The history of Western-oriented cum education in Nigeria was intimately bound up with the history of Western education in Europe during and after the dark ages. After the fall of the Roman Empire in the fifth century, the old literary and rhetorical education of the Roman era was almost completely destroyed because it was considered pagan in spirit. The Church was therefore not at all enthusiastic to revive it; and became indifferent to education for some time. Soon, however, the Church saw that it could not do its own work effectively unless its adherents were able to read and write. In no time at all it realized the advantage of an education that was tailored to its need. As a system of education that originated from Western Europe and penetrated to the other parts of the world after Industrial Revolution that introduced a civilization of science and technology. Its main approach was the modernization of social life through science and technological advancement. Western Education therefore has been administered by various authorities in the Nigerian area, voluntary agencies or missions, colonial „government‟ through inspectorates and departments, and later by Federal, State and Local Government. This research has been able to bring to the open; firstly, that the introduction of this system of education to Kaduna was initially not to inculcate on the people the knowledge of science and technology in its real sense but as a machinery for evangelization as well as colonial domination of the area; secondly, Its introduction subsequently helped in shaping the thoughts and behavior of the people politically, economically, religiously and socially. This research we must note takes a critical analysis of the introduction and development of this western-type education in Kaduna and the Impact it has created in the reordering socio-political and economic set-up of the area.

1.1 Introduction
Long before the Europeans arrival, Education has been part of the communities of the Nigerian area, the children were taught about their culture, social activities, survival skills and work. Most of the education processes were impacted into the children informally.1 This informal education also known as Indigenous Education was centered on training of boys and girls to become useful to themselves and their communities. The boys were trained mainly by their Fathers, while the girls were trained by their mothers.2

Our focus on this research is on the introduction and development of Western Education in Kaduna. This type of education involved the training of people (mostly children) of the European style or type of education (culture and tradition) using the English language as the medium of communication. It involved the acculturation of the colonies on the tradition of western ways of thinking and approach to life. We will pay more attention to missionary activities especially in the establishment of people (mostly children) to this system of education and the response of the indigenes during and after the introduction, establishment and development of western schools. We will also look at the factor (s) that assisted in the development of Western Education and the impact it created to the people of Kaduna.

1.2 Statement of the research problem
The introduction of Western Education in our area of study in the 20th century has been most marked by the confrontation of the already existing forms of education (Indigenous and Islamic educational systems) with a foreign European system of education; the confrontation resulted to the imposition of certain foreign cultural values on the people of Kaduna and Nigeria at large. Therefore there was the refusal by larger part of the communities to accept and enroll their children into the new form of education, even the few that accepted did not enroll all their children, mostly male children were enrolled than female. We should note that there is no any serious research of whatever kind that discusses western education, its introduction, growth and development, people‟s response toward it and the impact it has created on the people and the Division as a whole.

The concern of this research therefore, is to document the Changing attitude of the people toward Missionary activities and Western Education (i.e., from fighting to accepting it). Contrary to the cold response it received at the period of its introduction at around 1910 in the area and unmindful of its effects as stated above on the imposition of certain foreign cultural values on the people of Kaduna, Western Education suddenly became widely accepted within a short period of time that both male and female children were enrolled and it also became the basis for status attachment for in the Division.

In view of this, the research critically outlined and documented the processes for the introduction and the development of Western Education, laying much emphasis on the factors that contributed to the sudden positive response it received, in terms of acceptance and enrollment.

1.3 Scope of the study
The study looks at History of Western Education in Kaduna, Nigeria during the period 1910-1960. The choice of 1910 as the starting point of our study is due to the fact that it was the year that marked the arrival of the first Christian Mission in Kaduna and Southern Zaria (southern Kaduna) at large. Sudan Interior Mission (SIM) was the first to arrive in 1910, the first station was opened at Kwoi in 1910 by Rev. F.E Hein, the second was in Kurmin Musa in about 1921 by Rev. T. Allen and the third station was Kagoro by Rev. T. Archibald. Kwoi and Kurmin Musa were both in Jaba District. The terminal date 1960 represents the date Sudan Interior Mission (SIM) a major actor of the Christian Missions handed over to indigenous mission body known as ECWA. It also marked the beginning for the rapid expansion of western education and the rise of educational and political consciousness in the area.

