ISLAMIC PREVENTIVE STRATEGIES ON THE MENANCE OF POLITICAL THUGGERY IN KADUNA STATE

ABSTRACT
Youths and political thuggery has become very rampant in Africa and Nigeria, especially in Kaduna State. This research work looks at it causes, effects and to proffer possible solutions to such disgusted attitude. The research is divided into five chapters, chapter one: introduction, chapter two: literature review, chapter three: research methodology, chapter four: presentation and analysis of data, chapter five: summary, conclusion, findings and recommendation. The sample was made up of five hundred (500) questionnaire from eight local government areas of the state, using systematic sampling techniques. The instrument used for collection of data was questionnaire while analysis of data was performed through the use of sample frequency and percentage, test and Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (P.P.M.C.C) was used. The research discovered that poverty and unemployment are among the causes of political thuggery in Kaduna state, and that absence of good governance and low political culture are also contributory factors to the menace of thuggery and violence.


CHAPTER ONE
  GENERAL INTRODUCTION
     BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. All praises are to the Almighty Allah, the Creator, the Sustainer and the Nourisher of the Universe. May the peace, blessing and mercy of Allah (S.W.T) be upon His noble Prophet, Muhammad (S.W.T) who indeed delivered the mission of guidance successfully. Similarly, may Almighty Allah (S.W.T) be pleased with the Prophet‟s household, companions and those who followed them in sincerity to the Last Day.

The basic aim of the religion of Islam is the inculcation of moral values and Allah‟s consciousness. In view of this, the religion abhors all immoral activities and ungodly attitudes. The following Qur‟anic verse substantiates the statement.


Say: the things that my Lord hath indeed forbidden are: shameful deeds, whether open or secret; sins and trespasses against truth or reason; assigning of partners to Allah, for which He hath given no authority; and saying things about Allah of which ye have no knowledge. (Al- A‟araf: 33).

The proliferation organizations of thugs are not only a threat  to the existence of people but have a serious threat to the Nigeria nascent democracy. The thugs organizations with variant names, such as „ecomog‟ (Borno) Area Boys (Sokoto) Kauraye (Kaduna) Yan Sara suka (Bauchi) and Yan kalare (Gombe) have become impediment to the development of peaceful democracy in Northern Nigeria in particular and Nigeria at large. Since the re-introduction of electoral democracy in 1999, the thugs groups who were mostly unemployed youth were usually sponsored by desperate politicians who used them as tools for the promotion of their selfish desire and later discard them. The discarded youths remain without  alternative but to indulge in all sorts of crimes such as rapping, and killing, which are strongly condemned by Islam. The said criminal


activities were usually lodged against innocent people and in some rare occasions on their masters (sponsors) who were unable to settle them or by the instigation of others.
Kushee (2008:159-161) opined that, to understand the phenomenon of political thuggery one has to look at the social- political environment under which they operate. Nigeria as a competitive state has witnessed, inter /intra – communal violence. The genesis of the state of unrest in Nigeria may be attributed majorly to the level of illiteracy, poverty and electoral system that encourages excessive and unchecked power coupled with the impunity enjoyed by the perpetrators of crimes. In view of this, this research is designed to critically examine the activities of political thugs with a view to proffering solutions in the light of Islam.

     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Islamic religious moral institution appears to be the major institution that promotes moral values. On the other hand, the secular system that negates religious ethics particularly that of Islam tends to promote social vices and have acknowledged the activities of thugs for their ulterior motives of tarnishing religious consciousness. The unbearable calamities that were befallen societies as a result of the activities of thugs appear to be an unending issue. Thus, many solutions proffered to deal with it appear to be insufficient and incapable of curbing its menace. The recurrent cases of political thuggery especially during and after elections have not only affected the effectiveness of Nigerian electoral system but have continued to deny the electorates the right – candidates that will respond to the challenges of thugs, among other things. The episode of 2007 election in SabonGari Local Government Area of Kaduna state where there was heavy loss of lives and properties justified this assertion.
Therefore, unceasing violence as a result of the activities of the Nigeria political class has become subject of worry and concern. The government of Nigeria is finding it extremely difficult to handle the level of insecurity that pose a great threat to the citizens of Nigeria.
The high rate of crimes have resulted to a rise in ethnic nationalism and movements with each ethnic group claiming socio
–  economic  deprivations  and  marginalization. Consequently, each ethnic group resulted to control over its perceived territory. Thus, enmity and hatred led to inter – communal and intra – communal conflicts. Therefore, the State lost the capacity to discharge its security functions, particularly the police. This led to the informal devolution of community policing and security services such as armed ethnic, religious militia, vigilante groups, and community defense groups to protect their lives and properties. These groups are largely made up of young people, some as young as eight years. The proliferation of communal conflict has made Nigerian youth more directly involved in armed violence in the last decade more than any other time.
Despite the numerous solutions proffered, so far, to tackle the menace of political thuggery, yet the problem persists especially during electioneering campaigns, elections and after.

     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The major objectives of this research include:

1.  To trace the root causes of political thugs, in Kaduna state.
2.  To critically study the motivating factors responsible for the negative change in the attitudes of the youths in the area of study.
3.  To explain the implications of the activities of thugs in society.
4.  To proffer solutions from Islamic perspective, to the detrimental activities of political thugs.
     
SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The participation of youth in political thugs during campaign and during election is highly rampant. This leads to serious injuries and even loss of lives.
The society of Kaduna state that was known for both religious and cultural values is now engulfed with devastating moral degradation as a result of the activities of political thugs who have no respect to either religious values or to elders.
The insecurity posed by the activities political thugs not only  is it responsible for the lost of religious values but has immensely discouraged foreign investments, and indigenous efforts in stabilizing and improving the economic growth of the state. Thus, poverty rate is always in increase with its attendance consequences.


Therefore, any research that would educate people about the danger political thugs avenue for good leadership and peaceful co- existence among people would be of great significance.

     RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.  What are the main factors that motivate and influence the involvement of youths into political thugs?
2.  What are the causes of political thuggery in the society of Kaduna State.
3.  What are the implications of the activities of the political thugs in the area of study?
4.          How can the activities of political thugs be controlled.

     BASIC ASSUMPTIONS
1.          Lack    of   proper     religious     education      is   responsible      for    the influence of Muslim youths into political thuggery.
2.          Religious institutions are capable of inculcating moral values through which political thuggery can be handled.
3.          Negligent of religious practices is responsible for the promotion of political thuggery.
     

RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
1.          There    is   no    significant     relationship      between     ignorance     of religious guidance and the socio political problem.
2.          There is no significant relation between illiteracy, poverty and political thugs.
3.          There is no significant difference between the participation of men and women in the political thuggery in Kaduna State.
4.          There is no significant relationship between the incapability of the National Security outfit and the political thuggery.
5.       There is no significant relationship between employment rate of the youth and political thuggery.

     SCOPE AND LIMITATION
The research looks at the relevance of Islamic preventive strategies to the menace of political thugs with specific focus on Kaduna state. Therefore, the research dwelled on the findings of the level of participation of the youths in Kaduna State in political thuggery during elections.

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Item Type: Postgraduate Material  |  Attribute: 165 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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