar bincike da farfajiyar bincike da hasashen bincike da hanyoyin bincike da sharuxxan bincike. Sannan kuma, an bayyana ra‟in bincike. A babi na biyu kuwa, an yi waiwaye adon tafiya, a inda aka duba ayyukan da suka gabata da suke da dangantaka da wannan aiki. An waiwayi ayyukan da suka yi magana a kan siyasar kanta, ko game da waqoqin siyasar wata jamhuriyya a keve ko a kan jam‟iyyun siyasa ko „yan siyasa da dai sauransu. Sannan kuma an duba taqaitaccen tarihin samuwar siyasa a Nijeriya da samuwar waqoqin siyasa da dalilan samuwar salo ko wasu jigogi a wannan jamhuriya(ta huxu). Haka kuma, an duba ire-iren jigogi da salon waqoqin siyasa. A babi na uku an yi sharhin wasu daga cikin waqoqin siyasa na jamhuriya ta huxu da aka xauka a matsayin misali daga jam‟iyyun ANPP da CPC da kuma PDP. Sai a babi na huxu aka duba salo da tsari na waxannan waqoqi. A babi na biyar an kammala bincike tare da bayyana abin da binciken ya gano domin tabbatar da hasashensa. Binciken ya gano wasu waqoqin siyasar Jamhuriya ta huxu da suka raja‟a a kan tallata xan takara kawai ba tallata aqida da manufofin jam‟iyya ba. Haka kuma mawaqan kan tallata „yan takara da fito da halayensu na kirki ta hanyar yabo da kirari.

ABSTRACT
Many political verses have emerged in the Fourth Republic in Nigeria. It is during this republic or political era that many poets composed poems of diversified themes; on parties‟ manifestos, aspirational candidate, party leaders and many more. There are, infact some other poems that are being composed to praise individuals only. Although these poems are political ones, hardly the names of the polical parties are mentioned in the poems. However, what predominates the poems superficially is the praise of the particular candidate, the poet is concerned with. Sometimes the party is only mentioned in the chorus. The findings of this research revealed the factors responsible for this type of poems. The chapter one of this work consists of problems, hyphothesis, objectives and scope and delimitation to the research. The theory of formalism and structuralism used for this research is also discussed in the chapter. The second chapter is made up of the literature review. The chapter three of this work contains analyses of the selected Hausa Political Verses in the Fourth Republic from ANNP, CPC and PDP. In chapter four, the style and structure of the selected poems have been analysed. Chapter five consists of the research findings and recommendations. The research has come out with new trend in Hausa Political Poetry, where the political poets, tilted toward the candidate not the party manifesto. It also discovered the new technique adopted by the Hausa political poets, in campaign composing poetry with full of simile and metaphors. The work has clearly discovered the departure of the contemporary Hausa poets and the traditional poets in the 60th and 90th.

BABI NA XAYA:
SHIMFIXA
1.0 Gabatarwa

Siyasa wata aba ce da ta shafi rayuwar al‟umma a duniya, kuma ta yi tasiri matuqa a zukatansu. Don haka ne ma mawaqan siyasa, su ma ba a bar su a baya ba, suke da irin wannan tasirin a cikin jininsu da rayuwarsu ta yau da kullum. Saboda da wannan tasirin ne, ya sa waqoqi na siyasa da kuma „yan siyasar kan su, sun zama tamkar jini da tsoka. Watau dai, ba a raba su. Don haka ne ma ya sa waqa a qasar Hausa ba abin nema ba ce. Domin kuwa, an yi nazarce-nazarce da dama a lokuta daban-daban a kan waqoqi, tun ba na siyasa ba. Samuwar siyasa da havakarta a Nijeriya ya sanya ake samun waqoqi da ake shiryawa kama tun daga masu yaxa manufofin jam‟iyyun siyasa da „yan siyasar kan su da na yabon shugabannin siyasa da jam‟iyyunsu da na tallata siyasa da „yan takararsu. Duk suna yin haka ne dangane da muhimmancin shiga jam‟iyya da kuma zaven shugabanni na gari. Ganin yadda aka samu yawaitar waqoqi a wannan kakar siyasa a jamhuriya ta huxu, ta kai ga yin la‟akari da cewa an sami waqoqi musamman da ake yi wa „yan siyasa maimakon yi wa jam‟iyyu. A irin waxannan waqoqi ba manufofi da aqidun siyasa ko jam‟iyya aka fi ba muhimmanci ba, babban abin da aka fi ba qarfi, shi ne tallata xan takara. A wannan aiki an mai da hankali ne ga jigo da salon irin waxannan waqoqi.

Wannan batu ne aka  gudanar da bincike a kan sa,  wanda ya shafi irin waqoqin da ake shirya wa „yan siyasa  domin bayyana su da kuma tallata su ga jama‟a kamar yadda aka 
ambata a sama. Wannan shi ya sa aka gudanar da bincike game da waqoqi da suke tallata „yan takara maimakon tallata aqidar siyasa. Daga qarshe an fahimci wani sabon salo da masu shirya waqoqin Hausa suka xauka a fagen waqoqin siyasa.

