RESPONSE OF BROILER BIRDS TO DIETS CONTAINING GRADED LEVELS OF RICE MILLING WASTE AND SUPPLEMENTARY YEAST (Saccharomyces cerevisae)

ABSTRACT
Eighty day-old broiler chicks were used for feeding trial carried out to determine the effect of graded levels of Rice Milling Waste (RMW) and Bioactive Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisae) which has been shown to secrete enzymes that help to digest crude fiber and organic matter. This suggest that supplementing broiler ration with bioactive yeast may improve the digestibility and efficiency of utilization of RMW. The 80 broiler chicks used in this study were randomly distributed in five groups of sixteen birds each. Each group was subdivided into four replicates of 8 birds each. Group 1 was placed on experimental diet made of 1.5 g/kg yeast basal feed and no RMW, Group 2 was fed on a diet of 1.5 g/kg bioactive yeast, basal feed and 10% RMW, Group 3 and 4 were fed feed containing 1.5 g/kg bioactive yeast, 15 and 20 % RMW respectively while group 5, the control had no RMW and bioactive yeast. Feed and water were given to the birds ad libitum. Daily feed intake and weekly weight gain were determined. Data were collected on nutrient intake, growth performance, feed intake, growth rate, weight gain, feed conversion ratio, apparent nutrient retention, cost benefit analysis and carcass weight. Bioactive yeast supplementation resulted in a significant (P<0 .05="" 20="" accharomyces="" adequate="" and="" are="" be="" bioactive="" birds.="" broiler="" cerevisae="" commercial="" cost.="" determine="" done="" feed="" for="" growth="" however="" in="" intake="" more="" of="" oprimum="" production.="" reduction="" research="" results="" rmw="" should="" showed="" span="" supplementation="" that="" the="" to="" up="" usage="" with="" work="" yeast="">

CHAPTER ONE 
INTRODUCTION
1.1  Background information
It is a fact that humans have been in constant competition with livestock over certain feed ingredients such as wheat, sorghum, soyabeans, maize, groundnuts, etc that are beneficial to both of them. As a result of this competing demand, which has grown over the years due to the constant increase in both human and livestock population, the resultant effect is high cost of feed (Otokumefor and Olomu, 2000).

Also, the increasing competition between man and animals for available grains (Tegbeet al., 1984; Madubuike, 1998); the inadequate production of farm crops to meet the needs of man and his livestock (Esonuet al., 2001) and the modern intensive farming practices have resulted in soils with deficiencies that are reflected in the low nutritional content of grains grown on these soils, and in the health of animals raised and maintained on these crops (Barnejee, 2009).

Poultry production is a very important integral part of the agricultural sector of developing countries. Musangi (1992) stated that supply of poultry products in poorer countries could be rapidly expanded to meet the need for animal protein that is in short supply resulting in sub-optimal consumption of animal protein by over 60% of the Nigerian populace. The present daily protein allowance for have decreased from 14 grams to 5.5 grams of protein per head per day (FAO/WHO, 2005). This has been challenging to livestock farmers, researchers and also policy makers.

Feed supply is the major limiting factor in poultry production in devfeloping countries such as Nigeria (Nworgu, 2004). Feed alone accounts for 65-80% of the total cost of production (Yeganyet al., 2002). The greatest source of dilemma in poultry industry is the unprecedented increase in the cost of poultry feedstuff, especially maize and soyabean (Adene, 2004). Another factor that affects the availability and affordability of the conventional feed ingredients is their seasonality. Most of them are grown at different seasons and are therefore scarce and very expensive when they are off-season.

These problem have resulted in animal nutritionists resorting to the replacement of conventional ingredients with non-conventional cheaper and alternative energy and protein sources. Many authors (Ezieshiet al ., 2004; Okeudoet al., 2005; Okon and Ogumodede, 2006) are in support of efficient utilization of non-conventional products to formulate livestock feeds. However, quantities of these products that could be utilized at a given time need to be properly determined.

Rice milling waste (RMW) is one of the commonly available non-conventional feed ingredients used to partially replace maize or complement whole poultry ration but this by-product contains very high levels of fiber that does not digest very easily and is therefore, not very good to be utilized alone by broiler birds. Rice husk which contribute about 40% of the (RMW) contains about 38% cellulose and 32% lignin. Paddy husk contain about 22% ash of which 95% is silica. There is therefore the need to make this by-product more palatable and more effective in the supply of energy since the poultry producers are left with no option than to make use of the by-product and other related products.

Studies have shown that inclusion of 20% RMW in broiler finisher feed had no deleterious effect on production. Hence, these researchers recommended that RMW should be treated to make it less fibrous and more digestible.

Biotechnological options are available for enhancing the nutritive value of agro-industrial by-products such as RMW. Biotechnological treatment to improve the digestibility of fibrous agricultural by-products include either the direct use of micro-organisms or microbial enzymes (Shaiful, 1992). A great deal of attention has recently been received from nutritionists for proper utilization of nutrients and the use of antibiotics for growth promotion in poultry production (Kabir, 2009).

Live yeast addition to animal feed has been known to improve the nutritive quality of feed and performance of animals. The advantages of these growth promoters include no withdrawal time, no residual effects and no microbial mutation (Gibson and Roberfroid, 2008).

Probiotics are live cultures of useful bacteria. The organisms used are beneficial strains of lacto bacillus and streptococcus. The reasoning behind the useof probiotics is that increase in their number will improve digestion. Their dominance would reduce the population of undesirable organisms like E. coliand thus save the birds from the toxins that these undesirable organisms produce in the digestive tract (Barnejee, 2009). The effect of bioactive yeast (Saccaromycescerevisae) on performance of broilers fed RMW based diets raised to slaughter weighjt will be investigated in this study.

1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Conventional feed ingredients (maize and soybean) are expensive and contribute to the high cost of poultry feeds. The need to reduce feed cost has spurred research into the use of non-conventional and cheap source of nutrients in poultry feeding. Non-conventional feed ingredients such as rice milling waste (RMW) has a high crude fiber contenet which reduces poultry feed intake, decrease digestibility and effective utilizatuin of feed. Broiler diet should contain a maximum of 4% crude fiber but with 33,18% RMW inclusion, the crude fiber content become higher than recommened......

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 71 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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