COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF TWO SELECTED MEDICATED SOAP AND ONE LOCAL BLACK SOAP ON STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS FROM WOUND INFECTION

ABSTRACT
The resulting zones of inhibition from the different soap samples were compared statistically and are presented in Table 1. From this study, the black soap samples from different sources were able to inhibit the growth of the test staphylococcus aureusl isolates in the different concentrations used. The antistaphylococcus aureusl activities were concentration dependent in all the black soap samples except for those of the selected antistaphylococcus aureusl medicated soaps that were slightly active at their highest concentrations. Comparatively, the statistical analysis of the inhibition zones showed that each black soap sample was significantly more active than each of the selected antistaphylococcus aureusl soaps against the selected test staphylococcus aureusl strains. Although the antistaphylococcus aureusl activities of OYN6, OYN7 and OYN8 were not significantly different from those of OYN3, OYN4 and OYN5, the antistaphylococcus aureusl activities of most of the other black soaps were significantly different from each other. Although 66.67% of the samples compared exhibited significantly different antistaphylococcus aureusl activities, 33.33% of the samples were not significantly different in their antistaphylococcus aureusl activities. With the exception of OYN8, OYN9 OYN10 which produced inhibition zones equal to 20 mm ± 1.0 mm in E. faecalis, 100 µL of the highest concentration of 32 mg/mL of all the black soap samples produced inhibition zones greater than 20 mm ± 1.0 mm from all the other organisms. Although K. pneumoniae was the most susceptible to OYN1, OYN2, OYN3 and OYN4 samples, E. faecalis was the most susceptible to OYN2, OYN6 and OYN7, E. coli was the most susceptible to OYN9 and OYN10, and S. aureus and P. aeruginosa had their highest inhibition zone from OYN5. Although all the black soap samples were effective against the staphylococcus aureusl isolates at the different concentrations used, 100 µL of 24 mg/mL of the antistaphylococcus aureusl medicated soap samples was the only concentration effective against the staphylococcus aureusl isolates (Figure 1). The largest inhibition zones were obtained in the black soaps compared to the medicated antistaphylococcus aureusl soaps showing no zone of inhibition at different concentrations.

To establish the degree of antistaphylococcus aureusl activities of the different soap samples, their antistaphylococcus aureusl activities were further investigated by macrobroth dilutions to determine the MIC and MBC. The resulting MIC and MBC are summarised in Figure 2. The MIC for K. pneumoniae and E. faecalis ranged between 0.125 mg/mL and 2 mg/mL, for S. aureus ranged between 0.25 mg/mL and 4 mg/mL, for E. coli ranged between 0.125 mg/mL and 4 mg/mL and for P. aeruginosa ranged between 1 mg/mL and 4 mg/mL. The result showed that K. pneumoniae was the most susceptible, followed by E. faecalis>E. coli >S. aureus >P. aeruginosa. The MICindex indicating whether the antistaphylococcus aureusl activities of the black soaps were bactericidal or bacteriostatic showed that the activities of the soap samples were mostly bactericidal. Although the MBCs were higher than the MICs, the differences in the MICs and MBCs showed the black soaps to have a selective antistaphylococcus aureusl activity. That the MBCs were not more than four times the MICs in most cases and MICindex was mostly equal to 2 showed that the black soap samples have bactericidal effects.

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background information
Soap may be defined as a chemical compound resulting from the interaction of fatty acids, oils and salt (Friedman & Wolf 1996). It is a cleaning agent made by the chemical action of alkali on fats or fatty acids to yield the sodium or potassium salts of these acids (Considine 1974). It possesses properties that may include wetting and emulsifying power, surface tension lowering and gel formation as well as acting as both active medication and vehicle for the incorporation of other active substances (Grayson 1983). In the treatment of skin diseases, it causes cooling, drying, hydration, crust and scale removal (Schwartz 1979). Although bacteria that attack human body are of great importance with reference to health, Fuls et al. (2008) reported the inhibitory potential of antimicrobial and non-antimicrobial soaps in clinical cases. Larson et al. (1987) and Toshima et al. (2001) indicated that soaps containing antimicrobial active ingredients could remove more bacteria as compared to foreign soap, and Osborne and Grube (1982) had earlier reported that antibacterial containing soaps can remove 65% to 85% bacteria inhabiting human skin. When used properly, washing with soap could reduce Propiobacterium acnes and prevent secondary infections in acne skin (Kuehl et al. 2003) and healthcare-associated transmission of contagious diseases more effectively (Arya et al. 2005).

