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STUDY ON WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS AND BENTHIC FAUNA DIVERSITY OF OTAMIRI RIVER IN OWERRI, IMO STATE, NIGERIA

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ABSTRACT


The study on the physic-chemical parameters and benthic fauna diversity of Otamiri River, Nigeria was carried out from June to December 2015. Water and benthic organisms samples were collected monthly from three sampling stations along the stream. Dissolved oxygen bottles of 1000 ml were used to collect water samples which were fixed with wrinkle’s reagent at the sampling stations. Eckman grab, scoop net, hook and line, cast net, traps and dugout canoe with paddle were used to collect the benthic macro fauna for six months (June-August and October to December). The results of the study yielded 229 benthic organisms belonging to 15 species and 14 families. In relation to stations, Station 3 had more species and higher abundance of benthic organisms than other sampled stations. In Station 1, only six species of benthic organisms were recorded while Station 2 had 11 species and Station 3, 13 species of benthic organisms. Majority of the sampled benthic organisms were localized and restricted to one sampled station which was Station 3. The abundance of benthic organisms in Otamiri River was dependent on season. More benthic organisms were recorded in dry season than in rainy season. The diversity indices yielded high diversity in Station 3 than the other two studied stations. More species dominated with high diversity index in dry season than in wet season in all the sampled stations. Mean values of surface water temperature 26.67±0.63 0C, depth 1.96±0.48 m, COD 25.11±0.24 mg/L, BOD 5.47±0.04 mg/L, DO 5.91±0.19 mg/L, Alkalinity 10.66±0.21 mg/L, pH 6.73±0.16, TDS 315.2±48.5 mg/L, Hardness 0.64±0.08 mg/L, Turbidity 4.52±0.16 NTU and TSS 8.68±0.75 mg/L were recorded. There were fluctuations between the physico-chemical parameters caused by anthropogenic activities, stress to the aquatic life and pollution. Shannon wieners diversity index H = 2.24 was higher in Station 2, while Simpson’s dominance index D= 8.5 was also high at Station 2. Temperature, Depth, BOD and TSS correlated positively and favoured the abundance and of Synodontis spp. Temperature, BOD, Turbidity and TSS were also positively correlated and favoured the abundance of C. nigrodigitatus and C. armatum. Negative correlation was recorded in P. serratus in all parameters and in all seasons and stations C. nigrodigitatus was the most abundant species recorded in the present study (32.65%) while the least abundance species was P. serratus (1.25%) and both were found only in Station 3. The pH, BOD, TDS, hardness, turbidity, DO, BOD, COD and temperature ranges fall within WHO recommendations. Government should make laws restricting dredging and sand mine activities in the sampled area.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
Table of Content
List of Tables
List of Figures
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW
1.1       Introduction
1.2       Justification of the Study
1.3       Objective of the Study
1.4       Literature Review
1.4.1    Water quality parameters
1.4.1.1Temperature
1.4.1.2 Turbidity
1.4.1.3 pH
1.4.1.4 Dissolved oxygen
1.4.1.5 Total hardness
1.4.1.6 Alkalinity
1.4.1.7 Total dissolved solids
1.4.1.8 Total suspended solids
1.4.1.9 Conductivity
1.4.1.10 Chloride
1.4.1.11 Sulphate
1.4.1.12 Total phosphorus
1.4.1.13 Orthophosphate
1.4.1.14 Total nitrogen
1.4.2    Benthic fauna
1.4.2.1 Subdivisions of fauna
1.4.3    Relationship between water quality and benthic fauna

CHAPTER TWO: MATERIALS AND METHODS
2.1       Study Area
2.2       Sampling Method
2.3       Collection of Samples
2.4       Collection of Water Sample for Physico-chemical Analysis
2.5       Collection of Vertebrate Samples
2.6       Collection of Macro-invertebrate Samples
2.7       Statistical Analysis

CHAPTER THREE: RESULTS
3.1       Species Diversity of the Vertebrates and Macro-Invertebrates of Otamiri River
3.2       Physico-chemical Parameters of Otamiri River
3.2.1    Temperature
3.2.2    Depth
3.2.3    Chemical oxygen demand
3.2.4    Biological oxygen demand
3.2.5    Dissolved oxygen
3.2.6    Total alkalinity
3.2.7 pH
3.2.8 Total dissolved solids
3.2.9 Total hardness
3.2.10 Turbidity
3.2.11 Total suspended solids
3.3       Correlation of Species Abundance of Benthic Organisms with Physico-chemical Parameters
3.4       Effect of Season on Physico-chemical Parameters and Composition of Benthic Fauna

