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INFLUENCE OF PACKAGING ON CONSUMER CHOICE OF BEAUTY PRODUCTS: A STUDY OF MARYKAY, SLEEK AND BLACK OPAL COSMETICS

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ABSTRACT

The struggle for supremacy in brand positioning using packaging has introduced various approaches to designing a package for a product. The assumption that packaging conveys only a physical appearance of a product seems to be overtaken by recent marketing assessment, hence, marketers have employed new strategies to out-do their competitors in designing a package for a product. This informed this study on the influence of packaging on consumer choice of beauty products with a focus on Marykay, Sleek and Black Opal cosmetic products. The survey research design was adopted and questionnaire was used to elicit responses from 385 consumers of cosmetic products drawn from Universities, Polytechnics, secondary schools and civil servants in Enugu State using convenient sampling technique. The finding reveals that the functional value of a cosmetic product is a determining factor for consumer’s choice while the various patterns of packaging have varying degree of influence on consumer patronage of beauty products. Based on this, the study recommended that audience research should guide the designing of package for a cosmetic product and that packaging should convey the true quality of a product.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page
Table of Contents
List of Tables
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background of the Study
1.2       Historical Background
1.3       Statement of the Problem
1.4       Objectives of the Study
1.5       Research Questions
1.6       Significance of the Study
1.7       Definition of Terms
References

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Sources of Related Literature
2.2       The Review
2.3       What is Packaging?
2.4       The History of Packaging
2.5       Product Appearance and Aesthetic Product Value
2.6       Product Appearance and Symbolic Product Value
2.7       Product Appearance and Functional Product Value
2.8       Product Appearance and Economic Product Value
2.9       Attention Drawing Ability of the Product Appearance
2.10 Product Appearance and Categorization
2.11 Packaging Value
2.12 Consumer Satisfaction and Brand Loyalty
2.13 Summary of Review
2.14 Theoretical Framework
References

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1       Research Method
3.2       Description of the Research Population
3.3       Sample Size
3.4       Sampling Technique
3.5       Instrument for Data Collection
3.6       Validity and Reliability of Research Instrument
3.7       Technique for Data Analysis and Presentation
3.8       Limitations of the Methodology
References

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND INTERPRETATION
4.1       Data Presentation and Analysis
4.2       Discussion on Findings
4.3       Summary of Findings
References

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1       Summary
5.2       Conclusion
5.3       Recommendations
Bibliography
Appendix


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1        Background to the Study
Packaging is the process of conceptualizing, planning, and designing a packet or wrapper to contain, protect and merchandise a product (Kotler 2003). In modern time marketing, if packaging does not sell a product, it is as good as worthless. Highlighting the role of packaging in marketing or communicating a distinguished advertising practitioner, Chris Doghudje, observed that “packaging sells even more than advertising” (Nwokoye, 1987). That is because most goods like cosmetics and others have little or no advertising support. But they must be packaged. The vital function of packaging comes out clearly in the environment of self service stores, where sales have to be dependent on the strength of packaging. This is achieved by designing a package to attract consumer’s attention at the point of purchase, to furnish consumers with needed information about the product, so as to provide the on-the-spot persuasion and incentive that is often vital to make sales or required to propel consumers into buying. .

According to Rita Kuvykaite(2009) packaging attracts consumer’s attention to particular brand, enhances its image, and influences consumer’s perceptions about a product. Also package imparts unique value to products (Underwood, Klein & Burke, 2001; Silayoi & Speece, 2004), works as a tool for differentiation, i.e.  helps consumers to choose the product from wide range of similar products, stimulates customers buying behavior (Wells, Farley &

Armstrong, 2007). Thus package performs an important role in marketing communications  and  could  be  treated  as  one of       t he  most important factor influencing consumer ’s purchase of package .