Dangane da waqoqin siyasa kuwa, masana da dama sun bayar da ma‟ana daban-daban. Birniwa, (1987 : 62 da 204) ya bayyana cewar Bello Gixaxawa ya bayyana waqar siaysa da cewa:

“Ita ce waqar da ta qunshi cikakken yabo ga jam‟iyya da bayyana kyawawan manufofinta. Sannan kuma ta kasance ta kushe abokan gaba”.

Haka shi ma Yusuf Kantu, (Birniwa, 1987: 204 ) ya bayyana cewa :

“Waqar siyasa ita ce wadda ta qunshi kushe jam‟iyyun hamayya sannan kuma take bayyana manufofin jam‟iyyar da mutum yake mara wa baya”.

Furniss, (1996:228), yana ganin cewar mafi yawa waqar siyasa tana karkata ne ga shugabannin siyasa ta bayyana kyawawan halayensu da asalinsu ta fuskar nasaba. Haka kuma waqoqin siyasa na kushe shugabannin siyasar abokan hamayya. Gusau (2008:290) yana ganin cewar waqoqin siyasa su ne irin waqoqin da ake shirya wa siyasar kanta da jam‟iyyun siyasa da kuma „yan siyasa.

Idan aka yi la‟akari da bayanan da suka gabata a sama, a dunqule za a iya cewa waqoqin siyasa su ne waxanda suka qunshi yaxa manufofin jam‟iyyun siyasa da kuma yabon mutanen cikin jami‟iyyun da kuma kushe abokan hamayya da jam‟iyyunsu.

Daga nan za a iya fahimtar cewar waqoqin da ake yi na tallata „yan takara, wani sabon salo ne da waqoqin siyasa suka xauka. Wannan kuwa ya faru ne saboda wasu dalilai da
wannan bincike yake hasashe, kuma yake so ya gano ya tabbatar da su. Domin kuwa ana cewa: “Idan kixa ya canza, to rawa ma za ta canza.” Yahaya (2001:2) ya bayyana sabon salo da cewa:

“Sabon salo na nufin sabuwar hanya, hanyar da take daban da wadda aka saba.”

Waqa aba ce da fasihai ke amfani da ita domin bayyana wata manufarsu cikin sauri ga jama‟a. Domin kuwa, waqa ta fi saurin karvuwa ga jama‟a, kuma an fi son sauraren ta fiye da wa‟azi. Wannan ne ma ya sa mafi yawan ayyukan malaman jihadi waqoqi ne (Sa‟id, 1978:66). Ke nan, daga wancan bayani, a iya cewa ana amfani da waqa a matsayin wata kafa ta yaxa manufa cikin gaggawa kamar dai yadda iska ke kaxawa ta game ko‟ina cikin xan qanqanen lokaci. Wannan na iya kasacewa dalilin da su ma „yan siyasa suke amfani da waqa wajen bayyana manufofinsu da kuma tallata kawunansu.

Ana samun waqoqin siyasa da dama masu bayyana manufofi da ra‟ayoyi daban-daban. Wannan ya haxa da waqoqin da suke yaxa manufofi da aqidun siyasa da „yan siyasa. Bayan waxannan ta kai ga samuwar wasu salailai na waqoqin sayasa. Daga ciki akwai masu nuna bijirewa da gargaxi ga „yan siyasa. Misali waqar “Shegiyar Uwa” da waqar “Ba Mu Yarda Ta Zarce Ba”, na Haruna Aliyu Ningi, na kira ne ga bijire wa jami‟iyyar PDP da kuma tawaye daga shirin tazarce na Obasanjo (Binta, 2007). Akwai kuma waqar “Motar siyasa: Saqon Talakawa Guwa ga „Yan Siyasar Zamani,” ta Bello

Xanshabiyu, da take bayyana irin yadda talakawa suka waye da kuma aika saqonsu ga „yan siyasa cewa su gyara halayensu. (Bayero da Dunfawa, 2010).

Hausawa na cewa “Idan kixa ya canza, rawa ma sai ta canza”. Kasancewar canjin yanayi da qasa ta sami kan ta, watakila ya sa aka sami sauyin salon waqoqi na siyasa. Domin a halin yanzu an sami sauyi mai yawan gaske ta fuskar salon waqoqin siyasar da ake da su na yanzu, idan aka kwatanta su da na da. Domin idan aka lura da mafi yawan waqoqin siyasar zamunan farko, sun fi mai da hankali ga tallata aqidar siyasa, savanin na yanzu da suka fi mai da hankali ga tallata “haja” („yan takara).

Wannan dalili ne ya sa aka gudanar da bincike domin a gano dalilan da suka haifar da wannan sauyi. Ana so a gano mece ce waqar siyasa, sannan a ga shin waxanne waqoqi ne na siyasa zalla, ko kuwa za a kira su waqoqin tallar „yan takara. Domin masana da masu bincike da dama sun yi rubuce-rubuce da bincike a kan waqoqin siyasa, amma dai ba a qarfafa binciken a kan wannan “kakar” waqoqin da aka samu a wannan zamanin siyasa ba. A cikin wannan bincike za a bijiro da wasu nazarce-nazarcen da aka yi da suka shafi wannan batu.

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Item Type: Postgraduate Material  |  Attribute: 228 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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