CHAPTER FOUR: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
4.1       Species Diversity and Composition
4.2       Water Quality Parameters of Otamiri River
4.3       The Relationship between Water quality Parameters and Composition of Benthic Fauna
4.4       The Effect of Season on Physico-chemical Parameters of Water and Composition of Benthic Organisms
4.5       Conclusion
4.6       Recommendation
REFERENCES
APPENDICES


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW

1.1 Introduction
The benthic macro fauna are those organisms that live at the bottom of a water body and are used to detect changes in the natural environment (Idowu and Ugwumba, 2005; Akaahan et al., 2015). Studies of aquatic bodies have established the existence of relationships between water quality and macro and micro-invertebrate diversity (Teferi et al., 2013). They serve as monitor for the presence of pollutants, their effects on the ecosystem and the progress of environmental clean-up process (Nkwoji et al., 2010). The assessment of the biotic condition compliments the physico-chemical parameters in aquatic environment condition determination (Madhushankha et al., 2014).

Macro-invertebrate organisms form an integral part of an aquatic environment and are of ecological and economic importance as they maintain various levels of interaction between the community and the environment (Sharma et al., 2013). According to Marques et al., 2003), knowledge of the structure of the benthic macro-invertebrate community provides precise and local information on recent events, which can be seen in their structuring. The use of invertebrates and fish as bio-indicators of water quality has been advocated by several researchers (Adakole and Annune, 2003). The use of macro-invertebrate diversity for bio-assessment provides a simpler approach compared to other environmental quality assessment procedures. This is because, macro-invertebrates can be sampled quantitatively and the relative sensitivity or tolerance of some of them to contamination is known (Adakole and Annune, 2003). Species vary in their degree of tolerance with the result that under polluted conditions, a reduction in species diversity is the most obvious effect (Emere, 2000; Olomukoro and Egborge, 2003; Sharma et al., 2013).


Macro-benthic invertebrates are used as bio-indicators because of their extended residency period in specific habitats. More so, the presence or absence of particular benthic species in a particular environment act as a pointer to the water quality status. The abundance of benthic fauna mainly depends on physical and chemical properties of their habitat as they respond more quickly if any changes in water quality occur. They are most frequently used in biomonitoring for these reasons (Mohan et al., 2013). Modification to macrobenthic invertebrate distribution affects important role they play such as mineralization, mixing of sediments and flux of oxygen into sediment and cycling of organic matter (George et al., 2009), which further contribute to indication of water status. The technique of using macro-benthic invertebrates as bio-indicators is a cost effective method widely used in the Northern American and European ecoregions (Azrina et al., 2005) but not a popular method in the African region in river classification due to the lack of expertise and information on benthic macro-invertebrate populations.

There have been several studies on the relation of the aquatic macrobenthos diversity and water sediment with physic-chemical status of the aquatic ecosystem (Garg et al., 2009; Quasin et al., 2009; Edokpayi et al., 2010 and Madhushankha et al., 2014). In lentic freshwaters, the benthic invertebrates play essential roles in key ecosystem processes, such as food chain dynamics, productivity, nutrient cycling and decomposition. The lotic and lentic inland waters, as well as brackish and marine waters in the tropics are habitats for a variety of macro-invertebrate fauna. Work on the macro-invertebrate fauna in the tropics has shown that the quantitative collection of key species from natural aquatic habitat or that modified by man can provide a means of estimating various ecological parameters, such as richness or evenness in diversity (Odo et al., 2007). Their distribution and abundance are directly related to different environmental factors such as food availability and quantity, sediment type, substrate, and water quality (Arslan et al., 2007, and Odabasi et al., 2009). They also show considerable spatial variation with lake and across lakes (Baudo et al., 2001; Pamplin and Rocha, 2007; Smiljkov et al., 2008). In reservoirs, the benthic macro-invertebrate community may be particularly susceptible to water-level changes that alter sediment exposure, temperature regime, wave-induced sediment redistribution and basal productivity (McEwen and Butler, 2010).......


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This is an Undergraduate Thesis and the complete research material plus questionnaire and references can be obtained at an affordable price of N3,000 within Nigeria or its equivalent in other currencies.


