The study sought to establish the effectiveness of the various teaching strategies on the acquisition of the English language skills. The study was carried out in tertiary institutions in Port Harcourt. The objectives sought to find out the various teaching strategies used in English language, the effectiveness of the lecture methods on acquisition of English language skills; the role of role playas a teaching method in promoting acquisition of English language skills and the effectiveness of questions and answer methods on acquisitions of English language skills. Four research questions were formulated to guide the study. The questions sought to identify the various method used in English language in Port Harcourt, and their effectiveness.

The data was collected using three instruments. The student's questionnaire sought to find out whether the like or dislike English, the methods that are mostly used by their teachers during the English lessons and the skills acquired using those methods. The teacher's questionnaire sought to find out the methods that they used mostly the reasons that they used them and the skills that are acquires when the methods are used. The observation schedule sought to get the real classroom experience in terms of the teaching strategies used during the English lessons, the skills acquired and the supplementary materials used by the teachers during the English lesson.

After an analysis of how the method promotes the acquisition of the English language skills, it was established that each of the methods enhances acquisition of the English language skills. The four skills in English namely: writing, listening, reading and speaking form the core of the English language. The effectiveness of the each method in promoting the acquisition of one or all of the skills was evaluated. It was evident that each of the method imparted on students some skill. Lecture method was found effective in promoting listening and writing skills. Role play highly imparted on students speaking skills, while questions and answer instilled on students a mix of listening and speaking skills.

It was evident that writing and speaking skills were effectively acquired during the questions and answer method.

The study established that integration of all methods is effective on acquisition of the various language skills. Each of the methods complements the other in the acquisition of the various skills. The various methods used during the English lessons are highly effective in promoting acquisition of English language skills. The methods encourage group participation in class and thus enhance active participation of the students.

Based on the research findings the researcher made the following recommendations were made; that the methods used in teaching English be more reinforced to promote the four skills of the English language, that the Ministry of Education provides more supplementary materials in teaching of the English language.

• Background of the study
English as an international language is spoken in many countries both as native language and as a second or a foreign language. It is taught in schools in almost every country on earth. It is a living and vibrant language spoken by over three hundred million people as a native language. Millions more speak it as an additional language. (Bowen J. 1979)

Tertiary institutions in Nigeria enroll students of varying Nationalities and social backgrounds (Okwara et aI, 2009). Okwara et al further says that besides adding to the diversity of learners population, their social cultural settings expose them to varied experiences and values that positively or negatively impact on learning.

Teaching strategies refer to a broad set of teaching styles, approaches, strategies or procedures used by teachers to facilitate learning (Curzon, 1990). Teaching strategies that enable learners to actively participate in their learning should be adopted instead of those that reduce them to passive recipients of knowledge (Okwara et ai, 2009). In cases where the teaching strategies adopted are not consistent with learners preferred learning styles, discomfort sets in and interferes with the learning process hence acquisition of the desired English knowledge is impaired. Use of teaching strategies should take cognizance of the learner's preferred learning styles and balance them with the less effective but popular methods of learning (Okwara et ai, 2009). The selection and arrangement of elements of the curriculum and the various ways in which they are introduced to the studies is the more specialized meaning of teaching method (Hoyle, 1969).

Teachers of English can use various teaching strategies depending on preference or type of skill the learner is expected to acquire after instruction. According to (Micheal, 1987), the lecture method is probably the most popular and widely used teaching method. However, lecture method limits the chances of asking questions (Castello, 1991). Other teaching strategies in English include demonstration; which stimulates students thinking, small group discussion, this gives learners opportunities to express their opinions, role play, reading, research and writing are also used to provide a nourishing learning environment. Discovery methods are known to keep students motivated and aroused, aid cognition and enhance retention. These methods are not to be used in every lesson but, rather, the teacher should choose the most appropriate methods in line with the topic and the pupils. The choice of teaching strategies depends on the strategy used, whereas the strategy depends on the content and objectives of the lesson (Bowen J, 1985). Ineffective teaching occurs when one uses inappropriate method that results to reduced motivation, increased negative attitudes to learning and yields lower achievement (Doff, 1988). Methods enhance acquisition of the various skills in English.

English is the associate official language of India which has over 1000 million (over billion) people. Pakistan, Bangladesh, and many other nations which were ruled by Britain continue to use English both as an optional medium of instruction in their schools and as one of their official languages. The islands of the Philippines continue to use English as an important tool for education, administration, and for mass media purposes. English is the chief foreign language taught in the schools of Europe, South America, Asia and Africa (Day, 1993).

Even though some nations which were ruled by the French continue to teach French as their most preferred second language. English is gaining ground even in these countries. In the former Soviet Union, Russian was the dominant language. Since the break of the Soviet Union, the Central Asian Republics have been rapidly introducing English in their school system as a second or foreign language. In Russia itself, English is gaining ground as the most popular second language. In Japan too, English is the most favored second or foreign language (Bowen et ai, 1985).

English is learned everywhere because people have found out that knowledge of English is a passport for better career, better pay, advanced knowledge, and for communication with the entire world. English is also learned for the Literature it possesses, and for the variety and rich experience it provides. English has replaced French as the language of diplomacy. In this computer age, English is bound to expand its domains of use everywhere. Everyone wants to appropriate English as their own. In the Indian subcontinent, English became the dominant language of communication among the educated classes after the famous Minute of Lord Maeaulay in 1833.

