The study examined the societal effects and the causes of unemployment in Abuja. The study indicated that unemployment has many negative effects to the society, economy, family, and individuals. From the response got from the questionnaires revealed that unemployment leads to poverty, low productivity, losses in foreign direct investment, low revenue generation, rural urban migration, illicit activities which increases insecurity, anti-social activities such as armed robbery, prostitution, political thuggery, violence, kidnapping, restiveness and other social vices evident among the unemployed youths and this constitutes danger to the stability, growth and development of the state. The research concludes that, addressing the problems of unemployment, must involve all stakeholders. Suggestions from the analysis therefore, are that effective policy measures such as re-prioritization or revitalization of agricultural sector, reformation of educational system, provision of enabling environment and building of industries be pursued vigorously which will drastically reduce unemployment and poverty as well as eradicate the menace of unemployment in Abuja.

1.1 Background of the Study
Globally, the world is experiencing mass unemployment of qualified and able-bodied youths and these have generated much concern for both governmental and non-governmental organizations, public and private sectors of the economy. The global economic recession of the 1980’s has caused rapid deterioration in Nigeria’s economic industrial output. In the 60’s and 70’s unemployment was not pronounced like today because the government then were proactively involved in providing jobs for graduates churning out from various higher institutions.

Over the years, unemployment has taken a centre stage in most socials and economic discourse in Nigeria because the youths remain the greatest asset and the life wire of any nation. Youth employment in any nation is universally acknowledged as the basic source of survival and economic development (Ajaji, 2008). The central issue in societal development is how to create conditions necessary for rapid and sustained growth and productivity where, the ultimate goal is to improve people’s quality of life and standard through production of goods and services at affordable prices, provision of basic infrastructures, reduce poverty, create employment opportunities and conducive political, religious, social and economic environment. (Echeriri, 2007).

In Nigeria, unemployment is soaring high despite laudable programmes provided by federal, states and local governments to curb the growing concern of joblessness among the teeming population of the country. Several governments both past and present have tried to solve this issue but day to day it increases. President Ibrahim Babangida’s regime from (1984-1993) was the first administration to be confronted with mass unemployment which led to introduction of National Directorate of Employment (NDE) to tackle the scourge of unemployment but to no avail. President Olusegun Obasanjo’s administration (1999-2007) came up with the national Poverty Eradication Programme (NAPEP) but could not solve this menace.

President Umaru Yaradua’s administration (2007-2010) with the view of solving this problem initiated the seven (7) points agenda, yet no meaningful achievement was recorded and President Goodluck Jonathan (2011-2015) administration launched Youth Enterprise with New Innovations (YOUWIN) and Alhaji Bolaji Abdulahji the minister of youth also organized a youth forum to help youths realize their goals in life, still there is high prevalence of unemployment in the Nigerian Sectors (Ikemefula, 2012).

The level of unemployment in Nigeria as well as Abuja appears to grow in geometric progression every year, in contrast to its regional neighbours most of whom have far less resources. Anameza (2000), stated that Nigeria will have no prospect of measurable development or of improving the welfare of its people; unless it enhances the chances of employment for its graduates. The menace of unemployment has increasingly been recognized as one of the societal problems currently facing many developing countries like Nigeria and Africa as a whole.

Abuja, with a population of over 4 million people and a vast spread of natural resource endowment has the potential to be the source of growth and prosperity for the whole region. The unemployment problem in Abuja remains persistent and even growing by the day with labour force approximately 70% persons (mostly youths) annually moving into job market (Adelodun, 2006). Statistics of unemployment seems to consist, not of uneducated rural populations, who have been uprooted by failing agricultural production resulting from the absence of mechanization and decreasing incomes but also of some highly educated populations, as well, who normally, would form the core of the productive vanguard in a developing country. In other words, many of Nigeria’s unemployed and consequently poor are well educated even by European and American standards. Nigeria’s underemployment and low productivity constitute a vicious cycle that explains the endemic poverty in the country.

Overall, unemployment in Abuja has affected youths from a broad spectrum of societal groups, both of well and less educated, although it has particularly stricken a substantial fraction of youths from low income backgrounds and limited education. From the foregoing, it is obvious that unemployment, especially the unemployment of graduates, impedes the progress of Abuja in many ways. Apart from economic waste, it also constitutes danger for political stability (Ipaye, 1998). It is disturbing to note that Nigeria’s graduates have limited chance of becoming gainfully employed. It is even more disheartening that the country’s economic condition is such that, it is hardly able to absorb an optimal proportion of the production of its own educational system. Gone are the days when employers went about looking for employees. It is now the turn of employees to move from one office to the other seeking for non-existent jobs. These days, thousands of young people are found waiting to be interviewed for just one, two or few vacant positions in some organizations or firms. Most people who cannot earn their living are prone to social vices. They look at themselves as second-class citizens for being unable to contribute to the society.

