IMPACT OF IN-SERVICE TRAINING OF TEACHERS ON JOB PERFORMANCE AND MOTIVATION

ABSTRACT
This study assessed the effects of in-service training on teachers performance and motivation in Lagos Secondary schools. In order to provide in-depth information about in-service training the Questionnaire method was used in this research. The participants of this study are 70 secondary school teachers. The findings revealed that teachers strongly desire to receive trainings on curriculum, Information Computer Technology (ICT) and school management. Teachers suggest that a needs analysis should be done in order to inform planning of training. A qualitative approach with a case study design was used which provided a great deal of information about teachers in-service trainings. The number of participants involved in the study was 70 teachers from six secondary schools. The questionnaire method was used in this study for data collection.

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Problem
The low performance of students in secondary schools, dynamic society and its needs, continues changes in expectations about the quality and assessment of education, rapid changes in science and technology lead the school and teachers to face difficulties with this respect to parents and society. In fact the issues for teachers and teachers' education to fulfill these requirements are continuing and complex (moeini,2008). In-service teacher training has grown in importance and status and has developed as a global trend for three decades. It has been viewed by many countries as the key element in strategies to rise the quality of educational provision (Hayes,1997).

Professional development programs or in-service training programs enable teachers to become highly qualified by improving, increasing and advancing their knowledge through a better understanding of effective instructional strategies. However, it has been shown that in many cases, in-training does not actually achieve its main objectives, namely the implementation of new teaching strategies and significant changes in students' achievements (Guskey,1986). In-service training is just as important as preservice teacher training. This is the Governments' role to provide teachers education which their need through in-service training. The purposes of the in-service teacher training are to enable individuals to be successful in their professionals, into develop professionalism and skills of lifelong in learning, to improve their required performance to meet the students' needs.

Training of employee for work performance became an issue of concern that raised questions to policy and decision makers (Malhotra et al. 2007). In fact, Meyer et al. (1993) argued that better training procedures for employees result to affective, continuance and normative commitment in public organization. Indeed, employees training are appropriate ingredient in service delivery to the public at large.

Employees training in public organization promote effective and competent performance of public organization. A dynamic global marketplace and increasing foreign competition has compelled public organization to become more effective and flexible in training (Gould-Williams, 2003).

Public organizations try to increase their capabilities by investing more in employees training. Moreover, it encourages competency of employees for both their own benefit and the benefit of others (Rodrigues, 2005). In a career system, initial training is of paramount in the effective and efficient work performance. The newly recruited employees enter in working without specific expertise for the job (Fraser et al, 2007). In fact, initial training offers general preparation in public service delivery. The training offers specific preparation for a new function after or before transfer or promotion. In a post system training may be less important as specialists are hired for a specific post (Koning, 2009).

However, even specialists may need some training throughout their work life to update skills with regard to new technologies or other developments. Nowadays, governments seem to organize public services by merging a pure post and career system The United States, for example, has departed from a pure post system and has to a certain extent introduced a career system, even for top management posts (the senior executive service), leaving enough leeway for political appointments. The "classical" civil services with a rigid career system, on the other hand, have introduced more flexibility to allow for direct appointments to other than entry level posts, and/or have excluded posts above a certain level from the normal career path (Vähäsantane, 2009).

However, the condition of public organization becomes increasingly challenging to engage in employee training. Similarly, Chapagain (2004) argued that USA, Japan and UK adapted different strategies in training of employee through a loan from the government. Training aimed at empowering public organization employee. In fact, training in the realm of employees’ job performance need government sponsorship.

Similarly, in developing countries training in public organization (like schools) is less considered on improving the capacity of its low cadre employees. According to Wereko (2010) who propound that low cadre employees have a weak voice on matter related to training. However, public organization is responsible for the full range of training of its employees. Low cadre demanding more or better education may have extremely weak voices relative to those of the military demanding armaments. In view of that, low cadre employee wanting better training for their skills for improvement of work performance (Mulkeen et al, 2007).

1.2 Statement of the Problem
It is clear that in-service Training programs for employee on work performance are increasingly drawing attention in public organization (URT, 2012). Mechanisms and adequate training of in service delivery still remain in the discussion and yet come into consensus in Nigeria. According to Rova (2006) who argued that training of employee expect to meet efficiency of employees.

Public organization employees are expected to be trained to enhance employees’ useful capacity in job performance. In view of that, employees are required to develop special skills and knowledge related to work performance. In fact, training is expected to foster work performance in public organization. Public organization employees are increasingly challenging in training opportunities while about 70% share of the recurrent education budget over the period 1998-2015 allocated in training (URT, 2012).