In ethnomedicine, described as total combination of knowledge, practice and belief incorporating plants, animals and minerals based medicine in diagnosing, preventing or eliminating a physical, mental or social disease and which may rely exclusively on past experience handed down from generation to generation either verbally or in writing (Sofowora 1982; Summers 2016), the use of soaps as vehicles for the application of medicinal plants for external use and in the treatment of skin diseases has been reported (Ahmed et al. 2005; Ajaiyeoba et al. 2003; Ajose 2007) because locally manufactured soaps have some antimicrobial properties (Adebiyi 1980; Lamikanra & Allwood 1977; Moody et al. 2004). For centuries, the traditionally manufactured black soap, otherwise known as ‘African black soap’, has been used, in Ghana and Nigeria, to help relieve acne, oily skin, clear blemishes and various other skin issues. Black soap has been employed to get rid of skin rashes, ringworm, measles and body odours (Adelakun 1990) and for treating many infections caused by microorganisms as well as for exfoliating and deep cleansing (Underwood 2008). Although it is full of vitamins and emollients perfect for cleansing deeply, exfoliating gently and moisturising thoroughly, it is hypoallergenic and a great choice for those prone to skin rashes (Ukatta 1991). It also has the ability to emulsify grease and oil that hold dirty particles (Sharma 2006). Having antiseptic properties and being a natural shampoo to avoid dry itchy scalp, it is good for showering, bathing, washing hair and faces and helps keep the skin clear of premature facial lines.

In Africa, traditionally manufactured soap, otherwise known as African black soap, is known by different names from various regions. In Ghana, black soap is known as ‘Anago soap’ or ‘Alata samina’. In Nigeria, it is known by the Hausas as ‘Sabilum-salo’, the Yorubas call it ‘Ose-dudu’ or ‘abuwe’ and the Igbos name it ‘Ncha-Nkota’ (Aliyu et al. 2012; Bella 2011; Getradeghana 2000; Summers 2016). African black soap is a natural source of vitamins A and E and iron (Grieve 1997). It is made of a combination of water, roasted plantain skin or cocoa pod, palm oil, palm kernel oil or shea butter. These are common oils used for the production of soap through saponification reactions (Kubmarawa & Atiko 2000). Depending on where it is manufactured, black soap contains leaves and bark from plantains, shea tree, cocoa pods or palm tree leaves. The leaves and bark are sun dried before being roasted slowly in a pot after which different oils including coconut oil, shea butter and palm kernel oil giving antimicrobial properties to the soap are added to the mixture (Getradeghana 2000). The soap mixture is then allowed to cool for at least 2 weeks before it is ready for use. Black soap made with shea butter offers protection against UV rays, whereas black soap made with plantains contains a high concentration of iron along with vitamins A and E (Underwood 2008). Although the ingredients and process can change depending on the area, its methods of preparation have been passed down from generation to generation to keep the soap close to Mother Nature and avoid exploitation and imitation (Sofowora 1982; Summers 2016).