INSTRUCTION ON HOW TO GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

Kindly pay/transfer a total sum of N3,000 into any of our Bank Accounts listed below:
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A/C Name:      Haastrup Francis
A/C No.:         0096144450

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A/C Name:      Haastrup Francis
A/C No.:         0029938679

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PREVALENCE OF HYPOGLYCAEMIA AMONG Plasmodium falciparum INFECTED WOMEN ATTENDING ANTENATAL CLINICS IN NSUKKA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA

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ABSTRACT

Hypoglycaemia prevalence among Plasmodium falciparum infected women attending antenatal clinics in Nsukka Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria was undertaken. The study objective was to assess the prevalence of hypoglycaemia and P. falciparum infection among pregnant women in the study area. A cross-sectional epidemiological survey was conducted among the pregnant women, who attended antenatal clinics in the study Local Government Area between January and September, 2015. A total of 375 randomly selected pregnant women were assessed for P. falciparum infection and hypoglycaemia from the development centres in the study area. Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection was determined using Malaria Pf antigen detection kit. The blood glucose levels of the subjects were estimated using One Touch UltraSmart Blood Glucose Monitoring System. The obstetric, demographic, clinical and management data of the pregnant women were also determined using a well-structured questionnaire. Results obtained showed that 292 (77.9%) pregnant women had primary diagnosis of P. falciparum infection and 39 (13.4%) of the infected pregnant women were hypoglycaemic. The highest prevalence for P. falciparum was observed among age group 30-34 years old, primigravidae and second trimester pregnancy. Generally, prevalence of hypoglycaemic infected subjects showed significant difference (P<0 .05="" across="" among="" and="" appropriate="" are="" associated="" at="" available="" be="" between="" blood="" care="" centres="" compared="" complications.="" conclusion="" considering="" control="" correlation="" counterpart.="" detection="" diagnosis="" disruption="" during="" early="" education="" endemicity="" especially="" factors="" families="" for="" glucose="" glycemic="" good="" health="" help="" however="" hypoglycaemia="" impaired="" in="" infection="" is="" issues="" laboratory="" life="" long-term="" maintaining="" maintenance="" major="" malaria="" management="" markers="" metabolism="" minimize="" monitoring="" mortality="" multifactorial.="" needed.="" nigeria="" no="" non-infected="" occurrence="" of="" patients="" positive="" pregnancy="" pregnant="" present="" prevent="" prevention="" professionals="" programs="" prompt="" quality="" rapid="" rate="" rather="" readily="" recognition="" recommends="" regimens="" reliable="" risk="" selection="" severity="" showed="" significant="" simple="" span="" status="" study="" supply.="" tests="" that="" the="" their="" therefore="" to="" treatment="" was="" when="" with="" women="">


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page
Table of contents
List of tables
List of figures
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW
1.1       Introduction
1.1.1    Study Justification
1.1.2    Study Significance
1.1.3    Objectives of the Study
1.2       Literature Review
1.2.1    Malaria Burden
1.2.2    Hypoglycaemia Burden
1.2.3    Glucose and Malaria
1.2.4    Malaria and Pregnancy
1.2.5    Hypoglycaemia and Pregnancy
1.2.6    Antenatal Services Knowledge and Attitude

CHAPTER TWO: MATERIALS AND METHODS
2.1       Study Area
2.2       Ethical Clearance
2.3       Study Design
2.4       Collection of Blood for Malaria and Glucose Test
2.5       Statistical Analysis

