African oil bean seed slices (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth) were prepared by two traditional methods, packaged in sterilized plastic containers and fermented at two different temperatures (ambient (28 ± 2 oC) and 37.5 oC temperature) for 96 hours to produce Ugba (a Nigerian indigenous protein rich food). Proximate analysis (moisture, ash, protein, fat, carbohydrate and fibre content), physicochemical analysis (peroxide, saponification, iodine, pH value), protein solubility and microbial analysis were carried out.These Analyses were carried out at 24 hours interval for 96 hours. The result showed an increase in protein, fat, crude fibre and ash contents of the samples after 96 hours of fermentation with an increase in pH value and a decrease in carbohydrate content for all samples after 96 hours fermentation. The peroxide values, iodine values, and saponification values of the oils decreased while the protein solubility content increased with fermentation time. The result of the total viable counts were 2.74×1017 Cfu/g, 2.34×1017 Cfu/g, 2.18×1017 Cfu/g, 2.9×1017 Cfu/g, for sample A1 (boiled twice and fermented at 28 ± 2 oC ambient temperature), A2 (boiled twice and fermented at 37.5 oC), B1 (boiled once and fermented at 28 ± 2 oC ambient temperature), B2 (boiled once and fermented at 37.5 oC), respectively after 96 hours fermentation. No mould growth was found in the unfermented and fermented Ugba slices for all the products. At the end 96 hours fermentation, sensory evaluation showed that samples B1 and B2 were the least accepted in terms of aroma, taste and overall acceptability while, while in terms of texture, taste and overall acceptability sample A1 (control sample) and A2 were most preferred.



1.1       Background of Study
1.2       Statement of Problem
1.3       Research Objectives
1.4       Significance of Study

2.1       Importance and description of African Oil Bean Tree
2.2       Preparation of Ugba
2.3       Micro – Organisms involved During Fermentation
2.4       Chemical Composition of the Seeds
2.5       Nutritional Value of Fermented and Unfermented African Oil Bean Seed (Ugba)
2.5.1   Vitamin and Mineral Content
2.5.2    Carbohydrate Content
2.5.3    Fatty Acid Content
2.6       Anti-nutritional Factors of the Fermented and Unfermented African Oil Bean Seed (Ugba)
2.7       Effect of Fermentation on Quality Properties of African Oil Bean Seed (Ugba)
2.8       Toxicology of Ugba
2.9       Medical Benefit of the African Oil Bean Seeds
2.10     Handling and Storage of African Oil Bean Seed

3.1       Source of materials
3.2       Preparation of Ugba
3.3       Proximate Analysis
3.3.1    Moisture Content Determination
3.3.2    Ash Content Determination
3.3.3    Crude Protein Determination
3.3.4    Fat Content Determination
3.3.5    Crude Fiber Content Determination
3.3.6    Determination of Carbohydrate
3.4       Physico- chemical Analysis
3.4.1    Iodine Value Determination
3.4.2    Saponification Value Determination
3.4.3    Peroxide Value Determination
3.4.4    pH Determination
3.4.5    Protein Solubility Determination
3.5       Microbiological Analysis
3.5.1    Total viable count
3.5.2    Mould count
3.6       Sensory Evaluation
3.7       Data Analysis

4.1       Changes in chemical composition of African oil bean seed (Ugba) during fermentation
4.1.1    Moisture content
4.1.2    Ash
4.1.3    Fat
4.1.4    Protein
4.1.5    Crude fibre
4.1.6    Carbohydrate
4.2.0    Physico- chemical properties
4.2.1    Peroxide value
4.2.2    Iodine value
4.2.3    Saponification value
4.2.4    pH value
4.2.5    Soluble protein
4.3       Microbiological Quality of African oil bean seed during fermentation
4.4       Sensory evaluation




