EFFECT OF AVAILABILITY AND UTILIZATION OF INSTRUCTIONAL RESOURCES ON STUDENT’S PERFORMANCE ON SCIENCE IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN SOKOTO STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT
The study investigated the effect of availability and utilization of instructional resources on student’s performance in science in senior secondary schools in Sokoto State. A descriptive survey research design was used. Forty seven (47) science teachers in seven (7) sampled schools were selected across six (6) Educational Zones in the state. A total of three hundred and thirteen (313) senior secondary school two (SSII) students were selected as sample out of one thousand six hundred and twenty eight (1628) students’. Three (3) instruments were used in collecting data which included Laboratory Facilities/Equipment Inventory for Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Assessment Observation Form on Utilization of Instructional Resources and Student’s Science Performance Test. The instruments were found reliable and valid for collecting data. Five (5) research questions were developed, of which research questions 1 and 2 were answered using frequency count and simple percentage. The findings revealed that there are adequate instructional resources in senior secondary schools but the resources are inadequately utilized by the science teachers. T-test statistical tool was used for the analysis of three (3) hypotheses. All the null hypotheses tested were rejected and alternative hypotheses were accepted The study revealed that there was significant difference on the availability and utilization of instructional resources between schools with adequate and those with inadequate instructional resources on students performance in science. Based on the above findings, the researcher recommended that Ministry of Education and private school proprietors should make sure that laboratory equipment are supplied to the schools and the quantity should be supplied according to the number of students available in each school. It is also recommended that teachers should make the best use of the available instructional resources.


TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page
Table of Contents
List of Tables
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background to the Study
1.2       Statement of the Problem
1.3       Objectives of the Study
1.4       Research Questions
1.5       Null Hypotheses
1.6       Significance of the Study
1.7       Scope and Delimitations of the Study
1.8       Operational Definition of Key Terms

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1       Introduction
2.2       Conceptual Framework
2.2.1    School Based Resources
2.2.2    Community Based Resources
2.2.3    Human Resources
2.3       Kinds and Categories of Instructional Resources
2.3.1    Projected and Electronic Materials
2.3.2    Non Projected Materials
2.3.3    Phenomenal and Manipulative Materials
2.3.4    Selection of Instructional Materials
2.4       Utilization of Instructional Materials for Science Teaching and Learning
2.4.1    Curriculum Materials
2.4.2    Laboratory Materials
2.5       Library as Resources for Learning of Science
2.6       School and Industry Linkages as a Resource for Science Teaching and Learning
2.7       Improvisation with Local Materials as Resource in the Teaching and Learning of Science
2.8       Instructional Materials and the Teaching-Learning Process
2.9       Instructional Material and Students’ Academic Performance
2.10     Gender and Academic Achievement
2.11     Summary and Uniqueness of the Study

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1       Introduction
3.2       Research Design
3.3       Population of the Study
3.4       Sample and Sampling Techniques
3.5       Instrumentation
3.6       Validity of the Instruments
3.7       Reliability of the Instrument
3.8       Data Collection Procedure
3.9       Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1       Introduction
4.2       Data Presentation
4.3       Hypothesis Testing
4.3.1    Null hypothesis 1
4.3.2    Null hypothesis 2
4.3.3    Null hypothesis 3
4.4       Summary of the Major Findings
4.5       Discussion of the Findings

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1       Introduction
5.2       Summary of the Study
5.3       Conclusions
5.4       Implications of the Study
5.5       Limitations of the Study
5.6       Recommendations
5.7       Suggestions for Further Studies
REFERENCES
APPENDICES


CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1         Background to the Study
Science education imparts a method of inquiry and a systematic way of processing knowledge about the physical world to the learners. For this reason, science education provides part of the foundation for any knowledge-based effort to improve health, nutrition, family planning, environmental, agriculture, and industry.

Science education has two broad purposes. The first purpose is to promote scientific literacy among citizens on matters directly affecting their own lives and the society so that they can make decisions based on information and understanding. This is essential for the sustainable development of a modern, technological society. The second purpose is to build up technological capability by equipping the future workforce with essential science-based knowledge and skills, and by preparing students for scientific disciplines in higher education and science-related careers. Given the potential benefits, the provision of quality science education to all children will have far reaching consequences on a country's development prospect.

Practical activities in science education are regarded as one of the necessary elements to promote understanding of scientific principles. To accomplish this goal, the equipment and experiment have to be carefully selected to give students the relevant experiences that they may need. The understanding is enhanced if the examples are coming from the daily life of the students.


Provision of relevant equipment is a necessary, but not sufficient condition for successful science teaching. Other factors such as pre-service and in-service teacher training, technical and educational suitability of equipment, distribution, maintenance and supply of consumable instructional materials influence the quality of practical activities.

Science teaching and learning requires the intensive application of resources that would appeal to all the senses of perception to improve the effectiveness of instruction as well as maximize learning. Ige, (2000) stated that science teaching and learning can only be meaningful and effective if backed up by the necessary resources to enrich instruction. Other researchers have revealed that resources are potent tools, which could be used to effectively communicate science, while enriching the learning experiences of the learners (Ango 2002, & Ngoka, 2000).

School environment has been described as an organization where resources are produced, managed and organized in such a way that enables the students to acquire desirable learning competencies. The process of managing and organizing resources is called resource utilization. The utilization of resources brings about fruitful learning since it stimulates senses as well as motivating them. Denyer (2005) in his study on science games in the United Kingdom reported that games when used as a resource enable less able children to stay on task and remain motivated for longer period...

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Item Type: Postgraduate Material  |  Attribute: 117 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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