CHAPTER THREE: RESULTS
3.1       Obstetric and Demographic Characteristics of the Study Population
3.2       General Prevalence of Blood Glucose Levels and P. falciparum Infection among
            Pregnant Women in the Study Area
3.3       Prevalence of Blood Glucose Levels and P. falciparum Infection among Pregnant
            Women in Nsukka Central
3.4       Prevalence of Blood Glucose Levels and P. falciparum Infection among Pregnant
            Women in Nsukka East
3.5       Prevalence of Blood Glucose Levels and P. falciparum Infection among Pregnant
            Women in Nsukka West
3.6       Prevalence of Blood Glucose Levels among P.falciparum Infected Pregnant
            Women in the Study Area Stratified by Location
3.7       Prevalence of Blood Glucose Levels among P. falciparum Non-infected
            Pregnant Women in the Study Area Stratified by Location
3.8       General Prevalence of Blood Glucose Levels and P. falciparum Infection among
            Pregnant Women in the Study Area Stratified by Age
3.9       General Prevalence of Blood Glucose Levels and P. falciparum Infection among
            Pregnant Women in the Study Area Stratified by Trimester
3.10  General Prevalence of Blood Glucose Levels and P. falciparum Infection among
            Pregnant Women in the Study Area Stratified by Parity
3.11  General Prevalence of Blood Glucose Levels and P. falciparum Infection among
            Pregnant Women in the Study Area Stratified by Educational Level
3.12  General Prevalence of Blood Glucose Levels and P. falciparum Infection among
            Pregnant Women in the Study Area Stratified by Occupation
3.13  General Prevalence of Blood Glucose Levels and P. falciparum Infection among
            Pregnant Women in the Study Area Stratified by Residence
3.14  Unhealthy Predisposing Factors to Hypoglycaemia and P. falciparum Infection
            among the Pregnant Women in the Study Area
3.15  Correlation between Blood Glucose Levels and P. falciparum Infection among
            Pregnant Women in the Study Area
3.16  Ethno-management Practices on Hypoglycaemia and P. falciparum Infection
            among the Pregnant Women in the Study Area
3.17  Knowledge and Attitude of the Pregnant Women towards Antenatal Services in the Study Area

CHAPTER FOUR: DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
4.1       Discussion
4.2       Conclusion and Recommendation
REFERENCES
APPENDICES


CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW

1.1         Introduction

Malaria is an old disease whose name is derived from the Italian (mal-aria) or “bad air” and it was also known as Roman fever, ague, marsh fever, periodic fever, paludism (Martin, 2003). There were numerous, sometimes bizarre theories on how malaria was transmitted until 1898 when Dr Ronald Ross discovered that the female Anopheles mosquito was actually responsible for transmitting malaria parasite. This discovery revolutionized malaria control, which had hitherto often been haphazard or based purely on treating the patient by killing the malaria parasites (Phillips, 2001; Cheesbrough, 2006). Malaria probably originated in Africa and accompanied human migration to the Mediterranean shores, India and Southeast Asia. In the past it used to be common in the marshy areas around Rome. As malaria is a disease mostly of tropical and subtropical areas, it is particularly prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa, but also common throughout other tropical regions of China, India, Southeast Asia, South and Central America (Cheesbrough, 2006). Nigeria’s quest for effective control of malaria began well before the WHO global malaria eradication period between 1955 and 1968 (Gilles et al., 2007). From 1955, however, a more focused egalitarian attempt at evolving strategic plans and interventions resulted in pre-eradication pilot studies such as the Kankiya District Project and the establishment of a division in Ministry of Health to deal with the mosquito and malaria problem. The National Malaria Control Committee (NMCC) was set up in 1975 with the set mandate to reduce the malaria burden by 25%. It produced a five year plan of action that terminated in 1980; however, it recorded only modest achievements. It took another 8 years before progress was made when a major health system reform was carried out in 1988, with the adoption of a Health Policy for the country. Within this Policy, malaria was to be eradicated using the concept of Primary Health Care. The Ministry of Health subsequently prepared guidelines for malaria control in 1989. Government finally came out with a National Malarial Control Plan of Action 1996. Past and present malaria control programme plan achieved limited success in eradicating the scourge. In spite of this, the malaria situation has steadily worsened and currently it is estimated that malaria accounts for 65 percent of all diseases reported in Nigeria health facilities and that 42% of pregnant women are diagnosed with malaria and affects the birth weight of infants (Akanbi et al., 2009).


Severe underreporting by patients and insufficient worldwide surveillance hampers epidemiological studies on the toll of malaria. Despite gross underreporting, the majority of cases and deaths are estimated to occur in sub-Saharan Africa, especially in children under 5 years of age (Sturchler, 1989; Snow et al., 1999; Brinkmann and Brinkmann, 1991). The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that malaria caused 300-500 million infections, 100 million clinical cases (Plasmodium falciparum), and 1.5-2.7 million deaths in 1994 (WHO, 1997). The African malaria toll is difficult to quantify, and previous reports convey highly variable morbidity and mortality estimates from different estimation methods and from presumptive diagnoses that depend on often inaccurate febrile histories and clinical signs and symptoms without laboratory confirmation, and on estimates of transmission risks. With these qualifiers, WHO recognized that its mortality estimates could vary by a factor of 3 (WHO, 1997). Malaria has emerged as one of the top 10 killer diseases in the world. It is the major cause of mortality in tropical and subtropical regions. Majority of the cases as well as deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa (Mishra et al., 2002). Malaria is essentially a tropical disease occurring in regions between latitudes 620N and 400S with an altitude of 1, 500 metres. This region is found mainly within the tropics and subtropics and this makes malaria endemic in this zone (Walter and Davis, 1976). There are two epidemiological extremes of malaria described as stable and unstable malaria (Butler et al., 1996). Climatic factors (relative humidity, altitude, rainfall level, mean temperature between 18-19oC) and socioeconomic factors (occupation, lifestyle, poverty) constitute the epidemiological factors of malaria endemicity in the tropics. All these factors have effects on the availability of vectors which maintain transmission of malaria (Butler et al., 1996).

