This research work was conducted to evaluate the effects of Socialization on national integration among the people in AMAC. The descriptive survey research design was used in carrying out the study hence it required the collection of data from a large number of respondents within the limited time scheduled for the completion of the project, and in doing this, relevant research questions were asked and hypotheses were formulated to test them in order to show the findings of the study. A questionnaire was designed by the researcher and validated by the supervisor which was then administered to the respondents for the generation of data. A total of 400 respondents comprising 200 boys and 200 girls were selected through simple random sampling method to generate the sample size. The sample size was considered adequate and representative because all the students were of similar age, although they were drawn from different schools. The analysis of the data collected from respondents was carried out with the use of percentage and frequency distribution tables, while the hypotheses formulated for the study were tested using chi- square statistical tools to establish their correctness or otherwise. The findings made from the study revealed that; Socialization is an effective tool for the achievement of national integration among the people in AMAC; Socialization imparts knowledge of patriotic and democratic skills among the people in AMAC. It was therefore recommended among other things, that the concepts of culture, religion, tolerance, inter-tribal marriage and cooperation, unity, patriotism and nationalism should be well communicated to people in AMAC.

• Background to the Study
There is a well-known saying that what is learnt at a tender age is hardly forgotten even at adulthood. The dictum that national integration occupies a prominent position in the quest to build a united, strong, virile and prosperous Nigeria can never be overemphasized.

Socialization as a holistic approach to societal unity, makes it possible for vital issues such as cultural tolerance and national unity to be accommodated. A survey through the Socialization from childhood to adulthood clearly indicates the commitment of the process in installing attitudes and values necessary for national unity and integration in Nigeria (NTI/STUP, 2007).

Notwithstanding the efforts made at this time, Socialization dream as held by these educators from Ohio University was not realized. Its entry into the curriculum at that time was short-lived because there were no schools in which the process could be communicated but it was re-introduced in 1963 to enable learners to learn about themselves (Ezegbe,1988).

Socialization deals with man and his environment, how man discovers himself and how he can be useful both to himself, to the community and to the society at large, are questions that engage Socialization thinkers. The constant search of how man can fit into the society by utilizing the necessary attitudes, values and skills are at the root of Socialization objective. This in fact, explains why Socialization is simply seen as “the way of life” of the people. Its study focuses on the use of critical and reflective thinking to solve problems of man’s survival in his environment, to which peace, unity and national integration are critical catalysts. Hence these catalysts are sine qua non to development as no meaningful progress can be achieved in an atmosphere marred by disunity.

Nigeria is a pluralistic entity comprising large cultural groups and different ideological divides with tribalism constantly challenging every spirited effort any successive government makes towards national integration. Some of the programmes which the government has introduced with the aim of achieving integration in Nigeria include, among many others, the National Youths Service Corps (NYSC) in 1973, and the Declaration of Ethical Revolution in 1982 to mention but a few. All these efforts were geared towards achieving integration within the country, but despite these laudable programmes provided by the government to achieve unity in Nigeria, the divide however, remains so sharp across the country that we can observe it politically, culturally, economically, linguistically and religiously, constantly resulting to conflicts, breach of national peace and putting so much pressure on government and security agencies as well as creating some kind of developmental setbacks.

According to Anegbu, (n.d) in People of Nigeria; “Nigerian census 2006 showed that over five hundred ethnicities exist in Nigeria but there are three major tribes which are Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba. The Hausa are the biggest tribe in Nigeria; they inhabit about ten states out of the 36 states of the federation, and are predominantly Muslims but a few of them practice traditional religion. The Yoruba account for the second biggest tribe and are predominantly Christians but a large number of them are Muslims, a few practice traditional religions. The Igbo are the third largest tribe. They are largely Christians, a few practice traditional religions. The diversities however, the 2006 Nigerian Census, put the population of Nigeria to about One Hundred and Forty Million (140,000,000) people living together and interacting with one another”.Anegbu (n,d). Retrieved August 19, 2017 from "".

Quite often therefore, misunderstandings do occur, resulting to ethnic clashes, religious disputes and killings. Recent examples of such problems are the cases of the Boko-Haram and the threats from the Northern Youths Forum to the Igbo communities living in the northern parts of the country, the hate speeches coming from every region of the country, the agitation for a separate state of Biafra and the activities of the Indigenous People of Biafra (IPOB) embodied by their leader, Nnandi Kalu to mention but a few. These social unrests are parts of the indices that indicate the limit of the status of Socialization in our schools and colleges, and they have generated a lot of controversies and series of concerns coming from a cross section of the larger society over the failure or inability of processs communicated in our schools to foster unity among children.

Evaluation of Socialization at the junior secondary school level shows that it focuses attention in the area of critical thinking and reflective enquiry; for example, a responsible citizen should be able to distinguish between facts and rumours or propaganda. Therefore, hence education in Nigeria is regarded as the vehicle by which Nigeria hopes to make its teeming youths become good citizens, the effective communicating of Socialization in the junior secondary schools in Nigeria will, in no small measure, enhance national integration among people in junior secondary schools and as well expose them to active role participation in their various communities. The study will hinge on a determination of the extent to which the communicating of Socialization has fostered national integration among People in Abuja. There is the need for an urgent study to determine ways for emphasizing national unity and integration through school curricular. The study will examine the effects of Socialization on National Integration among the people in AMAC against the above backdrops. It will proffer ways for which the much needed national integration will be achieved in our secondary schools through the communicating of Socialization.