Defining packaging as the vehicle that conveys the brand of a product to consumer (Amarchand et al( 1979) opines that the big test of packaging is how well it succeeds in registering relevant marketing messages to the target – audience. To scale the big test, packaging has to be supported by the twin-pillars of planning and innovation. Scheme and Smith(1980) views packaging as a crucial activity in product planning. Since packaging fulfills an important promotional function in modern marketing (Osuagwu, 1985), it has to be “aesthetically pleasing and be distinctive enough to stand when placed side by side with competing brands on the retail shelf (Nwokoye, 1987).
The pack, according to Unilever International, has become an integral part of the product; without it, there would be no brand and no freedom of choice. On display, the pack becomes a silent assistant in the choice process. This is why products are packaged not just for easy identification but to compel buying actions. The key factor for success (KFS) in packaging is the application of the marketing approach in product packaged to contain, protect, and merchandise a given product (Nwokoye, 1987). The marketing approach to product packaging takes cognizance of the fact that every product communicates a message, and in view of this, a product must be packaged to communicate the desired message to the target market. To effect a proper packaging, your image or personality of the product must be totally different from that of any other product. The ultimate challenge is to make your package distinct and unique so that it is instantly recognised whether alone or when placed side by side with other packages.
Packaging is of great importance to both the seller and buyers of products. It can prevent spoilage, breakage, tampering, or theft; enhance convenience in use or storage; and make products easier to identify. A significant improvement in packaging can even create a new product by expanding the ways in which it can be used, and thus its potential markets. For example, a soup that is packaged in a microbe bowl might suddenly increase its sales to working people.

Prior to World War II, packaging was used primarily to surround and protect products during storage, transportation and distribution (Onah, 1972). Some packaging was designed with aesthetic appeal for easy identification by the end consumer, but package design was typically left to technicians. After the World War II, however, companies became more interested in marketing and promotion as a means of enticing customers to purchase their products. As a result, more manufacturers began to view packaging as an integral element of overall business marketing strategies to their buyers. Thus, packaging became a vital means of differentiating items and inferring inundated consumers.


The importance of consumer packaging was elevated in the United States during the late 1970s and 1980s. Rapid post war economic expansion and market growth waned during that period, forcing companies to increase and entice consumers to their product or brand at the expense of the competition. The product mix or component is not complete without packaging. Packaging in developing countries would sound to be out of place when we still see market women and traders rap their wares with banana leaves, old....

For more Mass Communication projects click here
__________________________________________________________________________
This is an Undergraduate Thesis and the complete research material plus questionnaire and references can be obtained at an affordable price of N3,000 within Nigeria or its equivalent in other currencies.


INSTRUCTION ON HOW TO GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

Kindly pay/transfer a total sum of N3,000 into any of our Bank Accounts listed below:
·         Diamond Bank Account:
A/C Name:      Haastrup Francis
A/C No.:         0096144450

·         GTBank Account:
A/C Name:      Haastrup Francis
A/C No.:         0029938679

After payment, send your desired Project Topic, Depositor’s Name, and your Active E-Mail Address to which the material would be sent for downloading (you can request for a downloading link if you don’t have an active email address) to +2348074521866 or +2348066484965. You can as well give us a direct phone call if you wish to. Projects materials are sent in Microsoft format to your mail within 30 Minutes once payment is confirmed. 

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INFLUENCE OF OWNERSHIP ON PROFESSIONAL JOURNALISM PRACTICE IN NIGERIA: A STUDY OF EBBC, EBONYI AND DREAM FM, ENUGU

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ABSTRACT

The mass media have continued to be at the epicenter of information dissemination and distribution. The power wielded by professional journalists and media professionals in any society can be enormous; this why media operations and professional journalism practice have constantly witnessed many undue repressions, interferences, and in many occasions, controls from media owners and government. The reality of this phenomenon is that, the practices of journalism and media objectivity are continually called into question. Therefore, in order to clearly spell out the effect of ownership influence, this study ventures into assessing the effects of ownership on professional journalism practice in Nigeria, comparing such effect on private (Dream FM, Enugu) and public owned media (EBBC Ebonyi) houses. The population of this study was derived from the two state and the sample (385) was generated using the Australian calculator. Survey and in-depth interview were used to gather data in this study. The findings revealed that 299 respondents representing 77.7% of the sample size admitted that they noticed differences in the stations’ programme presentation. Also, 330, representing 85.7% of the sample size believed ownership influence on the two stations is high, to find out whether dream FM and EBBC media professionals enjoy same amount of editorial freedom, 322 or 83.6% respondents believed that there exist discrepancies in the level of freedom enjoyed in the private and government stations. The study further revealed that media professionals are under owners’ whims, majority representing 83.1% support this claim. In order to reduce ownership influence and control, the study suggested that media operations should democratized, the liberalization of media operations should be enforced through streamlining the FOIA; encouragement of social responsibility and media regulatory bodies are to ensure strict compliance to the ethical codes guiding media operations.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
Table of Contents
List of Tables
List of Figures
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background of the Study
1.2       Statement of the Problem
1.3       Objectives of the Study
1.4       Research Questions
1.5       Significance of the Study
1.6       Scope of the Study
1.7       Definition of Terms
References

