EFFECTS OF LABORATORY EXERCISES ON SCIENCE SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN CHEMISTRY, IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT
This research work investigated the effects of laboratory exercises on science secondary school students’ performance in chemistry, in Kaduna State, Nigeria. In most of the literature reviewed, the final outcome favoured laboratory exercises. Quasi experimental and descriptive survey research were employed in this study. In quasi experimental design the researcher selected six (6) schools out of 372 science schools across the state. Similarly, 31 schools were selected for survey research, questionnaire was used to collect data. The six sample schools are from the central educational zone selected through stratified sampling technique. Four research questions and two hypotheses were formulated in conformity with the stated objectives. The reliability of the twenty test items were obtained through pilot study, using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Co-efficient r=0.78. While Cronbach Alpha was used to test the reliability of the questionnaire r=0.55. The two null hypotheses were analyzed using T-test with α = 0.05. The researcher recommended among others that, chemistry teachers should see laboratory exercises as a need that cannot be avoided.

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page
TABLE OF CONTENTS
LIST OF TABLES
ABSTRACT

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
1.2 Statement of the Problem
1.3 Objectives of the Study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Null Hypotheses
1.6 Significance of the Study
1.7 Scope and Delimitation of the Study

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1       Introduction
2.2       Definition and Historical Perspective of Science Laboratory
2.3       Origin of the Experimental Science
2.4       Importance of Laboratory Work in Secondary Schools
2.5       Effective Design of Laboratory Learning Exercise
2.6       Gender in Science Learning
2.7       Improvisation of Laboratory Equipments
2.8       Science Teaching Method
2.9       Safety in Laboratory
2.10     Review of Empirical Studies
2.11     Summary and Uniqueness of the Study

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction
3.2 Research Design
3.3 Population of the Study
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques
3.5 Instruments for Data Collection
3.6 Validity of the Instruments
3.7 Reliability of the Instruments
3.8 Administration of the Instrument
3.9 Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Research Questions
4.3 Null Hypotheses Testing
4.4 Summary of Major Findings
4.5 Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Summary of the Study
5.3 Conclusion
5.4 Implications of the Study
5.5 Limitations of the Study
5.6 Recommendations
5.7 Suggestions for Further Studies
References
Appendices
Appendix

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1         Background to the Study
Laboratory is a focal point for all scientific activities. It is usually equipped with tools that facilitate effective teaching and learning of science. Science is experimental in nature and the laboratory helps to enhance scientific knowledge through the process of science (observing, classifying, measuring and interaction with objects and events of scientific interest). Abdullahi, (1982), emphasizes that science is not science unless it is accompanied by laboratory exercises i.e putting theories into practice. Laboratory provides ideal setting for skill development, discovery learning, inquiry and problem solving activities. Laboratory work is a range of activities from true experimental investigation to confirmatory exercises and skill acquisition. Since science is experimental in nature, any course in science should reflect this by introducing laboratory work. This is because, it is in the laboratory that learners learn science through precise measurement, accurate observation and clarity in Communication (Muhammad, 2010).

Laboratory work is an established part of chemistry at all levels of education. The original reasons for its development lay in the need to produce skilled technicians for the industry and highly competent workers for research laboratories (Morrell, 1972). There is need to prepare students practically in the laboratory as well as develop some follow-up activities.

These may enrich and enhance the whole laboratory experience and enable it to contribute more effectively to the overall learning of students in chemistry. It would be rare to find out any science course in any institution of education without a substantial component of laboratory activity. However, it is taken for granted that experimental work is a fundamental part of any science course and this is especially true for chemistry courses. Very frequently, it is asserted that chemistry is a practical subject and this is assumed, some what naively to offer adequate justification for the presence of laboratory work. Thus, the development of experimental skills among the students is often a suggested justification....

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Item Type: Postgraduate Material  |  Attribute: 93 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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