EFFECT OF WORK ETHICS ON QUALITY OF SERVICE DELIVERY IN UNIVERSITIES IN NAKURU COUNTY, KENYA

ABSTRACT
Quality of service delivery (QSD) is an important factor in the success of any institution that wants to remain in business. Theoretical literature suggests that employees’ work ethics is critical in determining quality of service delivery. However, empirical studies have not focused on how work ethics affects QSD. The main objective of the study was to determine the effect of work ethics on quality of service delivery. The specific objectives are to determine the effect of integrity, accountability, commitment, competency on quality of service delivery and to establish the combined effect of all the variables on QSD. The study was guided by the service quality theory described by Oliver (1980), where customers judge quality as low if the performance does not meet their expectations, as high when performance exceeds their expectations. Customer satisfaction is a more crucial element and determines the continuity of the organization and future income. The target population for the study was 276 academic staff and 25,395 students in public and private universities in Nakuru County, Kenya. Stratified random sampling and simple random sampling techniques were used to select a sample of staff and students for the study. A questionnaire was used to collect the described data. The study employed both descriptive statistics such as percentages, means and standard deviations and inferential statistics such as Pearson’s correlation and Multiple Regression to present and analyze the data. The statistical package for social science (SPSS) a computer programme for windows aided the data analysis. The study established that work ethics has a strong positive effect on quality of service delivery and accounted for 76.5% (R square = 0.765) of the variation in quality of service delivery. The study adds knowledge and enhances understanding of the relationship between work ethics and quality service delivery. This study, therefore, suggests that there is need for managers in public and private universities to ensure that these work ethics are formulated, enforced and adhered to, to regulate their conduct. It is also important that institutions adopt university code of conduct/ethics to improve on quality of service delivery. It is recommended that a more comprehensive survey covering all universities in the country be done to shed more light on this subject.

CHAPTER ONE 
INTRODUCTION 
Background of the Study 
Quality, which is defined as conformance to requirements, is one of the leading topics of debate and discussion on the global level. It is important for any company that wants to remain in business to make quality its focal point (Owolabi, 2010). There are rising expectations from clients and other stakeholders, business leaders and civil society that Public service /Governments will establish and deliver higher standards of work ethics and integrity worldwide. Work ethics are as important for the public servant as blood for the body (Raga and Taylor, 2005). There is a lot of public scrutiny, and increasing anxiety by citizens, whose members want to see an end to the unethical practices and systems of the past in the African continent. 

There has been significant progress made in the Kenyan public service recently by developing effective and efficient civil service work ethics, codes of conduct, transparency measures, work ethics and Integrity systems, and anti-corruption agencies (Ssonko, 2010). A satisfied customer creates repeat business as well as possible other referrals; hence, the organizations should ensure the right products and services for today’s competitive market. Clients expect quality service and judge the service as satisfactory when performance exceeds their expectations. In order to ensure high quality of services provided, public and private universities have come up with codes of work ethics to guide their personal conduct of their personnel. Professionalism ensures quality service and achieves the increased business. The various University codes of work ethics lay down the standards of integrity, professionalism, accountability and confidentiality, which all members should abide by. 

According to the chapter Six on Leadership and Integrity and chapter thirteen Values and Principles of a Public servant, the Kenyan constitution states the several guiding principles of a public servant, which include Integrity, Competence, Objectivity, Accountability and Commitment among others. Most institutions of higher learning strive to achieve quality of service delivery to all its clients, as stipulated in the Vision, Mission, and Core values in the Quality statement and other related documents of the various tertiary institutions. In the Egerton University Quality statement, the University management shall ensure continual improvement by monitoring and reviewing its quality performance and effective implementation of Quality management systems based on the ISO 9001:2008 Standards (EU Strategic Plan, 2011) 

These institutions are committed to providing quality products and services as ratified in their various Institutional quality statements, certifications like Quality Management Systems, Environmental Management Systems, Performance Contracts, Service charters and other University Statutes where the institutions are expected to meet and exceed customer satisfaction, stakeholder’s expectation and comply with statutory requirements. To realize these anticipated goals of being world class institutions and to achieve Millennium Development Goals as well as other goals set in the new constitution and Vision 2030, these institutions strive to integrate higherwork ethics among its employees in the management of public affairs.work ethics provides principles that guide behaviour and help people make moral choices among other choices of action (Hanekom, 1984); Chapman, 1993). 

