IMPACT OF TEACHER INTERACTIVE VARIABLES ON STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN ISLAMIC STUDIES IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KADUNA STATE NIGERIA

ABSTRACT
The study has examined the influence of teacher interactive variable on students’ performance. This study has also examined the relationship between Teachers’ Interactive Variables such as interest, qualification, attitude, experience and self- efficacy on students’ academic achievement in Islamic Studies of Senior Secondary School in Kaduna state. This was found to be paramount because Islamic studies education needs more attention than any subject owing to its enormous contributions to the moral development of youth and old people in the societies and country in general. The interest, attitude and qualification of Islamic Studies teachers play a vital role in any learning process. The implementation of any curriculum depends on societal needs and availability of teaching personnel and their willingness to impact the desired knowledge to learners. The study was set to investigate the impact of teacher interactive variables on students’ performance in Islamic studies in Senior Secondary schools of Kaduna state. The respondents of the study comprise of 338 secondary school principals, teachers, supervisors and school administrators. Questionnaire was used as the instrument for data collection. The data collected were analyzed using Simple frequencies mean and standard deviation was used for the research questions and f-test (ANOVA), and (PPMR) correlation coefficient was used to test the hypotheses. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Correlation coefficient was used to retain or reject the  null hypotheses. The study used survey research design and applied the method of James sampling in which every two thousand six hundred and fifty (2650) and above, one should take three hundred and thirty as sample size of the research.  The result revealed that teacher interactive variables had significant correlation with students’ academic performance in Islamic Studies. Although one hypothesis was retain which accept that experience as no any impact on students’ academic achievement. The study recommended that it is high time for Islamic studies teachers to further their education and to have positive changes in their attitude towards the teaching of the subject so that the achievement of Islamic studies goals will not be hindered. Furthermore, the stakeholders of Secondary School education are called upon to ensure that only teachers who are qualified and have interest to teach the subject are employed. Attention of curriculum reviewers has also been drawn to the fact that they should design the Islamic Studies curriculum so that it will dance to the tune of the present of society.

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
Teachers are central to any meaningful development of school, and  majority of education policy discussions focus directly on the role the teachers. There is prima facie case for the concentration on teachers, because they are the largest single budgetary element in the schools. Moreover, parents, teachers, and administrator emphasize the fundamental role that teachers play in the determination of school quality. We will not have better schools without better teachers, but we will not have better teachers without better schools in which teachers can learn, practice, and develop. Teacher is the most indispensable factor in the effective administration of schools and any activity.
Teacher in a professional usage is a person trained, recognized and employed to help learning in and outside classroom situation in order to achieve predetermined goal(s). Teacher since the evolution of human society remains the single most important element that determines the future of the society he belongs to. Teacher serves as the engine that moves the society out of illiteracy, crime, poverty, disease, backwardness and stagnation. Teachers, the world over are known to be the major instrument for character moulding, intellectual development and nation building. They are also seen as facilitators of human development.Their incompetence hinders development, teacher‟s work does not stop within the four walls of the class room; teaching and learning begins the day one is born to the day he dies.
Adeniyi (2002), says the term teacher is often used to refer to anybody who imparts information or knowledge or merely instructs anothers. Teacher is a person who imparts knowledge, wisdom and information on a pupil, which brings permanent change in behaviours. Therefore, the people responsible for delivering knowledge, who will realize the stated goals and objectives must possess some qualities that will enable them, achieve the stated aims, not just to an individual but to the society at large.
A teacher plays a central role in the education of students. As such, to facilitate learning, teachers have to display some sense of responsibility and must possess some qualities of leadership that are essential for motivating students. This calls for teachers to create a friendly environment that is free of coercion in the institution. They must teach through cooperation, facilitation, love and caring attitude and not by dictatorship, domination and unnecessary punishment. They must try to raise students‟ self-esteem. A good teacher creates trust, confidence, interest, enthusiasm and hope; and not by instilling fear, frustration and disappointment. A good teacher is someone who is always willing to learn something new so that he can expand his knowledge in order to teach effectively and also assist on his students to learn for a better future achievement.
Hallack (1990), cited in Adeniyi (2002), says that the quality of the education system depends on teachers‟ quality. This view is in line with the National Policy on Education (NPE) (2004) page 9 which says that no education system can rise above the quality of its teachers; Manson (1981) also cited in Adeniyi (2002), supported the attribution of the success of an educational system to the teacher. He argues that teachers‟ quality is an important input required for high output. Ferguson (1999), is of the view that the quality of teachers in our schools has for decades been a source of concern to all well meaning Nigerians. There are speculations that has resulted in the fall in the performance of students, especially at the secondary school level. This can be attributed to a number of factors among which are teacher qualifications; indeed teacher qualifications and their competency have a significant impact on students‟ academic achievement.
The teacher is always regarded as a model when he teaches correctly, the students would be good, but this would not be so until the teacher has a very good and sound knowledge of his subject-matter. For an Islamic Studies teacher to be good, he is expected to have the knowledge of the Qur‟an, Hadith and Arabic language, this is because the language of Islamic knowledge is Arabic. The Qur‟an and Hadith are written in Arabic language. Translation can not adequately substitute the original version Language, there can hardly be a perfect translation and no two languages are the same. Furthermore, Arabic has a number of words that do not have equivalence in many languages. The language was at infancy during Prophet Adam, it reached the age of adolescence during the life time of Prophet Muhammad. (Ahmed 2007). Islam as a divine religion is perfect, universal and comprehensive. It is a religion that suits all times and it was revealed in Arabic.
One of the main components of a well-designed educational curriculum is assessment of students‟ performance on the set objectives as well as analysing the variables factors that affects students‟ performance. Teacher qualification is one of the most significant variables that affect students‟ performance in Islamic studies. Poor performance; of students comes as a partly as a result of lack of competent and experienced teachers, this indicate that there is the need for investigation to find out what cause the incompetence, inexperience and the lack of qualified teachers.
Other relevant variables that affect students‟ performance are interest, attitude of teachers and lack of interest of the teachers in Islamic studies. These cause poor performance of students as a result of the inferiority complex that the teachers of Islamic studies show in their schools, because they regard their subject as the least among other subjects. Positive attitude, interest, dedications are among the qualities of a competent teacher.
However another teacher‟s variable is attitude. Attitude is concerned with an individual‟s way of thinking, acting and behaving. Attitudes are formed as a result of some kind of learning experiences. They could be learnt simply by following the examples or opinion of parents, teachers or friend. Bandura (1971) demonstrates that, behaviour is acquired by watching another (model, teacher, parent, mentor, and friend.) that performs the behaviours. When the attitude of a teacher is good, it plays a vital role in the teaching and learning situation, the learner draws from his teachers‟ manner and disposition to form his own attitude, which may likely affect his learning outcomes. The behaviour of the teacher is a model; as soon as he acts in way the learner observes and tries to imitate it. Teachers are habitually, role models whose behaviours are easily copied by students. What a teacher likes or dislikes, or appreciates could have a significant effect on his students‟ learning. Unfortunately, many teachers hardly ever realize the effect of their behaviour negatively or positively on learning.
In essence, teachers‟ attitudes directly affect students‟ attitudes, teachers‟ attitudes are in turn, influenced by their cultures and believers. Teachers‟ attitudes towards their students in school must be good enough to carry students along.


