PRODUCTION OF BAR SOAP

ABSTRACT 
The Production of Bar Soap is aimed at producing a cleansing agent which is capable of removing stains or dirt in man and his environment so as to reduce the population size of pathogenic micro-organisms. Soaps are salts of fatty acids. It is obtained by treating oils and fats with a strong alkaline solution. This brings about a chemical reaction called saponification, which is the mixture of alkali with fats to form crude soap. A mixture of the strong alkali solution (caustic soda) and water was poured into a bowl containing oil which stirred continuously until saponification occurred in the mixture. Then, other necessary ingredients were added to the mixture and was stirred to ensure thorough mixing of the solution. The mixture was poured into a mould and was allowed to cool and solidify. It was removed from the mould after solidification and was cut in bars. The product served the specific function of cleansing as it can be used domestically, industrially and otherwise to proffer hygiene good health and long lasting of objects. 

CHAPTER ONE 
1.0 INTRODUCTION 
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE SUBJECT MATTER 
Soap has been a product with over a 5000 years history. It has remained an essential ingredient in modern living. It is used daily for medicinal and for laundry purposes; for household cleansing and for personal hygiene. There is an ongoing demand for bar soap as a cleaning agent despite the rolls made by modern detergents and soap powders (Barthelemy, 1883). 

Industrial manufactured bar soaps first became available in the late eighteenth century. This happened when advertising campaigns in Europe and the United States, promoted popular awareness of the relationship between cleanliness and health. Until recently, the production of bar soap remained a primitive art, its manufacture being essentially the treatment of fat with alkali, a chemical process which is the same whether the production is done in a backyard or in a factory. The simplicity of the process of production of soap has led to is world wide practice as a small business operation.Due to largely and very aggressive marketing and advertising of synthetic detergents by their manufactures and distributor in the face of zero efforts by the bar soap productive, the use of bar soap were neglected and its relevance in household cleansing or industrial cleansing was abandoned. The use of synthetic detergents has been increasing daily both in domestic and commercial utilization largely because of heavy national and international advertising. But soap still remains a viable cleansing product and can make a comeback in popularity if its benefit and advantages are marketed properly. Soap can still be viable particularly if significantly added value is placed, on its manufacture in terms of adding performs etc to the soap and to it more desirable for utilization (Thomas 1922) 

In modern times, the use of soap has become, universal in industrialized nations due to a better understanding of the role of hygiene in reducing the population size of pathogenic micro-organisms in the environment. Because of the awareness created on the relationship between cleanliness and health, there is a steady demand of soap for domestic washing and cleansing and from industrial sector for washing up activities in plants and machines (Robinson, 1904). 

Since the production of soap is cheap and can be produced anywhere, it will be possible to easily achieve a sufficiently high economy of scale. The production of toilet soap is also a distinct possibility as it is merely an exiting of bar soap whereby the water content is reduced from about 28% to 10% and perfume is added. Once the bar soap market is established, then a whole spectrum, of soap products is available though it will require additional and different machinery (Robinson, 1904). 

1.2 AIMS OF THE STUDY 
The basic aim of this project is to produce a soap in bars which can be used in household (domestic washing and cleansing) and also in industries for washing of factory tools and machines. It aims at producing a soap which is capable of removing stains and dirt so as to ensure a neat and healthy environment. 

1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 
The study on the production of the bar soap is significant in homes, offices industries etc it is used in the washing off of dirt from our cloths, dishes, equipments etc. to ensure neatness and proper cleansing. 

The significant of this study tends to connect the relationship that has to do with cleanliness and health. It tend to provide good health to people by ensuring a well and thorough cleaning of household materials, industrial facilities and equipment as well as cleaning the entire surroundings to ensure good health. 

1.4 PURPOSE OF STUDY 
This research is designed to examine the methods used in the production of bar soap, its economic importance and its capacity to be utilized both domestically and industrially. 

1.5 LIMITATION OF STUDY
The cost and acquisition of materials were major factors that affected this research project adversely. Also, time constraint poised a significant limitation during the execution of this study.

For more Science Laboratory Technology Projects Click here
==================================================================
Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 45 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
==================================================================

Share:

No comments:

Post a Comment

Note: Only a member of this blog may post a comment.

Search for your topic here

See full list of Project Topics under your Department Here!

Featured Post

HOW TO WRITE A RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS

A hypothesis is a description of a pattern in nature or an explanation about some real-world phenomenon that can be tested through observ...

Popular Posts