Mining has been blamed globally for harmful and impoverishing effects. Most countries are rich sources of the gemstone, yet there is very little development, since miners, and those around mining sites, still live in poverty. This premise formed the purpose of this study and led the researcher to assess the impacts of mining on people living around mining areas on the aspects of their socio-cultural dynamics, livelihood and environmental conditions. This study was done at Jos south in Plateau State. Specific mining areas were Dong and Babale. Questionnaires, observational record sheets and guided discussions were used as inquiry tools to collect information on the problem under study. Livelihood Framework analysis was adopted to show the interplay between mining and development. The research method applied included structured questionnaires administered using mobile technology to target random respondents of 173 out of 990 households drawn from nine villages. Observation method was applied in the case of environmental impacts. Record sheets were used to collect data in nine purposive selected mining sites on the elements of vegetation, topography and air. The descriptive and content analytical approach was applied to assess the mining impact on the environment.

Observation done on the environment at the mining areas revealed that trees, shrubs and grassland were cleared for mining activities. Forests and most of the natural habitation and indigenous trees have been eliminated. Additionally, the lives of both domestic and wild animals have been interrupted. Underground mining has interfered with water beds and rivers have dried up. In a scale of 1-5 (1=None, 2=Very thin, 3=Thin, 4=Thick, 5=Very thick) it was observed that transportation of materials created thick dust on the environment as given in a scale of 4. The uncontrolled dust is very common and miners require more visibility of NEMA and Nigeria Forest Service (KFS). There is a need for an active legal framework to regulate the mining operations in Jos South State. Other suggestions would be to increase economic activities which will enhance livelihood improvement if efforts to understand the characteristics of the diversified communities are employed. Improving the livelihood of these communities may require the involvement of policymakers, Environmental Impact Assessment reports before, during and after the mining operations is desired.

Keywords: Environment, Household, Land, Livelihood, Mining, Poverty, Sustainability

1.1 Background Information
The extractive industry is as old an exercise as human development itself. As populations grow, there are greater demand for urbanization, social and economic development benefits, calling for an increase of more minerals and metals which to a great extent also affect the environment negatively as recorded in the International Council on Mining and Metals report. (ICMM, 2014).

Mining is a major economic activity in many developing countries, however, unregistered and illegal small scale miners exist everywhere (Hilson, & McQuilken,2014). Mining operations, whether small or large-scale, are inherently disruptive to the environment, producing enormous quantities of waste that can have deleterious impacts for decades. The environmental deterioration caused by mining occurs mainly as a result of inappropriate and wasteful working practices and rehabilitation measures. Mining has several common stages or activities, each of which has potentially adverse impacts on the natural environment, society and cultural heritage, the health and safety of mineworkers, and communities based close to operations. Several authors have commented on the potentially adverse impacts of mining, including the displacement of local people from ancestral lands, marginalization, and oppression of people belonging to lower economic classes (Kitula, 2006).

According to (Boadi, al.2016). mining is associated with the destruction of forest reserves, denying thousands of people an avenue for their livelihood. An example is Ghana whose forest reserve at independence in 1957 was 8.3 million hectares and was depleted to 1.2 million by 2003 as a result of allowing gold mining activities in the forests (CCPA Monitor 2003). Displacement of indigenous people from their ancestral and communal lands has brought a lot of strains on livelihood (Darimani et al., 2013). Unemployment rates have escalated in the rural communities who live within the mines catchment areas, resulting in poverty and unsustainable livelihood. The Sustainable Livelihood idea was first introduced by the Brundtland Commission on Environment and Development, and the 1992 United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) expanded the concept, advocating for the achievement of Sustainable Livelihood as a broad goal for poverty eradication.

In Africa, natural resource exploitation and extraction activities have had adverse results for communities living around the project affected areas. Various actors including government entities and private companies have violated and abused human rights, the environment and social and economic development (Adeola, 2001). Such practices have resulted in long-term and sometimes irreversible negative impacts on people living in and around mining areas. Communities have been displaced in addition to harmful practices such as dumping of untreated chemical waste. These primary violations, in turn, led to secondary harms with long- lasting consequences, such as the inability to realize other human rights, especially economic, social and cultural rights which include loss of housing, destruction of livelihoods, loss of economic opportunities, lack of access to education for the children and young people, and repercussions on health resulting from environmental pollution (Olawuyi, 2018)

Nigeria has had rapid growth in the mining industry during the last two decades. A variety of minerals are found in Nigeria. Artisanal and Small-Scale Mining (ASM) has been significant. ASM plays a pivotal role in job creation, it is an activity accompanied by several social and environmental consequences and abject poverty is still witnessed among the miners in ASM. Most of the rural people engage in ASM even while they are aware of destroying the river systems through poor mining practices (Davies & Osono, 2005). Nigeria is no exception concerning the negative effects caused by mining or extractive industry.

1.2 Statement of the Research Problem
Several factors led to the rationale of this study. Extractive industry activities have left some of the communities, living around mining areas, with unsustainable livelihood conditions socially, economically and environmentally. Brundtland Commission definition of sustainable development is “Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (WCED, 1987). Similarly (Chambers & Conway, 1992) looked at sustainability broadly as a livelihood that has a means of living of both present and future. Therefore it should sustainably cope even with the surrounding destructions.

Sustainable development is a wholesome combination of livelihood which includes enhanced socio-economic growth and development, environmental protection and pollution prevention. (Hilson &Murck, 2000). Although Plateau State is endowed with some of the richest minerals deposits in Nigeria and the Eastern Africa region (Mohamed, et al. 2019), harvesting attracts mainly people from outside the state (Rop, 2014; Environment Action Plan 2009-13). Mineral has the potential of generating considerable wealth which would impact peoples’ livelihoods positively, however, poverty in the state continues to spread unabated (Mghanga, 2011). This is also because there has been no clear government regulations and control (Jos South Professionals Forum, 2008).

1.3 Objectives of the study
1.3.1 General Objective
This study investigated and scrutinised the impacts of the extensive mining activities on communities’ livelihoods to find ways of improving their living standards.

1.3.2 Specific Objectives
1. Scrutinize the Socio-cultural impacts of mining among the communities in Jos South

2. To assess the impacts of mining on household livelihoods in Jos South

3. To observe the environmental impact of mining on topography, air and vegetation

1.4 Research Questions
This research answered three questions concerning the mining industry in Nigeria since its inception to the present.

1. What is the social status of communities living around mining areas?

2. How have mining activities impacted household livelihoods?

3. What is the state of the environment in mining areas?

1.5 Significance of study
Plateau State has become a popular state because of its gemstone minerals (Central Bank, 2008; Hentschel, 2003). Minimal publishing has been done on the political, economic, social and environmental impacts of mining in the country including prospects of mining and conflicts over land and mineral resources (Mghanga, 2011). This means that there is no documentation published concerning the impacts of mining on people’s livelihoods, except for those addressing the natural science and geological issues driven by prospector, investor and trade interests. This knowledge, therefore, formed the basis and justification of this study whose aim is to scrutinise the impacts of mining on the people who live close to the mining areas

1.6 Scope
This study examined the impacts of mining on sustainable livelihoods of the communities dwelling in extractive industry areas in this case mining areas. Initial scoping was performed to develop an understanding of local livelihoods patterns and other relevant issues including the type of extractive industry in the area. Plateau State in Nigeria was the case study in a particular south known as Jos.

1.7 Limitations
This study was dependent on available information and survey results. Looking at the period since independence presented blank areas in terms of memory lapses or archived material.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Size: 39 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
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