Although the performance of students to a large extent depends on the teachers‟ ability to impart knowledge, this also has bearing with some variables such as self-efficacy, interest, attitudes, qualification and the experience expected from the teachers. The attitude of teachers towards teaching exhibit their qualifications and interest. An unhealthy attitude developed by students towards studying Islamic Studies is connected to the teachers‟ attitude towards teaching the subject. An interested and enthusiastic teacher transmits knowledge and understanding of subject matter to the students.
Thus the study focuses on the impact of teachers interactive variables on the performance of students in Islamic Studies in secondary schools in Kaduna State.

Statement of the Problem
Efforts at improving the quality of the teacher as a means of ensuring students achievement is a universal concern by all stake holders in education, Nigeria should not be an exception. Good interaction with the students in the learning process has more impact to their learning. Similarly, mastery of a subject matter is vital for a successful teaching career. The issue of quality of teachers and its effects on students‟ performance in Islamic Studies is an important issue that needs to be taken seriously. Most of the teachers that teach Islamic studies are not competent to and their attitude towards teaching the subject is poor, their incompetence caused negative consequences on the students‟ performance. (Ibrahim 2008)
What motivated the researcher to undertake a research in teacher‟s interactive variables is that variables towards the teaching of any subject play a significant role in shaping the attitude of students. The problems specifically include the fact that, some students have phobia on the teachers because of their bad interaction with students. Several attempts by the government and other stakeholders in education to achieve the formulated objectives of Islamic studies, (it seems) have not yielded positive results particularly in Secondary schools in Kaduna State. The failure rate is rising day in and day out. Therefore, there is, the need to look and find out the causes of this poor performance in Islamic Studies. The interaction between teacher and students should be like father and son or similar affection. When there is fear between teacher and students, learning may be hampered. This needs to be addressed for its significance. Moreover the issue of qualification is of paramount importance in the learning and teaching process.
The connection between teacher-quality and students‟ leaning achievements in Islamic studies requires an investigation in order to resolve this educational problem. Interaction between teacher and students should not be only in class room, because it is important to maintain a smooth relationship through which the teacher can achieve the aims and objectives of Islamic Studies education. This study is going to discuss in detail on teachers‟ variables which would help both teachers and government in curriculum planning.
In summary here are the problems of the study:
Majority of the Islamic Studies teachers i are not specialist in the subject. Many lack the knowledge of Arabic language which is the language of the subject, they are inexperience, they teach the subject as the last option and the worsening and deteriorating condition of Islamic Studies teachers is the feeling of being inferior  to other subjects‟ teachers.(Lack of self- esteem).
The schools administrators disregard Islamic Studies subject because  the class and examination time -table of the subject are always towards the end of the day when the students are tired, mentally exhausted and are eager to go home or dining hall for lunch.