The vector for malaria parasite is the female anopheles mosquito (Cheesbrough, 1998). Malaria transmission can be achieved by three known ways: vector transmission (Anderson et al., 1981), blood transfusion (Strickland, 1991) and congenital transmission (Ezechukwu et al., 2004). Malaria parasite interferes with three organs in the body, namely the brain, kidney and liver (Edington, 1967).

In all malaria-endemic countries in Africa, 25-40% (average 30%) of all outpatient clinic visits is for malaria (with most diagnosis made clinically). In these same countries, between 20% and 50% of all hospital admissions are a consequence of malaria. With high case-fatality rates due to late presentation, inadequate management, and unavailability or stock-outs of effective drugs, malaria is also a major contribution to deaths among hospital inpatients. This high burden may in fact be partly a result of misdiagnoses, since many facilities lack laboratory capacity and it is often difficult clinically to distinguish malaria from other infectious diseases. Nonetheless malaria is responsible for a high proportion of public health expenditure on curative treatment, and substantial reductions in malaria incidence would free up available health resources and facilities and health workers’ time, to tackle other health problems. Poor people are at increased risk both of becoming infected with malaria and of becoming infected more frequently. Child mortality rates are known to be higher in poorer households and malaria is responsible for a substantial proportion of these deaths. A survey in.....


For more Zoology & Environmental Biology projects click here
___________________________________________________________________________
This is an Undergraduate Thesis and the complete research material plus questionnaire and references can be obtained at an affordable price of N3,000 within Nigeria or its equivalent in other currencies.


INSTRUCTION ON HOW TO GET THE COMPLETE PROJECT MATERIAL

Kindly pay/transfer a total sum of N3,000 into any of our Bank Accounts listed below:
·         Diamond Bank Account:
A/C Name:      Haastrup Francis
A/C No.:         0096144450

·         GTBank Account:
A/C Name:      Haastrup Francis
A/C No.:         0029938679

After payment, send your desired Project Topic, Depositor’s Name, and your Active E-Mail Address to which the material would be sent for downloading (you can request for a downloading link if you don’t have an active email address) to +2348074521866 or +2348066484965. You can as well give us a direct phone call if you wish to. Projects materials are sent in Microsoft format to your mail within 30 Minutes once payment is confirmed. 

--------------------------------------------------------
N/B:    By ordering for our material means you have read and accepted our Terms and Conditions


Terms of Use: This is an academic paper. Students should NOT copy our materials word to word, as we DO NOT encourage Plagiarism. Only use as guide in developing your original research work.

Delivery Assurance
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Quality Assurance
All research projects, Research Term Papers and Essays on this site are well researched, supervised and approved by lecturers who are intellectuals in their various fields of study.
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POPULATION DYNAMICS OF CICHLID FISH SPECIES OF OPI LAKE, NSUKKA, ENUGU STATE, NIGERIA