The past studies, indicated that training is required for employees work performance in public organization. The public organization has been forgotten in government training and development program (URT, 2013). It is no longer sufficient in recruit and retains the best employees but, organizations have to impart skills and enhance capabilities of employees through learning, supportive environment and shared knowledge. The quality of employees through training programs is the major factors in determining long term success of public organizations.

It is obvious that, achievements of public organization depend on different factors including type of services provided, support from the society concern, other motivation provided to employees, nature of recruiting employees, qualification of managers and other. But to a large extent depend on training of employee to cope with environment changes (Lynton, 2002). Many researches were conducted to other related topics but not assessing the impact of In-service training on teachers performance and motivation in secondary schools.

The researcher used that gap to study the topic concern.

1.3 Objectives of the Study
This research was steered by the following objectives;

General Objective
The overall objective of this study is to assess the impact of in-service training on teachers performance and motivation in secondary schools.

Specific Objectives
i. To assess the impact of in-service training on teachers' teaching methods.

ii. To assess the impact of in-service training on teachers' punctuality and attendance. iii. To examine the effects of in-service training on students' academic performance.

1.4 Research Questions
1. What is the impact of in-service training on teachers' teaching methods?

2. What is the impact of teachers’ in-service training on punctuality and attendance?

3. What is the impact of in-service training on students’ academic performance?

1.5 Significance of the Study
This study was designed to assess the effects of In-service Training program on employees work performance and point out its importance to both employee and public organization. Ngwira (2005) highlight that employee training is both costly and interrupting to the schedule of the organization.

Employees training intended to improve work performance towards the organization performance (Hayes, 1996). Since both training aim to improve performance, it makes sense to use them together, so that the performance management process can end up telling what kinds of training will be most effective in a given situation. Therefore, this study assessed the effects of In-service Training programs in work performance and is expected to open the minds of educational partners and researchers on different training styles and performance so as to enhance in-service training on teachers.

1.6 Scope of the Study
The study assessed the impact of In-service training on teachers performance and motivation. 70 secondary school teachers were selected through random sampling method. A qualitative approach with a case study design was used which provided a valid information. The questionnaire method was used as a tool for data collection.

1.7 Limitation of the Study
Every research is unique and has various theoretical and practical problems which are different from other researches. This study was limited in its findings in the following ways: Firstly some questions (items) included in the study has diverted to the attention of the respondents and thus interferes with thinking, response and findings of the study.

Secondly, the sample size was limited to only 70 teachers of six schools at Lagos State in Kigoma Region. This may not be a good representation of the majority of Nigerian secondary school teachers, hence could affect the significant relationships from the data generalizability of the findings. However, above mentioned limitations were minimized pilot test that was conducted before entire study was undertaken.

1.8 Delimitation of the Study
The participation in the study was good due to the fact that the respondents were aware of the topic “assessing the impact of in-service training on teachers performance and motivation in secondary schools”. Furthermore, the study was delimited to study schools in Lagos State. Selected area for research was nearby a researcher residential as well as the selected sample from the targeted population reduced unnecessary costs. Respondents were given with all necessary information on the reason for conducting this study so that they willingly participated in giving required information.

1.10. Definition of Terms
Performance the accomplishment of a given task measured against preset known standards of accuracy, completeness, cost, and speed (Carlson, 1998).

1.10.1 Training
Training is widely understood as a communication directed at a defined population in the purpose of developing skills, modifying behavior, and increasing competence, generally, Training focuses exclusively on what needs to be known (Dunn, 1988).

1.10.2 In-Service Training
In-service training may be defined in this study as all training which is given to teachers and education administrators following initial training and attainment of professional certificate. It is indisputable fact that this aspect of education and training for teachers is an important and integral part of educational system. Its importance has been given prominence of government, international organizations and through research and writing by academicians. It is this eminence and attention given to the program, which aroused the interest of the researcher leading to his choice of in-service teacher training as his area of study.

1.10.3 Public Sector
Public sector sometimes referred to as the State Governments or the government sector, is a part of the state that deals with either the production, ownership, sale, provision, delivery and allocation of goods and services by and for the government or its citizens, whether national, regional or local/municipal (David, 2002).

1.10.4 Development
Development: Is the positive change from unsatisfactory to satisfactory in all aspects of life such as economically, socially and politically (Sullivan, 2003).

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 45 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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