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The seeds and peels of African star apple (Chrysophyllum albidum) (“udara”) were split, followed by removal of mucilage from the seeds and subsequent cracking of the seed shells, and de-pulping of the peels. The seed cotyledons and peels were blanched at 1000C for 2,4 and 6 mins, wet milled with water in 1: 1.5 ratio, sieved with muslin cloth to obtain the extracts which were pasteurized at 800C for 10mins and stabilized with 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 (g/litre) concentrations of carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) and pectin each. A preliminary study was done on the African star apple (“udara”) peels and seeds by ranking to determine the best two stabilized samples from each of the three batches of 2, 4, and 6 mins blanched. Based on the overall acceptability of the panelists, six samples were selected for further study together with their respective controls making a total of twelve samples coded as follows: peel extract control samples A1, B1 and C1 of 2, 4 and 6 mins blanching respectively, cotyledon extract control samples A2, B2 and C2 of 2, 4 and 6mins blanching respectively, stabilized peel extract samples D1, E1 and F1 of 2, 4, and 6 mins blanching respectively, and stabilized cotyledon extract samples D2, E2 and F2 of 2, 4, and 6 mins blanching respectively. The fresh peel and cotyledon had moisture (22.36%), protein (1.68% and 4.33%), crude fibre (8.21% and 5.99%), ash (0.18% and 0.30%), fat (0.50% and 3.05%) and carbohydrate (66.87% and 60.74%), respectively which reduced with increased blanching period. The antinutrients - tannin (0.400% and 0.240%), HCN (1.06% and 1.10%) and phytate (1.21% and 2.73%)- in both peels and cotyledons respectively also reduced appreciably with increased blanching period. Blanching considerably reduced the viscosity while stabilization increased the viscosity. Rheological characterization of “udara” peel and cotyledon samples was found to be shear thinning – pseudoplastic behaviour of non-Newtonian fluid. Freezing at -10°C of “udara” peel and cotyledon products caused significant (p<0 .05="" all="" and="" at="" fractions="" into="" levels="" of="" phases="" sedimentation="" separation="" solid="" solids="" span="" stabilization.="" subsequent="" their="" water="">


Title page
Table of contents
List of Tables
List of Figures
List of Appendices

1.0       Introduction
1.1       Statement of the problem
1.2       Objective of the Study

2.0       Literature review
2.1       Effectiveness and safety of fruit products
2.2       Fruit products processing
2.3       Fruits and their uses
2.4       Nutritional composition of fruits
2.5       Fruits, vegetables and cancer prevention
2.6       African Star Apple (Chrysophyllum albidium):  Its origin and distribution
2.7       Nutritional and Antinutritional Content of African Star Apple
2.8       Nutraceutical potentials of African star apple
2.9       Food processing
2.10     Rheology and texture
2.10.1  Viscosity
2.10.2 Density and specific gravity
2.12     Effect of processing on nutritional and rheological properties

3.1       Sample source
3.2       Sample preparation
3.2.1    Production of extracts from blanched seeds and peel pulps
3.2.3    Sensory evaluation
3.3.1    Proximate analysis Moisture content determination Ash determination Crude protein determination Fat determination Crude fiber determination Determination of carbohydrate
3.3.2    Determination of vitamin contents Determination of vitamin A .Determination of vitamin C Determination of vitamin E Determination of riboflavin
3.3.3.  Mineral content determination Iron determination Determination of calcium Sodium determination Zinc determination
3.3.4.  Analysis of anti-nutritional factors of tannin of Phytate of cyanide of alkaloids
3.4.      Determination of soluble protein
3.5.      Determination of total soluble carbohydrate
3.6       Soluble solids determination
3.7       Viscosity determination
3.8       Sheer rate and shear stress
3.9       Freeze-thaw cycle of extracts
3.10     Statistical analyses