Due to the added ingredients to the local black medicated soaps, they are able to have more bactericidal activities compared to the foreign/toilet soaps (Maany et al., 2015). Many cleaning materials and agents such as p-chloro-m-xylenol (PCMX/ chloroxylenol), trichloro carbamide (TCC) and triclosan (TCS) are found in the markets in different forms and formulations. They are the usual ingredients in local black medicated soaps but are usually added to soaps for preservation purposes (Poole, 2002). However, infections are still widespread despite the use of the antiseptic or local black medicated soaps (Yueh et al., 2012). Poor hygienic conditions and widespread food related disease has not declined with the advent of local black medicated soaps. The reason could be that these local black medicated soaps have inadequate ingredients to kill the microbial agents or they could be devoid of antiseptic agents. The present study was carried out in order to shed light on this aspect. When bacteria are exposed to low levels of antimicrobials, inadequate to kill them, the resultant selection pressure favors resistant strains that end up occupying the niche. Hence the bacteria may develop drug resistant strains due to prolonged exposure. A similar phenomenon can occur due to widespread use of local black medicated soaps with inadequate levels of antimicrobials. The present study aimed at determining the antibacterial effects of antiseptic/medicated and foreign soaps in Abuja, Nigeria.

1.2 Statement of the problem
Although the active ingredients in most antibacterial soaps are often listed on the packaging, quantitatively, those of traditionally manufactured soaps are unknown. Consequently, the therapeutic potentials of these black soaps have become inconsequential, probably because of its manufacturing procedures, packaging and misconception about its use by the traditional herbalists and its being indigenous. However, because of its ethnotherapeutic applications in the treatment of skin infections, wounds and the daily intake of its lather solution mixed with other plant extracts for detoxification, it becomes essential to investigate its antibacterial activities in comparison with those of some local black medicated soap with antibacterial properties commonly sold. Hence, this study was aimed at comparing the antibacterial activity of black soap samples obtained from south-west Nigeria with three local black medicated soaps used worldwide against five selected bacterial isolates implicated in wound infections.

1.3 Justification
Soaps and detergents help in cleaning, removing and killing microbes attached to cloths, skin and other materials. When the body is scrubbed during washing, bacteria are removed leading to general reduction of the prevalence and incidences of skin infections. It is considered that local black medicated soap reduces the incidence of diseases but some studies have shown that local black medicated soap may assist in the spread of drug resistant microbes (Poole et al., 2008). Currently, there is an increase in communicable diseases related to food and unhygienic environment despite the widespread use of local black medicated soaps (National Disease Surveillance Centre, 2004). In this regard, there is a need for studies to find a solution to the problem. Understanding the problem will go a long way in preventing the spread of infectious disease. Testing different soaps solutions on different pathogenic strains of bacteria will provide information on their effectiveness in inhibiting or killing pathogenic microbes. It is anticipated that the study findings will fill the gap on the role played by medicated and foreign soaps in terms of antimicrobial activities against pathogenic microorganisms. The study findings can inform policy and also may aid in the establishment of new policies to guide the use of antiseptic and foreign soaps in Nigeria. The present study will contribute to this by generating information on comparative antimicrobial activities of foreign and local black medicated soaps available in the Nigerian market. In addition, it will contribute to the existing pool of knowledge regarding the efficacy of soaps in Nigeria.

1.4 Research hypothesis
There is no difference in antimicrobial activities of foreign and local black medicated soaps on sale in Abuja on staphylococcus aureus from wound infection.

1.5 Research Questions
1. How are antimicrobial activity of local black medicated soaps on staphylococcus aureus from wound infection?

2. How are antimicrobial activity of foreign soaps on staphylococcus aureus from wound infection?

3. What is the comparison of antimicrobial activity of foreign soaps with that of local black medicated soaps on staphylococcus aureus from wound infection?

1.6 Objectives
1.6.1 Broad objective

To compare antimicrobial activity of foreign and local black medicated soaps on sale in Abuja on staphylococcus aureus from wound infection.

1.6.2 Specific objectives
1. To determine antimicrobial activity of local black medicated soaps on staphylococcus aureus from wound infection

2. To determine antimicrobial activity of foreign soaps on staphylococcus aureus from wound infection

3. To compare the antimicrobial activity of foreign soaps with that of local black medicated soaps on staphylococcus aureus from wound infection

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 51 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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