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ABSTRACT


Studies on the population dynamics of cichlid fish species in Opi lake were carried out between August, 2014 and January, 2015. Also, physico-chemical parameters of the lake were analyzed using appropriate methods. Morphometric relationships and seasonal variations of the fish species were determined. A total of 235 cichlid fish, comprised of 5 species, namely: Tilapia zillii (28.09%), Sarotherodon melanotheron (51.49%), Oreochromis niloticus (14.04%), Pelmatochromis guentheri (5.96%) and Hemichromis fasciatus (0.43%) respectively were sampled and used for the study. The above listed cichlid fishes showed no correlation (P>0.01) and (P>0.05) with values of the physico-chemical parameters determined. S. melanotheron however, showed positive correlation (P<0 .05="" all="" except="" females="" fish="" gonads="" i="" in="" males.="" more="" much="" phosphate.="" recorded="" ripe="" sampled="" showed="" species="" than="" that="" the="" there="" were="" with="">O. niloticus
where mature gonads were greater in number. In T. zillii, the smallest sexually matured females were 8.1 cm total length. The length–length relationship had a b–value of 0.76 when compared to the length–weight (L-W) relationship that showed positive allometric growth of b>3. Growth parameters of T. zillii showed asymptotic length of L¥ = 1.27 cm Tl, growth curvature (K) = 0.8 yr-1, growth performance index Q1 = 0.11, age–at–length zero (to) = 0.48 yr and the higher potential longevity (tmax) = 3.75 yrs. Mortality parameters showed that the total mortality (Z), natural mortality (M), fishing mortality (F) and exploitation rate (E) were 3.36 yr-1, 1.755 yr-1, 1.605 yr-1 and 0.48 yr-1 each. The smallest sexually matured female in S. melanotheron was 9.8 cm Tl. The length-length relationship had a b–value of 0.79 and L–W relationship showed positive allometric growth of b>3. The growth parameters showed that L¥ was 37.38 cm Tl, K = 0.8 yr-1, Q1 = 3.1, to = 0.188 yr and tmax = 3.75 yrs. Also, mortality parameters showed that Z = 4.54 yr-1, M = 0.70 yr-1, F = 3.34 yr-1 and E = 0.85 yr-1 respectively. O. niloticus had sexually matured female of 11.5 cm Tl. Whereas length-length relationship gave a b–value of 0.82 while L–W relationship showed positive allometric growth of b>3. Bertalanffy growth parameters were L¥ = 5.27 cm Tl, K = 0.8 yr-1, Q1 = 1.35, to = 0.32 yr and tmax = 3.75 yrs. Mortality estimate were Z = 3.39 yr-1, M = 1.175 yr-1, F = 2.21 yr-1 and E = 0.65 yr-1 respectively. Also P. guentheri had sexually matured female of 11.6 cm Tl. Length-length relationship had a b–value of 0.84 and L–W relationship showed negative allometric growth of b<3 .="" bertalanffy="" growth="" i="" parameters="" the="" were="">L¥ = 22.0 cm Tl, K = 0.8 yr-1, Q1 = 2.59, to = 0.22 yr and tmax = 3.75 yrs. Mortality estimates were Z = 2.6 yr-1, M = 0.80 yr-1, F = 1.80 yr-1 and E = 0.21 yr-1. H. fasciatus was only sampled once towards the end of the study (January) which showed that the species appear endangered. Fishing mortality was substantially high in all the species sampled which is undesirable since it can lead to the collapse of the cichlid fish species in Opi lake.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page
Table of Contents
List of Figures
List of Tables
List of Plates
Abstract

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION AND LITERATURE REVIEW
1.1       Introduction
1.1.1    Justification of the study
1.1.2    Objectives of the study
1.2       Literature Review
1.2       Life cycle
1.3       Physico-chemical parameters
1.4       Biological properties
1.5       Growth parameters
1.6       Mortality parameters and exploitation
1.7       Predator-prey relationship
1.8       Economic importance
1.9       Recruitment
1.10     Overfishing

CHAPTER TWO: MATERIALS AND METHODS
2.1       Study Area
2.2       Meteorological Data
2.3       Sampling Methods
2.4       Experimental Design
2.4.1    Morphometric relationships
2.4.2    Growth parameters
2.4.3    Size/age at sexual maturity
2.4.4    Longevity
2.4.5    Estimation of mortality coefficients
2.4.6    Exploitation rate
2.5       Statistical Analysis
2.6       Physico-chemical Monitoring

CHAPTER THREE: RESULTS
3.1       Meteorological Parameters
3.2       Correlation matrix and Physico-chemical Parameters of Opi Lake
3.2.1    Monthly variation of physico-chemical parameters of Opi lake
3.2.2    Seasonal variation of physico-chemical parameters of Opi lake
3.2.3    Correlation of cichlid fish species and physico-chemical parameters of Opi lake
3.3       Population Structure and Monthly Variation of Cichlid Fish species
3.4       Reproduction
3.4.1    Tilapia zillii
3.4.2    Sarotherodon melanotheron
3.4.3    Oreochromis niloticus
3.4.4    Pelmatochromis guentheri
3.5       Morphometric Relationship
3.5.1    Length–length relationship
3.5.2    Length–weight relationship
3.6       Growth Parameters
3.7       Mortality Parameters
3.8       Exploitation Parameters

