EFFECTS OF GUIDED DISCOVERY APPROACH ON STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN ECOLOGY IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN SOKOTO STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT
The study investigated the effects of guided discovery approach on students’ academic performance in ecology among Senior Secondary I students in Sokoto metropolis. The population of the study comprised of 13,045 students offering Biology in the 43 secondary schools within Sokoto metropolis. The researcher used stratified random sampling to select the sample 521 students and used purposive sampling technique to select intact classes from each sampled school. The instruments used for collection of data are Ecology Performance Test, lesson plans and teaching modules. Three hypotheses were tested using t-test technique at alpha level of 0.05. The results obtained from the analysis shows that students in experimental group (i.e. students taught using guided discovery) performed better than those in control group (i.e. students taught using traditional method). This is an indication that students taught with guided discovery method performed significantly better than those taught with traditional method. It was also found that male students taught ecology with guided discovery performed better than their female counterparts. Students in private schools taught ecology with guided discovery also performed better than their counterparts in public schools. It was recommended that there is need for an in service training of biology teachers to be exposed to the use of guided discovery in teaching ecology and other biological concepts.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES
ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background to the Study
1.2       Statement of the Problem
1.3       Objectives of the Study
1.4       Research Questions
1.5       Null Hypotheses
1.6       Significance of the Study
1.7       Scope and Delimitation of the Study

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1       Introduction
2.2       Theoretical Framework of Discovery Learning
2.2.1    Cognitive Theory of Learning
2.2.2    Theory of Instruction
2.2.3    Constructivist Theory
2.3       Conceptual Framework
2.3.1    Processes of Discovery
2.3.2    Concept of Ecology
2.3.3    Concept of Ecology and Learning
2.3.4    Concept of Gender and Academic Performance in Science
2.3.5    Schools Ownership and Academic Performance
2.3.6    Concept of Academic Performance in Science
2.3.7    Traditional Teaching Method and Students’ Academic Performance
2.3.8    Guided Discovery Method and Students’ Academic Performance
2.4       Review of Empirical Studies
2.5       Summary of the Review and Uniqueness of the Study

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1       Introduction
3.2       Research Design
3.3       Population of the Study
3.4       Sample and Sampling Techniques
3.5       Instrumentation
3.6       Validity of the Instrument
3.7       Reliability of the Instrument
3.8       Procedure for Administering the Instrument
3.9       Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1       Introduction
4.2       Answering of the Research Questions
4.3       Hypotheses Testing
4.4       Summary of Major Findings
4.5       Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDTIONS
5.1       Introduction
5.2       Summary
5.3       Conclusion
5.4       Implication of the Study
5.5       Recommendations
5.6       Limitations of the Study
5.6       Suggestions for Further Research
REFERENCES
APPENDICES

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1         Background to the Study
Education, especially in science has always been seen as the most appropriate and fastest vehicle for the planned transformation of any society (Jegede et al., 1996). Thus, in Nigeria, the contemporary national aims and objectives of education were geared towards the training of individual through child- centered learning for maximum self and societal development and fulfillment. Accordingly, education should aim at helping a child acquire appropriate skills, abilities, and competence - both mental and physical as equipment for the individual to live and contribute to the development of his society (Federal Govt. of Nigeria, 1981). The science curricula materials advocated the teaching of science via investigative approaches. These approaches include strategies like cooperative learning, constructivism and guided discovery. All these approaches emphasize active learning by the learner. The cognitive factor of students and teachers, the availability of learning resource, and instructional strategies adopted by the teacher have been identified as some of the factors that determine the performance of students in science (Nwosu, 1991; Okebukola, 1996). Science teaching in Nigerian secondary schools is dominated by teacher-centered lecture/expository methods (Ajewole et al., 1990). This method has failed to produce science students that are committed to science and who can reason critically and be able to transfer what is learnt to new but similar situations (Ajewole, 1990).


Research in science education have discovered better methods of teaching science that are not only superior to the traditional method but also have the potential to promote achievement and retention of what is learned and inculcate positive scientific attitudes in students (Ajewole & Carew, 1993). Various studies on methodology of science teaching such as inquiry, discovery and process approach have shown that students learn more from science lesson by doing rather than mere observation (Betty & Woolnough, 1982). With reference to ecology, many emphases had been placed on it by the experimental science curriculum project at both international and local levels. But despite the various efforts and emphases, science teachers in Nigerian schools still revert to the use of "chalk and talk" or traditional method for teaching rather than the process and inquiry method (Ali, 1986).With the high enrolment in biology subject in Nigeria, the performance of students at secondary school level is depressingly poor (Turton. 1991, Jegede. 1996). The low percentage of passes has been attributed to the use of "chalk and talk'' or traditional method of teaching (Aramide, 1985; Kumari & Aliyu, 1986, Ogunsola et al., 1996). This signifies the use of modern method of teaching science....

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Item Type: Postgraduate Material  |  Attribute: 119 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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