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1       Focus of Review
2.1.2    The Review of Related Literatures
2.1.3    Media Ownership and Control in Nigeria: A Historical Analysis
2.1.4    Media Ownership and Influence ov Various Media Operations
2.1.5    Ethical Implications of Media Ownership in Nigeria
2.1.6    Importance of Press Freedom in Forestalling Undue Control of the Media
2.1.7    A Case for Responsible  Press in Nigeria
2.2       Theoretical Framework
2.2.1    Social Responsibility Theory (SRT)
2.2.2    Public Interest Theory
References

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1       Research Design
3.2       Population of the Study
3.3       Sample Size
3.4       Sampling Technique
3.5       Measuring Instrument
3.6       Method of Data Collection
3.7       Validity of Instrument
3.8       Reliability of Instrument
3.9       Method of Data Analysis
3.10     Limitation of the Study
References

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1       Data Presentation
4.1.1    Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1       Summary
5.2       Conclusion
5.3       Recommendation
Bibliography
Appendix

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1         Background to the Study
The mass media are fundamental in ensuring purposeful and peaceful co-existence in the society. They are indispensable to the success of most human endeavours. Through their agenda-setting role, the mass media set the hierarchy of current issues, determine the extent of transmission and establish the terms of reference and limits of debate, which ultimately influence people’s actions, reactions, decisions and judgements on the issues so raised. However, the current trend in mass media practice has raised a controversy as to who really set the agenda – the media professionals or owners? (Nkereuwem, U., Nsikan, S., &Godspower U., 2014)

The media serve as the conduit for the various forms of interaction among the different facets of the society. The strings of the interaction are normally controlled by many variables, such as the legal, ethical, political, socio-cultural, technological and economic factors. DeFleur (1989) points out that the interaction is necessary so that certain unacceptable and disruptive behaviours are not exhibited in the society.

Emphasizing the influence of information in any human society, Daramola (1999:4) states that “it is now known to possess the capacity to shape the views and mould the minds of the people, to influence course of events and to pressure authority”. Okunna(1999:108) posits that “the information function of the mass media is all embracing and indispensable for the meaningful existence of members of the society”. In the same vein, Udoakah (2006:78) added that:


Over the years, there had been popular demands for the freedom of the press for some reasons. Such reasons include the belief that the press incorporating all the mass media, would enhance the free flow information in the society, promote peace , freedom, wealth and truth and end conflicts by the advance of reasons, accumulation and dissemination of information and knowledge. This serves as the mission of communication in the society.

Therefore, control through ownership is a fact that has become the current reality of the media in every society. However, the nature of this control usually varies greatly, depending on the public system, the orientation of the political leaders in control of government, prevailing political climate, the caliber of media proprietors running the affairs of the enterprise, and or the communication professionals. On the other hand, media control may depend on the economic situation of the mass media and their stated objectives and policies.(Olayinka, 2014; Onabanjo, 2001:33).

The above positions and opinions by these numerous communication scholars demonstrate adequately the enormous powers of information in any society. Thus, the ownership of the institution of mass media responsible for gathering and distribution of information should be the cynosure of both the media stakeholders and the general public (Woods, 2006:2)

In Nigeria, there are three main types of media ownership; namely: government ownership, private ownership and partnership. In the case of government ownership, the government establishes, controls and finances the media outfit. Private ownership is when an individual or a group of people establish, control and finance the media outfit. In partnership, both government and private individuals are into some sort of co-ownership (Onukaba, 2005:3)

According to Ukonu (2005:35), “the history of Nigerian press can broadly be divided into four segments; these are the era of missionary journalism, the era of alien dominated press, the emergence of the indigenous press and the dawn of modern Nigerian newspapers”.

It is noteworthy to mention that ownership of media organization and the practice of

journalism in any of these periods were faced with difficulties. This was expectedly so because

of the harsh socio-political and economic milieu in which they operated.Anyanwu (1992:3)

captures this situation vividly when he states:

These early Nigerian newspapers were economically weak because their circulation was limited by low literacy, poor communication network, general poverty among the people and the political mood of the time which reflected largely in the treatment of the news by the newspapers. Since a majority of these newspapers received no subsidies from government, their earning capacity was limited and, consequently, their growth as business enterprise was adversely affected and, in some cases, completely crippled.

