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Characterization and analysis of Gwandu clay deposits has been conducted with a view to finding its possible industrial applications. The chemical analysis was carried out using XRF and thermal stability was determined using TGA. While the physical property tests such as firing shrinkage, porosity, cold crushing strength, bulk density, thermal shock resistance and refractoriness were done. The results of chemical analysis indicates that Dabagi clay is composed of SiO2 (64.50%), Al2O3 (16.30%), Fe2O3 (14.29%), CaO (0.29%), TiO2 (1.17%), K2O (0.74%), and other oxides in traces and Fadama clay has SiO2 (55.90%), Al2O3 (13.90%), Fe2O3 (24.45%), CaO (0.75%), TiO2 (1.71%), K2O (1.13%) and other oxides in traces. Termite hills clay on the other hand gave SiO2 (25.00%), Al2O3 (6.30%), Fe2O3 (30.63%) CaO (1.00%), TiO2 (3.02%) and other traces. However, the TG analysis shows the changes in the clays when heated. The clays started losing water when heated up to 200 - 3000C.The significant changes where observed between 5000C to 7000C where dehydration of clay material occurred for Dabagi and Fadama clays. The results of the physical tests conducted show: Dabagi has a Pa-38.46%, Bd-1.81g/cm3, LS- 6.80%, TSR-7 cycles, CCS-5.44Km2, PCE-13 and LOI-4.46%. Fadama clay: Pa-40.29%, Bd-1.79g/cm3, LS-6.00%, TSR-5 cycles, CCS-5.17Km2, PCE-13 and LOI-3.69%. And Termite clay: Pa- 46.15, Bd-1.54g/cm3, LS-5.80%, TSR-3 cycles, CCS- 4.59Km2, PCE-12 and LOI-3.69.Rice husk ash, kaolin and limestone clays were also incorporated (as an inert or non-plastic additive) in the moulding mass which gave an improvement in the physical properties. The results obtained confirmed that the clays are basically earthenware clays and can be used in the bricks, tile, roof tile, drain tile and other heavy clay products production.


Title page
Table of contents
List of tables
List of figures
List of Abbreviations

1.1       Research Background
1.2       Clay as Minerals
1.3       Clay Mineral Groups
1.4       Clay transformation on Heating
1.5       Characteristics of Clay Mineral
1.6       Categories of Ceramics
1.7       Clay types used in Ceramic Iindustries
1.8       Rice husk ash
1.9       Limestone
1.10     Kaolin Clay
1.11     Principle of XRF
1.12     Theoretical Background of the Physical tests
1.13     Aim and Objectives
1.14     Justification of the study
1.15     Literature Review
1.15.1 Ceramics Raw Materials in Nigeria

2.1       Materials and Equipments
2.2       Sampling Procedure
2.3       Samples Preparations
2.4       Determination of the chemical composition and thermal Stability of clays
2.5       Loss on ignition (L O I)
2.6       Preparation of Clay Samples
2.7       Production of Rice Husk Ash
2.8       Preparation of Limestone Clay Sample
2.9       Preparation of Kaolin Clay Sample
2.10     Testing Procedures
2.10.1 Determination of Apparent Porosity and Bulk Density
2.10.2 Determination of Thermal Shock Resistance
2.10.3 Determination of Linear Shrinkage
2.10.4 Determination of Refractoriness (PCE)
2.10.5 Determination of Cold Crushing Strength
2.11     Incorporation of Rice Husk Ash
2.12     Incorporation of Limestone
2.13     Incorporation of Kaolin Clay

3.1       Experimental Results
3.1.1    Results of Chemical composition and thermal analysis of the clays
3.1       Thermogravimetric analysis of Dabagi Clay
3.2       Thermogravimetric analysis of Fadama Clay
3.3       Thermogravimetric analysis of Termite Hill Clay
3.1.2    Results of the physical properties of the clays
3.1.3   Physical properties of Dabagi clay with different percentage of Rice Husk Ash
3.1.4    Results of the physical properties of Dabagi clay with different percentage of Limestone
3.1.5    Results of the Physical Properties of Dabagi clay with different percentage of kaolin clay
3.1.6    Summary and comparison of the Properties
3.3       Discussion

4.1       Conclusions
4.2       Recommendation


Introduction and literature review

1.0 Introduction

1.1 Research Background

A ceramic is an earthy material usually of silicate nature and may be defined as a combination of one or more metals with a non-metallic element usually oxygen. The American ceramic society (1986) had defined ceramics as inorganic non-metallic materials, which are typically crystalline in nature, and are compounds formed between metallic and non-metallic elements. Common examples are; silica - (SiO2) the main ingredient in most glass products; alumina- (Al2O3), used in various applications from abrasives to artificial bones; and more complex compounds such as hydrous aluminium silicate (Al2Si2O5 (OH)4), the main ingredient in most clay product ( Reed, 2001). The evaluation of the potential use of clay deposits in Gwandu town of Kebbi state in ceramic production is the focus of the present study.

1.2 Clay as Minerals

Clays have been known and used by man since ages for varied purposes (Prentice, 1990). clay has come to be defined as a natural earthy, fine-granular material that has a maximum size of about two microns (2ยต=0.002mm) that acquires plasticity on being mixed with limited quantity of water (hydro-plasticity) and showing sheet-like crystallographic habit (Velde, 1992; Ideniyi, 2003). From a chemical or mineralogical standpoint, clay is complex aluminosilicate compounds containing attached water molecules, which have their origin in the chemical and mechanical disintegration of rocks, such as granites (Nwajagu, 2005).

The term ‘mineral’ has several connotations. Used and strictly defined by the mineralogist, it refers to a naturally occurring solid inorganic substance with distinctive physical properties and a composition that can be described by a chemical formula (Mc Kelvery, 1986). Similarly, Hurbut and Klein (1977) observed that minerals are inorganic homogenous crystalline solids with chemical composition and an ordered atomic structure/arrangement....

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