• Statement of the Problem
No nation will ever move forward where there are crises and clashes among the people, more so, when youths as future leaders of society are manipulated and made to become vehicles by which ills are perpetrated by the selfish and zealous politicians who take advantage over the ignorance of these young men and women to fan embers of discord in the society. Nigeria is a large and pluralistic nation. Its ethnicities are politically, religiously, linguistically, and culturally diverse, and it is not preternatural for conflict of interest to arise intermittently in the course of social relations among the people due to these pluralisms, but because the political classes in their greed, have created a system where the youths now live in an enterprise of free-market culture of ethnicism and nepotism, where the license of tribalism rules over nationalism. As can be imagined, the effect of this is the erosion of consciousness of shared values and nationalism in the subconscious minds of Nigerians - a culture that is totally antithesis to national integration and nation-building.

• Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of Socialization in achieving national integration among the people in AMAC.

Specifically, the study seeks to:
• Examine the extent to which Socialization is effective in the achievement of national integration among people

• Examine the extent to which Socialization impart knowledge of patriotic and democratic skills to people.

• Evaluate the methods of communication by teachers to impart Socialization contents on the students with a view to understanding if the students are being communicated well or not.

• Investigate the effectiveness of Socialization practices and activities in the achievement of national integration among people.

• Evaluate students’ attitudes to one another having been exposed to such Socialization concepts as cultural integration, inter-tribal cooperation, friendship, and conflict management, as well as social justice and self-development.

• Research Questions
The following research questions will provide guide for the study:

• Is Socialization an effective tool for the achievement of national integration among people?

• Does Socialization impart knowledge of patriotic and democratic skills to people?

• Does method of communicating affect students’ comprehension of the process-matter being communicated?

• Does Socialization practices and activities especially teacher to people, and student to student relationships, improve general relationship among people?

• Do students attitudes and general perception of one another change having been exposed to such concepts as cultural integration, inter-tribal marriages, cooperation, friendship, conflict management, as well as social justice and self-development?

• Research Hypotheses
• Ho1: There is no significant relationship between Socialization and impartation of knowledge of national integration on students.

• Ho2: There is no significant relationship between Socialization and impartation of patriotic spirit and democratic skills on students.

• Ho3: There is no significant relationship between Socialization learning methods and students’ understanding of the concepts of Socialization.

• Ho4: There is no significant relationship between Socialization practices and activities and the building of cooperation and friendship among people

• Ho5: There is no change in students’ attitudes and general perception of one another after been exposed to Socialization process-matter.

• Scope and Limitation of the Study
The scope of the study will be delimited to the following variables; cultural integration, inter- tribal cooperation, friendship, conflict management, civic responsibilities and democratic skills, social justice, self-development, patriotism and nationalism, among others.

However, the research is centred on Effects of Socialization on National Integration among the people in AMAC. There is no research without limitations. The researcher experienced some difficulties in terms of availability of materials. Some of the materials that would have been used for the work, especially online materials, were inaccessible without payment. And also, a lot of the materials found in the libraries were outdated. Another difficulty experienced was that it took the researcher time to convince the respondents concerning the confidentiality of the questionnaire. Time constraint was another factor which the researcher encountered. As the time allotted for the research was so short, the researcher had to exhaust himself to finish in the nick of time.

• Significance of the Study
The study will be of immense help to Socialization planners, designers and developers to know the effects of the process curriculum on students in order to know areas that call for innovation or change, and also which communicating and learning materials should be made available to schools. The study will also serve the needs of teachers to determine the effectiveness of their learning methods on students so as to know which methodology is most efficient in communicating national integration and unity. It will also be beneficial to the students and the general public who are interested in Nigerian national unity. Above all, this study will be immensely beneficial to the government in its efforts towards achieving national integration. It will serve as a blueprint of action for peace and unity, and a generalization on methods towards conflict resolution among the different ethnic groups.

• Operational Definition of Terms
• Peace: “A tranquility of order”. (Saint Augustine, A.D. 354 – 430). It also means having a feeling of security, calm and restfulness.

• Unity: A state of togetherness in mind and action.

• National Integration: Coming together of people of different ethnic, tribal, social, political, religious and cultural backgrounds as one people with a common destiny.

• Conflict: Confrontation between individuals or groups. Conflict could also mean incompatible behaviour between two or more parties whose interest clash. Conflicts emanate from social relationship.

• Interaction: A process that defines social relationships between individuals or groups in their dealings with one another in the society.

• Ethnophaulism; Ethnic, racial or tribal slurs, including derisive nicknames.

• Prejudice; A negative attitude towards an entire category of people, such as a racial or ethnic minority.

• Discrimination: The denial of opportunities and equal right or treatment to individuals and groups because of prejudice or for other arbitrary reasons.

• Nepotism: An act of favouritism done to friends, relatives and one’s kiths and kin against others, as a result of position one occupies.

• Tribalism: An arbitrary act of giving an undue advantage to one tribe against others because of reasons that one is a member of that tribe. Tribalism leads to prejudice.

• Sectionalism: An act of being loyal to one’s own region or section of the country rather than to the country as a whole.

• Nationalism: The act of being proud, loyal and patriotic to one’s own country.

Nationalism is the love of one’s country.

• Patriotism: This is the devotion or love one has for one’s nation.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Size: 92 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.


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