Abuja faced high rates of unemployment thereby leading to social vices and insecurity in the state. In FCT, the only means of survival is politics, civil service, trading and farming. No day passes by without seeing youths roaming about the streets in various offices and business centres in search of job, through advertisement in various mass media such as Newspapers, Magazines, Handbills, posters, Billboards, Radio and Television announcements. Youths all over the country spend much time and huge amount of money surfing through the internet in search of job and some being tired in searching for job and labeled as idle ones have joined bad gangs and are involved in criminal activities and prostitution.

Unemployment is defined as young ones within the age of 18 – 35 years who are living in absolute joblessness. It also means young ones who are willing and able to work but cannot find work. Under-employment on the other hand, refers to people who are gainfully employed but not financially rewarded to authenticate their suffering and qualification (Onuh, 2011). Unemployment and underemployment has seriously confronted youths in Abuja. These are caused by several factors such as: rural-urban migration, corruption, socio-cultural constraints, poor educational system and high turnover of graduates from secondary and higher institutions, increase in government spending on political office holders. The state of unemployment can even lead to depression, low self-esteem, frustration and a number of other negative consequences (Ipaye, 1998).

Unemployment is a crucial issue in FCT because the youth constitute a major part of the labour force and they have innovative ideas, which among other factors are important in the development process of the country. A large proportion of the youths however are unemployed. The negative consequences include psychological problems of frustration, depression, hostility and gradual drift of some visible unemployed youths into all manner of criminal behaviours (Okafor, 2011). Unemployment in FCT generally is indeed a pathetic situation that calls for urgent attention, to address the societal effects accompanied by it.

It is on this background that the study is undertaken with the view of examining the societal effect of unemployment in Abuja using FCT as a case study and suggesting ways of improving and ameliorating unemployment in Abuja.

1.2 Statement of the Problem
Unemployment in Abuja is alarming as the rate is growing geometrically. Unemployment in the state is becoming unbearable as it threatens the growth of the state. It is apparent that youths in any society are the greatest assets of national development if given the opportunity of employment. Due to non-availability of ample employment opportunity in the state, the teeming youths with vibrant energy cannot contribute effectively and efficiently to the economic growth and development of the state but rather utilizes such energy in unacceptable means of satisfying their needs, wants and goals in life by engaging themselves in social vices such as armed robbery, kidnapping, violence, political thuggery, cybercrimes, fraud (419), murder, killing human beings and drug trafficking, with prostitution as the only means of survival. Our present society is not helping matters as it places much emphasis and values on materialism.

The problem of unemployment in FCT and the state has also affected the local government area, individuals, families, communities, society and government, and has indeed hindered the societal growth and development of FCT and the state, thereby challenging the leadership and people of Abuja as it brings about poverty, high crime rates and deviant behaviours, malnutrition, poor health condition which later results in high death rates (Brown, 2011).

The problems of unemployment are so devastating that Nwodo, (2011) wants the Federal and State Government to urgently address the growing issues of unemployment, insecurity and other social vices rampaging our country. Today, the numerous problems associated with unemployment are so enormous that Njoku (1997) asserted “Nothing can be more disturbing to an independent nation than a preponderance of unemployed youths”. Hence, Okoro, (2001) says “restive youths without employment, good housing and other decent conditions of living are bound to become miscreants in the society and deviant behavior will soon become the order of the day in their lives”. To this end Umanah, (2011), pointed out that unemployment has inflicted unprecedented social and economic havoc. It has both social, economic, political, health and psychological consequences on the individual and the society.

It is these seemingly insurmountable problems that necessitate this academic work, to ascertain the extent of the societal effects of unemployment in Abuja. The work will only focus on the state capital which is FCT.

1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study is to find out the effects and consequence of unemployment on the societal life and activities of Abuja. In view of this, the specific objectives of the research work are as follows:

1. To examine the effects of unemployment and armed robbery situation in FCT.

2. To examine the effects of unemployment on the kidnapping situation in FCT.

3. To find out the extent unemployment has affected the societal well being of the individuals of FCT.

1.4 Research Questions
The following constitutes the research questions for the study.

1. What are the effects of unemployment and the level of armed robbery attacks in Abuja?

2. What are the effects of unemployment on the level of kidnapping situations in FCT?

3. What are the consequences of unemployment in Abuja?

1.5 Research Hypotheses
Following the objectives of the study as outlined in section 1.3 and the research question as outlined in 1.4, the research hypotheses are as follows:

1. Ho: There is no significant relationship between unemployment and armed robbery situation in FCT.

H1: There is significant relationship between unemployment and armed robbery situation in FCT.

2. Ho: There is no significant relationship between unemployment and kidnapping situation in FCT.

H1: There is significant relationship between unemployment and kidnapping situation in FCT.

3. Ho: There are no consequences of unemployment in FCT.

H1: There are consequences of unemployment in FCT.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Size: 62 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
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