Objectives of the Study
The study is set to achieve the following objectives:

I.             to find out the views of respondents on the impact of teachers‟ self- efficacy on students‟ performance in Islamic Studies in Secondary Schools in Kaduna State;
II.             to determine from views of respondents the impact of Teachers‟ Interest on students‟ performance in Islamic Studies in Secondary Schools in Kaduna State;
III.             to examine the impact of Teachers‟ attitudes on students‟ performance in Islamic Studies in Secondary Schools in Kaduna State as viewed by the respondents;
IV.             to find out whether Teachers‟ qualification has any impact on students‟ performance in Islamic Studies in senior secondary Schools in Kaduna State;
V.             to find out whether Teachers‟ years of teaching experience has any impact on students‟ performance in Islamic Studies in Secondary Schools in Kaduna State.

Research Questions
In the light of the problems and the objectives of the study stated, the study attempts to find answers to the following questions:
I.                 Is there any difference in the views of respondents on the impact of teachers‟ self-efficacy on Secondary Schools students‟ performance in Islamic Studies in Kaduna State?
II.              Is there any influence of teachers‟ interest on the performance of Secondary Schools students in Islamic Studies in Kaduna state viewed by the respondents?
III.              Does the views of respondents on the impact of Teachers‟ attitude to students‟ performance in Islamic Studies in Secondary Schools
in Kaduna State; the attitude of teacher influence students‟ performance in Islamic Studies in senior secondary schools in Kaduna state?
IV.              Would the teachers‟ qualification affect their views on the academic performance of students of Islamic studies in Secondary Schools in Kaduna state?
V.             Does the teachers‟ year of teaching experience affect their views on the performance of students in Islamic Studies in Kaduna state?

1.5 Research Hypotheses
The research would test the following null hypotheses:

H 01: There is no significant impact of Teachers‟ self-efficacy on the performance of Senior Secondary Schools students in Islamic Studies in Kaduna State as viewed by the respondents
H 02: There is no significant impact of Teachers‟ interest on the performance of Senior Secondary Schools students in Islamic Studies in Kaduna State viewed by the respondents
H 03: There is no significant impact of Teachers‟ attitudes on the performance of Senior Secondary Schools students in Islamic Studies in Kaduna State viewed by the respondents

H 04: There is no significant difference in the opinion of respondents on the performance of Senior Secondary Schools students in Islamic Studies in Kaduna State with respect to their Teachers‟ qualification H 05: There is no significant difference in the opinion of respondents on the performance of Senior Secondary Schools students in Islamic Studies in Kaduna State with respect to their Teachers‟ experience

Basic Assumptions
This study is based on the following assumption:

I.         It is assumed that Islamic Studies teachers differ in their interactive variables.
II.       It is assumed that the schools use the same syllabus in teaching Islamic Studies .
III.     It is assumed that respondents possess the qualification and experience that warrants them to respond to the questionnaire.
IV.     It assumed that the experiment used for data collection is valid and reliable enough to generate the needed data since it had been validated and trial tested.
V.       It assumed that the result of the study can be applied to the others scholars secondary school teaching Islamic studies in Kaduna State experience would help immensely in teaching Islamic studies in senior secondary schools in Kaduna state.

Significance of the Study
The significance of the study lies in the fact that the society is dynamic, and the curriculum which aims at serving the need of society must accommodate the changes that occur. Curriculum evaluation is an elaborate exercise that considers all aspects of the curriculum. The adequacy of goals and objectives, content, learning experience, methods of instruction and instructional materials for curriculum implementation, teacher and the evaluation procedures. The researcher would examine the Impact of teacher interest, qualification, attitude, self-efficacy, and teacher experience on the students‟ performance.
The findings of the study are expected to guide government to revise its teacher‟s recruitment policy. It is also expected to provide an insight to the sustainability and effectiveness of teachers.
The result of the study would also help policy makers and educationists to identify some other problems in order to boost both teachers and students‟ performance in Islamic Studies in senior secondary schools. The outcome of the study is therefore expected to assist all stakeholders in the teaching of Islamic Studies as a subject particularly at senior secondary school level, to fashion out appropriate strategies that would enhance the teaching and learning of the subject.


In additions, the study would determine the adequacy and quality of teachers and how they can influence effectively the teaching of Islamic studies as a subject in Kaduna State. It will serve as reading resource that can provide necessary information on quality of teachers and teaching variables. It will be useful to the teachers, educational administrators and reference materials for further researchers.

Scope of the Study
The scope of the study is limited to the teachers‟ variables such as self- efficacy, qualification, interest, attitude and experience, and their impact on students‟ performance in Islamic studies in senior secondary school of Kaduna state.

Students and teachers of Islamic Studies are the target of the study. The area covered by the study is Kaduna state in which some schools were selected.

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Item Type: Postgraduate Material  |  Attribute: 103 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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