CHAPTER FOUR: Discussion
Conclusion
References
Appendices


CHAPTER ONE

1.1    Introduction and Literature Review
Cichlid fishes belong to the family Cichlidae, in the order Perciformes. The family is both large and diverse, and at least 1,650 species have been scientifically described by Froese and Daniel (2012), making it one of the largest vertebrate families. The actual number of species is therefore unknown with estimates varying between 2,000 and 3,000 (Stiassny et al., 2007). Cichlids belong to the sub order Labroidei, along with the wrasses (Labridae), Damselfishes (Pomacentridae), and Surf perches (Embiotocidae) families (Stiassny et al., 2007). Cichlids are among the most popular freshwater fish kept in the aquarium and are classified by Nelson (2006) as follows:

Kingdom:                 Animalia

Phylum:                    Chordata

Class:                          Actinopterygii

Order:                        Perciformes

Suborder:                Labroidei

Family:                      Cichlidae


Nelson (2006) recognized eight subfamilies of Cichlids: Astronotinae, Cichlasomatinae, Cichlinae, Etroplinae, Geophaginae, Heterochromidinae, Pseudocrenilabrinae and Retroculinae. Sparks and Smith (2004) reported that cichlid taxonomy is still being debated, and classification of the genera cannot yet be definitively given. A comprehensive system of assigning species to monophyletic genera is still lacking, and there is no complete agreement on what genera should be recognized in this family (Nelson, 2006). Some of the most well known cichlid species are Angelfish, Oscar, Jack Dampsey and Discus (Stiassny and Lamboj, 2010).
The different cichlid species have developed in diversity in other to fit their own specific niches, and different cichlid species can therefore vary significantly when it comes to size, temperament (natural behavior), feeding habit, preferred water quality (Froese and Daniel, 2012).


Cichlids live in fresh and brackish waters and can be found in Asia, Africa and South of 300 N in American (Helfman et al., 1997). Several species of Tilapia, Sarotherodon and Oreochromis can disperse along brackish coastlines between rivers (Loiselle, 1994). Frank (2005) reported that most extreme habitat for cichlid fishes are the warm hypersaline lakes, where members of the genera Alcolapia and Danakilia are found. Lake Abaeded in Eritrea encompasses the entire distribution of D. dinicolai, and its temperature ranges from 29 - 45oC (Stiassny and Lamboj, 2010; Norlander, 2009; Graves et. al., 2002).

Population dynamics is a change in the number of fishes in a population or the vital rates of a population over some time. Enyenihi et al. (1986) reported that a good understanding of fish population dynamics (i.e., how mortality, growth and recruitment interact to affect abundance) is required to inform fisheries management on sustainable yield on the case of the endangered Kootenai River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

Growth and Mortality rates have been studied in selected species but because of the very high degree of speciosity, dynamic pool model cannot be satisfactorily applied to demersal stocks (Oliver, 1999). Also, Oliver (1999) stated that demersal fisheries exploit a number of species which are so evenly mixed on the fishing ground that it is difficult to single out individual species as dominant.

Scientific understanding of population dynamics and stocks status are entirely fishery-dependent i.e. independent research surveys are not used to monitor their populations (Graves and Macdowell, 2006). Therefore, estimates of historical biomasses are based on the relative measures of catch per unit of effort (CPUE) obtained which are assumed to be proportional to exploitable abundance, because the populations are not sampled at random, unbiased fashion. A complete reliance on fishery-dependent data may introduce many potential sources of error. However, CPUE time series and assessment models fitted to CPUE data are currently the best available estimates of historical relative abundance (Graves and Macdowell, 2006). Tobler (2005) stated that despite a potential promising trend in recent years for white marlin (Parachromis friedrichsthalii), the relative biomasses estimated for each species have declined substantially from 70–50% level. Stiassny et al. (2007) noticed that when Lake Turkana was raising the shoals of Tilapia ‘dispersed’ and the yield was little, he called the period of inundations “off season”, and usually did not fish from August to December.

Seasonal dispersion of Tilapia associated with inundation has been observed in a Sudan floodplain (Hickley and Baily, 1987; Baber et al., 2002) and in Lake Mweru (Reid, 1990), and according to Sparre and Hart (2002), there are regular seasonal variations in catches of cichlid fish species in the East African Great Lakes, generally with decreased catches in drier....


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