4.0       Results and discussion
4.1       Effect of blanching on the proximate composition (%) of ”Udara”
4.2       Effect of blanching on the vitamin contents of “Udara” peel and cotyledon samples
4.3       Effects of blanching on mineral compositions of “Udara” samples
4.4       Effects of blanching on antinutritional factors of “Udara” sample
4.5       Effect of blanching on soluble protein, total soluble carbohydrate, soluble solids and ph of extracts
4.6       Effect of blanching and stabilization on the sensory profile of african Star apple “Udara” samples
4.7       Effect of blanching and stabilization on viscosity of “Udara” samples
4.8       Effect of freeze-thaw cycle experiment on “Udara” samples

5.0       Conclusion
5.1       Recommendations


Rheology is the study of the flow of matter, primarily in the liquid state but also as soft solids under conditions in which they respond with plastic flow rather than deforming elastically in response to an applied force (Schowalter, 1978). It applies to substances which have complex molecular structure, such as mud, sludge as, suspensions, polymers and other glass formers (e.g. silictates), as well as many foods and additives, bodily fluids (eg. blood) and other biological materials.

The term rheology was coined by Eugene C. Bingham, a professor at Lafayette College in 1920, from a suggestion by a colleague, Markus Reiner (Steefe, 1996). The experimental characterization of a material’s rheological behavior is known as rheometry, although the term rheology is frequently used synonymously with rheometry, particularly by experimentalists. Theoretical aspects of rheology are the relation of the flow/deformation behaviour of material and its, internal structure (eg. the orientation of polymer molecules), and the flow deformation behaviour of materials that cannot be described by classical fluid mechanics or elasticity. It is also concerned with establishing predictions for mechanical behavior (on the continuum mechanical scale) based on the micro or nanostructure of the material example the molecular size and architecture of polymers in solution or the particle size distribution in a solid suspension. Materials with the characteristic of fluid will flow when subjected to a stress which is defined as the force per unit area. Much of theoretical rheology is concerned with associating external forces and torques with internal stresses and internal strain gradients and velocities (Schowalter, 1978; Bird et al., 1960; Bird et al., 1989., Faith, 2001). Food rheology is important in the manufacture and processing of food products, it is generally referred to as the material science of food and it is defined as the study of the rheological properties of food that is the consistency and flow of food under tightly specified conditions. Understanding rheology of food is critical in optimizing product development, process methodology, final product quality and chemical analysis as well as result interpretation.

However, the consistency, degree of fluidity and other mechanical properties are important in understanding how long food can be stored, how stable it will remain, and in determining food texture. The acceptability of food products to the consumer is often determined by food texture, such as how spreadable and creamy a food product is. Rheology attribute such as texture of food, has a substantial influence on the consumer’s perception of quality and mouth feel during chewing and mastication (Fellows, 2000). The interest in product formulation is growing and stimuli acting various research activities to identify and evaluate the chemical (nutritional) and rheological properties of fruits extracts and their potential application in fruit drink production. Thus, the rheological properties of fruit products are important factors that determine the sensory properties such as mouth feel, texture and consistency. Also stressed materials deform and the rate and type of deformation characterize its rheological properties (Fellows, 2000). To build up an image of the texture properties of the food, below is an example of food eating process which may be seen as taking place in a number of stages (Szczeniak, 1963):

·         An initial assessment of hardness, ability to fracture, and consistency during the first bite.

·         A perception of chewiness, adhesiveness and gumminess during chewing, the moistness and greasiness of the food together with an assessment of the size and geometry of individual pieces of food.

·         A perception of the rate of which the food breaks down while chewing, the types of pieces formed, the release or absorption of moisture and any coating of the mouth or tongue with food. The focus of this work is fruit product formulation where understanding rheology is critical in optimizing product development efforts, processing methodology and final product quality. One can therefore think of food rheology as the material science of food. Thus an extensive research is required to evaluate the chemical (nutritional) and rheological potentials of our locally available plant resources. Chrysophyllum albidum (“udara”)’ peels and seeds are parts of the main fruit discarded while consuming the pulp. The “udara” plants are grown abundantly in Nigeria.

1.1        Problem Statement
The African star apple fruit is perishable with a shelf life of 3-5 days after picking or harvesting. The pulp is mostly eaten while the peels and seeds are discarded. Thus, there is need to identify and evaluate the potentials of the peel and seeds of the fruit (African star apple – (Chrysophyllum albidium), and formulate acceptable shelf stable products based on their rheological properties......

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