In Hong Kong, English is used in government, the media, employment, education, and is seen as a key to economic advantage. Given the superior status of the English language in the former British colony, it is unsurprising that issues relating to the use of English in education or government have always had serious repercussions for the local community. A recent government move to impose Chinese medium of instruction on the majority of Hong Kong's tertiary institutions was met with strong resistance from parents (Hardner & Jesner, 2002). Task-based approach forms a permanent component of the English language curriculum and its teaching is process-oriented. During tasks, learners are engaged with an interactive meaning. Thus language proficiency is built up through their participation in communicative tasks/ speaking skills. Being able to communicate well in English is a priority on Hong Kong's education agenda. Over two decades, the Hong Kong government criticized the traditional practice of English language teaching as teacher-centred which concentrated on "the formal features of the language at the expense of encouraging students to use the language" (Education Commission, 1994).

English is the language of communication as well as the medium of communication in schools, colleges and universities. It is also the pre eminent language of International communication (KIE, 2002).The teaching of English language in Nigeria dates back to pre colonial period when Nigeria was a British colony. The Nigerian linguistic situation is not clear-cut and well-defined. This is because the Nigerian society is shaped by about 40 to 60 African ethnic languages and the lingua franca among these ethnic groups is Igbo. In addition, several languages were left behind during the colonial era by European colonialists, Arab and Asian merchants. The internal linguistic competition brings out the issue of relative power and status of the languages. Larger speech communities have more advantages over the smaller ones. Languages spoken in Nigeria include English, Igbo, Arabic, French, Pidgin and Mother tongues. Most Nigerians speak three languages: Mother tongue, Igbo and English (KIE, 2007).

An Education conference in language policy held in Port Harcourt in May 2008 observed that most Nigerian school leavers are not articulate in English, and cannot speak Standard English. It was felt that teachers of English were not doing enough to reinforce the English policy in Nigerian tertiary institutions. Port Harcourt has its share in English language interference among the young. Language, being very dynamic has penetrated the schools and the teaching strategies have also been affected. Teachers of English choose methods that are in conformity with times of the students thus compromising the quality and corrupting the content. The emergence of Pidgin and the acceptance of the same even in school system is a sign that teaching strategies of English varies among teachers.

• Statement of the problem
English has become an essential entity in our daily life though not a mother tongue. In Port Harcourt, where there is infusion of many languages various trends have come up in the use of English as a language. Being a culturally and linguistically a pluralistic society, the many languages spoken in Port Harcourt has led to a interesting feature of Nigeria's multilingualism. Being a metropolitan city the linguistic features of English language have been corrupted by development of Pidgin and this has penetrated the school system. This corrupted structure has exposed students to corrupted language structure thus hampers the acquisition of the skills in skills. Teachers of English therefore have the task of using appropriate teaching strategies that promote the four skills in English: writing, speaking, listening and reading. The researcher seeks to establish the effectiveness of teaching strategies of English on acquisition of English language skills in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

The feeling is that the most effective methods are those which give students the greatest opportunity for participation and allow them to relate their experiences. The teaching strategies that allow students to be more involved in the classroom process, the more likely they are to master the various language structures.

• Purpose of the study
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of teaching strategies on English acquisition of Speaking skills in second language classrooms in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

• Objectives of the study The objectives of the study were;

• Identify various teaching strategies used by teachers of English in Port Harcourt.

• Determine the effectiveness of lecture method on acquisition English language skills.

• To establish how role play promotes acquisition English language skills in Port Harcourt.

• Establish the effectiveness of questions and answer method on teaching of English on acquisition of English language skills.

• Research questions
The following research questions guided this study;

• What are the various teaching strategies used by the teachers of English in Port Harcourt?

• To what extent does the lecture method contribute on acquisition of English language skills?

• How does role playas a teaching method promote acquisition of English language skills?

• How effective is the question and answer method in teaching of English in acquisition of English language skills?

• Significance of the study
The study focused on the teaching strategies used by tertiary institution teachers of English. lts aim was to collect data on the methods used and their relation, if any, on the acquisition of English language skills. The effectiveness of each method was analyzed and the most effective method in the acquisition in the English language skill highlighted. The findings of the study are meant to give feedback to curriculum developers at the KIE on the appropriateness of the present teach ing methods; there effectiveness on the four skills in English namely; listening, speaking, reading and writing. The study would also give feedback to the Ministry of Education for the enforcement of teaching methodologies in tertiary institutions in Nigeria. This study would go a long way in the diagnosis of the problem of acquisition of the English language skills among students and the youth. It recommended appropriate mitigation for improved acquisition of English language skills in Port Harcourt.

• Limitations of the study
Limitations of the study are constraints that a researcher has no control over during the research and which can prevent or hinder him/her from achieving the objectives of the study. They are conditions beyond the control of the researcher that could restrict the conclusion of the study. The researcher has no control of the attitudes of the respondents which can affect validity of responses. At times the respondents gave acceptable but not honest answers, wrong interpretation by respondents can also affect the responses. (Mugenda & Mugenda, 2003).

The limitations of study include dependence on respondents' co-operation. Another limitation is the dependence on the teaching strategies as a measure of appropriate acquisition of English language skills. Implicit in the study is the premise that success of any learning is in the use of the appropriate teaching strategies.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Size: 79 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.


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