The Charter for the Public service in Africa, (2001), states the values and principles of a sound culture, which include professionalism, discipline, efficiency, dignity, equity, impartiality, fairness, public spiritedness and courtesy in the discharge of duties according to Ashour, A.S. (2000) Practice of unethical behaviour make the individuals find it necessary to do a cover up which reduces effectiveness. Employees should promote ethical behaviour by setting a good personal example in the workplace. Personalwork ethics and ethical behaviour needs to be taught at an early age by parents, society and educators. 

The Kenya Vision 2030 aims to have a globally competitive and prosperous nation with a high quality of life by 2030. This can only be achieved by having organizations that observework ethics to achieve fair competition with other organizations. Indeed, as stipulated within the framework of the University statutes, Service charters, and the new Kenya Constitution 2010, Vision 2030 and in the realization of the MDGs, it is instrumental that economic and social development depends on the implementation of good policies and building strong and effective institutions that observework ethics. This can only be achieved through having ethical managers heading the relevant organizations for efficiency and accountability which leads to profits and having Quality of service delivery in each organization. 

Egerton University’s quality statement highlights that the University management shall ensure continual improvement by monitoring and reviewing its quality performance and effective implementation of Quality management systems based on ISO 9001:2008 Standards. In the Kenyatta University’s Vision, Mission and Strategic Plan (2005-2015), the Directorate of Student Affairs (DSA) is committed to ensuring that the services measure up to ISO 9001:2008 standards. They are committed to serving clients, the students, by sensitively addressing their needs through strategically designed procedures of efficient welfare provision. By this, they are conscious of the diversity of the student population and seek to create a sense of a beautiful mosaic in the student body, while at the same time they are sensitive to their individual and corporate needs. They constantly review their service provision procedures to ensure that the university lives up to its motto of "Providing Integral Support and Care" (Kenyatta University Strategic Plan, 2005-2015). 

The mission for Kabarak University is to provide a holistic quality education to the youth, and other age groups, equipping them with knowledge, practical skills and Christian moral values necessary for the service of God and humanity. Jomo Kenyatta University in its quality statement commits to providing quality services in training, research and Innovation that consistently meet customer requirement and attempt to exceed their expectation. Mount Kenya University's mission, is to achieve their goals through the following objectives: provide quality training through provision of scholarships, advancement of knowledge through research and development of specialized activities in the University; produce effective graduates with the appropriate practical and specialized skills, attitudes and values required for personal growth and advancement of responsible citizens in the global environment; participate in community service through provision of continuing education, conduction of research, participation in external services, provision of specialist consultative or referral services, facilitation of community empowerment, promotion of fairness and natural justice, and maintenance of good neighborliness with the community. 

This clearly shows that indeed Egerton university, Kenyatta University, Jomo Kenyatta, and Nairobi Universities are committed to providing quality products, services that meet and surpass customer contentment, stakeholder’s anticipation, and comply with statutory requirements. This will only be possible if all the staff have the relevant qualities in place such as Integrity, commitment, Accountability Competency and ensure continual improvement. It is influential that economic and collective development depends on the 
implementation of good policies and building of strong and valuable institutions that adhere to observingwork ethics. This can only be achieved through having ethical managers heading the relevant organisations for efficiency and accountability which leads to profits and quality service.

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Item Type: Kenyan Postgraduate Material  |  Attribute: 71 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: KSh900  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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