The  government  was  not  fully  involved  in  media  ownership  until  after  political

independence.Nigerian media witnessed a dramatic change in terms of orientation when the

government entered the industry. The period between 1960 and 1966 saw the emergence of

many government owned newspapers, among them was the Morning Post established by the

administration of Tafawa Belewa for the purpose of providing adequate and better and better

publicity for its activities.....


For more Mass Communication projects click here
__________________________________________________________________________
This is an Undergraduate Thesis and the complete research material plus questionnaire and references can be obtained at an affordable price of N3,000 within Nigeria or its equivalent in other currencies.


INSTRUCTION ON HOW TO GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

Kindly pay/transfer a total sum of N3,000 into any of our Bank Accounts listed below:
·         Diamond Bank Account:
A/C Name:      Haastrup Francis
A/C No.:         0096144450

·         GTBank Account:
A/C Name:      Haastrup Francis
A/C No.:         0029938679

After payment, send your desired Project Topic, Depositor’s Name, and your Active E-Mail Address to which the material would be sent for downloading (you can request for a downloading link if you don’t have an active email address) to +2348074521866 or +2348066484965. You can as well give us a direct phone call if you wish to. Projects materials are sent in Microsoft format to your mail within 30 Minutes once payment is confirmed. 

--------------------------------------------------------
N/B:    By ordering for our material means you have read and accepted our Terms and Conditions


Terms of Use: This is an academic paper. Students should NOT copy our materials word to word, as we DO NOT encourage Plagiarism. Only use as guide in developing your original research work.

Delivery Assurance
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IDENTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS OF DIFFICULTIES IN READING FRENCH LANGUAGE IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NSUKKA EDUCATION ZONE

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ABSTRACT

This work dealt with the identification and analysis of difficulties in reading French language in Senior Secondary Schools in Nsukka Education Zone. The introductory aspect looked at some definitions of language and the need for the study of French language in Nigeria, including some of the problems militating against the implementation of French language policies. Such variables as phonological awareness, reading fluency, multilingualism, gender and location of students were speculated as possible causes of students’ difficulties in reading French Language. The study was delimited to identifying and analyzing the difficulties of Senior Secondary School French language students’ reading in relation to pronunciation, lexis, syntax, and fluency. Four research questions and two null hypotheses guided the work. Descriptive survey research design was adopted in this research. One hundred and twenty (120) senior secondary school students of French language were randomly composed from thirteen (13) secondary schools that offer French language in the zone. A French Language Reading Achievement Test (FLRAT) was used to collate the necessary data. The study revealed that the major areas of difficulty in pronunciation were in articulation of syllable and nasalization, while recognition of suffixes and gender issue in French language grammar constituted difficulties in reading syntax, with distinction of homophones difficulties in reading lexis.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page
Abstract
Table of Contents
List of tale
List of Appendices

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of the study
Statement of the Problem
Purpose of the Study
Significance of the Study
Scope of the Study
Research Questions
Hypotheses

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
Conceptual Framework
Concept of Reading
Importance of Reading
Types of Reading
French language lexis
Reading Difficulties in French Language
Theoretical Framework
The Gestalt Cognitive Theory
The Schema Theory of Language Learning
The Generative Learning Model
Inter-Language Theories
Review of Related Empirical Studies
Summary of Literature Review

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODS
Design of the Study
Area of the Study
Population of the Study
Sample and Sampling Technique
Instrument for Data Collection
Validation of the Instrument
Reliability of the Instrument
Method of Data Collection
Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS
Research Question 1
Research Question 2
Research Question 3
Research Question 4
Summary of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE: DISCUSSION OF RESULTS, CONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Findings
Educational Implications
Recommendations
Conclusion
Limitations
Suggestions for further research
Summary of the Study
References
APPENDICES


CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

Background to the Study
Human beings have the gift of language which distinguishes them from the rest of the animal world. They are said to be homo sapiens by reason of language. Man alone has the power to articulate speech and it is largely by virtue of this power that human beings can reason. It is difficult to think of what the world of man would look like without language. Of course, one would find it difficult to imagine the implications of such a situation, since the very thought itself would be in language.
Language has been variously defined. According to Safra (2002) language consists of vocal sounds to which meanings have been assigned by cultural conventions and which is often supplemented by various gestures. Language is the medium man uses to shape and express his thought. Language consists of a number of verbal and non-verbal presentations of ideas, concepts and these are represented through symbols and signs in the written form, by means of which our thoughts are logically and intelligibly proved to be truth. Language gives human existence its central meaning and focus. According to Palmer (2005), Otagburuagu and Okorji (2003), man is unlike other animals because he is homo loquens – man the speaking animal.