1.4 Justification for the Study
Though there are literatures and thesis of different kinds on western/colonial education in Nigeria, e.g., Women and Colonial Education in Zaria City, by Gidado. B Hauwa Colonial Education and Employment Opportunities by Kyam-Jim Laraba and many others, but not without some gaps especially on the Changing approach to it. Certainly there is no any work that comprehensively discusses Western Education in Kaduna on the basis of its subsequent rejection, the recent acceptance and the importance it acquires. This research therefore is set to bridge some of the gaps, not only by coming up with a mere document on western education in Kaduna, but by comprehensively analyzing why it was introduced, why it was initially rejected and subsequently accepted , its impact on the area, as well as reconstructing other un- researched areas which will be of benefit.

Many people in our area of study regarded western education a bad thing, contrarily to their believed on the effect of western education to their cultural values; however, little did they know that “education” has something to do with the transmission of knowledge and understanding. Indeed they associated it with books and theories and the „white‟ man‟s culture, and this is why they were against it, for they think of it either as useless or as corrupting, by its nature and outlook, it contrasted their value system. Of course, that contributed to the kind of response western education received at the onset. They brought up their own children, in traditional skills.

The study therefore, is set to bring to the light the history of the processes and the development of missionary activieties and western education and the level of its acceptance in Kaduna up to 1960s. It has also examined the impact of the missionaries‟ activities on education on the in Kaduna.

It is therefore very important to record and keep record of the historical process for the development of Kaduna, under the colonial rule. This will help in preserving the historical heritage of the people as was observed by Fage that:

It is our duty to proceed from what is near to what is distant, from what is known to that which is less known, to gather the tradition from those who have reported them as much as possible and to leave the rest as it is, in order to make our work help anyone who seeks truth and loves wisdom.3

Thus, it is justified to historical research on the significance of this area before all the information available will be taken by time and activities of men.

1.5 Significance of the Study
The introduction of western type education in Southern Zaria, like in other places was accompanied with several responses, at this point; the study will be particularly concerned with the idea of unveiling the unique nature of the people‟s responses from the area.

This study therefore is very significant as it examined, explained and documented the reasons for the refusal and reluctance by the people of Kaduna to enroll their children and the sudden and massive response it received from the people within a short period of time. It has also documented the various efforts by the colonial authority to overcome the challenges by the indigenous population. Alongside, this study hasl also documented the entire process with a view to establishing how western educational project succeeded and produced not only the Schools and its administration, but also a class of indigenous elites. This study we must note will help to create a better understanding of the general picture on the process of educational development in Kaduna as well as a clearer understanding of the history of learning in Jema‟a, including the huge disparity in the quest for western or colonial education between male and female. It will also add to the existing literatures on Western Education in Jema‟a.

1.6 Objective of the Study
To bring to bear the History of Missionary/western education in Kaduna, the research outlined other forms of education in the area prior to the advent of the missionaries. The extent to which, the introduction of their form of education has existed with the already existing forms of education in the area. The research also outlined how western education influenced the traditions, customs, and religious activities of the area, how it has unleashed changes that have impacted on the political relevance of the indigenous system of administration.

The research also brought to the surface the form of response demonstrated by the people of Jema‟a towards the introduction of western type of education in the area, providing explanation of some possible factors, which either worked for or against the establishment of the colonial education in Jema‟a.

The study further examined the extent graduates of western schools were able to fit into the rest of the professional groups in the area, which before the introduction of western type of education were complementing each other. This study would equally enable us to place in its right perspective, what became of the product of the western schools, popularly referred to as Western Educated Elites.

The research is a comprehensive document that will shape people‟s understanding of western, missionary, colonial and all other forms of education different to our indigenous form of education.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Size: 47 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
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