1.1       Background of study

Ugba is the Igbo name for sliced fermented African oil bean seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth).The African oil bean seed is called several names in Nigeria, such as “Apara” by the Yoruba, “Ugba” or ” Ukpaka” by the Igbo’s (Enujiugha and Akanbi, 2005). It is consumed mostly in the eastern states of Nigeria as a local delicacy popularly known as “African salad” prepared with oil, pepper, fish and salt and also prepared with tapioca, stockfish and garden eggs. It can be eaten with boiled or roasted yam and cocoyam (Okafor et al., 1991; Mbajunwa et al., 1998). Ugba is a traditional food generally prepared in homes as a small family business. Its method of preparation varies from one place to another resulting in a non-uniform product (Njoku and Okemadu, 1989). According to Enujiugha (2000), “Ugba” is produced traditionally by boiling the seeds overnight for easy removal of the seed coat. The cotyledons are sliced and cooked until they are soft with reduced bitter taste. The sliced “Ugba” is washed about 5 times or more and fermented for 3 days (Enujiugha, 2000).

According to Enujiugha (2003), the cooked, processed and fermented seed “Ugba” is used to prepare some delicious African soup and sausages for eating different staples. Enujiugha (2003) also noted that it is a rich source of vitamins and minerals, having a high demand for local and export consumption. Previous research showed that fermentation gives a better nutritional product than the raw seed (Achinewhu, 1986; Enujiugha and Olagundoye, 2001). According to Siggel and Faucet (1976), fermentation is the oldest method of processing legumes. Other workers discovered that less fermented foods are produced and consumed in Nigeria and only few studies have been carried out on them. Onwuliri et al. (1986) and Onwuliri and Ekepenyong (1994) reported the chemical composition of Pito and Burukutu a known Nigerian traditional brand of alcoholic beverage brewed from sorghum and millet, while another worker studied the fermentation of cassava. Enujiugha and Akanbi (2002) reported that fermentation of African oil bean seeds to produce “Ugba” softens the cotyledon, improves its digestibility and nutrients availability. Obeta (1983) showed that “Ugba” is a cheap and important source of protein especially for people whose staple foods are deficient of proteins. The consumption of the Ugba could pose as a means of addressing the prevailing protein energy malnutrition (PEM) in developing countries (Enujiugha and Akanbi, 2008). It is a cheap and available source of plant protein in developing countries of the world. Its protein contains 20 amino acids and 80 % of its fatty acids are also essential (Enujiugha and Agbede, 2000; Ikediobi, 1981). “Ugba” is a low acid food and a product of alkaline fermentation (Enujiugha and Akanbi, 2005). The rise in pH into the alkaline region has been attributed by Njoku and Okemadu (1989) to activities of various hydrolytic enzymes.

In many Eastern communities in Nigeria, “Ugba” is consumed as a meat analogue due to its high protein content, the locally prepared” Ugba” is done through a mixed wild bacteria fermentation of the sliced, boiled and soaked African Oil bean seeds. Its raw seeds are bitter and contain antinutritional factors like paucine, cyanide, oxalate, saponin, phytate and tannins (Achinewhu, 1983; Enujiugha and Akanbi, 2005; Onwuliri et al., 2004). Thermal treatment of the seeds increases the nutrient bioavailability and the digestability and drastically reduces the level of antinutritional compounds while increasing iron, calcium, potassium, thiamine and riboflavin levels (Enujiugha and Ayodele-oni, 2003). Obeta (1983) and Odunfa and Oyeyiola (1985) Observed that the source of micro-organisms in fermenting seeds comes from handling processing, utensils used in processing and the leaves used in packaging. The result of this uncontrolled fermentation of “ugba” is a very short shelf- life product that lasts for 3-4 days, thereby, limiting the availability of “Ugba”. This is due to the activities of micro-organisms involved in the fermenting process that remains viable till the product is consumed or continues fermentation till the product becomes unacceptable. The product deterioration or spoilage is evidenced by organoleptic changes in colour, texture, odour and taste (Mbata and Orji, 2008). In this research work, a detailed study will be carried out on improving nutritional quality, freshness and general acceptability of “Ugba”. The chemical composition of hygienically processed “Ugba” fermented at different temperatures will also be evaluated.

1.2      Statement of Problem

The growing profile of “Ugba” has made it an important snack food among the low and middle income earners. It is also seen as food for the elderly in the south eastern part of.....

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