From the definitions of language, one could infer that there are certain features peculiar to human language. For instance, the use of vocal symbols (speech sounds), use of gestures; nods, smiles, and of course, verbalization. Animals and birds can vocalize but not verbalize. Other lower animals can communicate but not with a meaningful language like human beings. A bird like parrot can repeat or imitate human sounds but cannot say the meanings. This is why, in considering further the features of human language, Otagburuagu and Okorji (2003) assert that all languages are dynamic, productive and communicably dependable through speech and exist in human nature as part of culture. Human language is used for specific purposes such as medium of expression of feelings, medium of creativity, evaluation, indoctrination, social interaction, articulation and classification of thought. All these boil down to the general purpose of language, which is a means of communication. By implication, language is the unique property of human beings and all the developments of man, be it intellectual, ethical, political, social or economic revolve entirely on the instrumentality of language. It stimulates all forms of mobility among human beings.

This informs the fact that Nigeria, an English speaking country, as a result of colonization by the British apart from her Anglophone inclination, maintains a bilateral relationship with the neighboring French-speaking countries around her in areas of economic, political, and socio-cultural dealings. Countries like Cameroon, Chad Republic, Benin Republic, Togo, Niger and a host of others are in constant touch with Nigeria under the aegis of the Economic Community of West African States since its inception in May, 1975.
French and English languages are the two major languages used for communication during deliberations in the meeting sessions of the union. This informs the necessity of the language for every Nigerian.

The turn of events in the development of French in Nigeria has culminated in the New French/English bilingual policy of French as a second language. The policy of French becoming a second official language confers on it a status similar to that of English in Nigeria. French, therefore, becomes a core subject at the senior primary and junior parts of the 9-year Basic Education.

The new language policy is consequent upon government’s awareness and appreciation of the role of the French language as a unifying force in the inter-regional scene among African states, viz.: “For the smooth interaction with her neighbors, it is desirable for every Nigerian to speak French. Accordingly, French shall be the second official language in Nigeria and it shall be compulsory in schools” (FRN, 1998, 2004). Again government has realized that operating a monolingual policy of English as the only official language on the international scene in this millennium and probably beyond may be detrimental to her democratic and developmental process (Opara, 2000).
With this change in status, French is no longer studied as an optional language in the school but as a second language and compulsory subject. According to the National Policy on Education......

For more Arts Education projects click here
__________________________________________________________________________
This is an Undergraduate Thesis and the complete research material plus questionnaire and references can be obtained at an affordable price of N3,000 within Nigeria or its equivalent in other currencies.


INSTRUCTION ON HOW TO GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

Kindly pay/transfer a total sum of N3,000 into any of our Bank Accounts listed below:
·         Diamond Bank Account:
A/C Name:      Haastrup Francis
A/C No.:         0096144450

·         GTBank Account:
A/C Name:      Haastrup Francis
A/C No.:         0029938679

After payment, send your desired Project Topic, Depositor’s Name, and your Active E-Mail Address to which the material would be sent for downloading (you can request for a downloading link if you don’t have an active email address) to +2348074521866 or +2348066484965. You can as well give us a direct phone call if you wish to. Projects materials are sent in Microsoft format to your mail within 30 Minutes once payment is confirmed. 

--------------------------------------------------------
N/B:    By ordering for our material means you have read and accepted our Terms and Conditions


Terms of Use: This is an academic paper. Students should NOT copy our materials word to word, as we DO NOT encourage Plagiarism. Only use as guide in developing your original research work.

Delivery Assurance
We are trustworthy and can never SCAM you. Our success story is based on the love and fear for God plus constant referrals from our clients who have benefited from our site. We deliver project materials to your Email address within 15-30 Minutes depending on how fast your payment is acknowledged by us.

Quality Assurance
All research projects, Research Term Papers and Essays on this site are well researched, supervised and approved by lecturers who are intellectuals in their various fields of study.
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