EFFECT OF SELECTED MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS ON THE JOB SATISFACTION OF CIVIL SERVANTS WITHIN GOVERNMENT DEVOLVED FUNCTIONS IN NAKURU COUNTY

ABSTRACT
Employees’ job satisfaction is an old concept in industrial relations and is influenced by a number of factors. The Constitution of Kenya 2010 devolved some of the government functions to the County Governments. Employees working in the following devolved functions; Ministry of Health, Ministry of Water, Ministry of Agriculture and Ministry of Public works and roads among others were deployed to the County Government. The deployment to the counties had adverse effects among employees as exemplified by strikes of the employees of the Ministry of Health. The main objective of this study was to assess the effect of selected job motivational factors on civil servants’ job satisfaction within government devolved functions in Nakuru County. The target population was 1912 employees working in the devolved functions. The sample size of the study was 320 systematically picked across the devolved functions. The study used a close ended questionnaire as the main data collection tool. Both Pearson’s correlation and regression analyses were used to establish whether the selected motivational factors were related to the exiting level of employees’ job satisfaction. The study established that procedural justice significantly affected employees’ job satisfaction rejecting the null hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between procedural justice and job satisfaction of the employees working in the devolved functions. Further, employees working in the devolved functions were not affectively, cognitively and behaviorally satisfied with their jobs. Affectively, employees lacked a sense of belonging and emotional attachment to the County Government. Cognitively, employees did not value time spent in the County Government, co-workers, and failed to appreciate the benefit they get out of working in County Government and hence do not value the work they do. Behaviorally, employees were not willing to work in the County Government and actively sought for alternative employment elsewhere, came to work late, unwilling to work over-time and ready to participate in strikes. Finally, the study established that procedural justice and interactional justice contributed significantly to employees job satisfaction compared to communication and supervision. The study recommended that the County Government should re-design supervisory processes geared towards achieving fairness in dealing with employees.

CHAPTER ONE 
INTRODUCTION 
1.1 Background 
Devolution has been successful in other parts of the world including USA, India, Nigeria, Sweden, UK and South Africa. Uganda practices devolution through kingdoms and Tanzania through Jimbos. There are varying devolution systems in place, for instance; USA, Nigeria and India have embraced federal state systems. Counties will have to draw experiences from similar environments and factors that bring them closer and learn how they operate, benchmark their strengths and transfer that knowledge and experience to benefit the county. Counties should design and develop slogans to serve as a rallying call or marketing edge. 

At independency in 1963, Kenya adopted the Lancaster constitution which had provision for two houses of representatives: the upper and lower houses as well as regional governments complete with legislative assemblies (Burugu, 2010). This kind of system did not work out as it was replaced by a unitary system of government in 1965 courtesy of constitutional amendments. The new constitution therefore provides for replacement of the central government with a devolved system of government. Devolution is defined as statutory granting of power from the central government of a sovereign state to a government at a sub-national level such as a region, local authority or state level. The new constitution therefore provides for the division of Kenya into 47 Counties of which Nakuru County is one of them. 

The devolved system of government in Kenya as provided for in the Constitution (2010) has the following objectives; To foster national unity by recognizing diversity; give powers of self-governance and participation of the people in the exercise of the powers of the State and in making decisions affecting them; recognize the right of communities to manage their own affairs and to further their development; protect and promote the interests and rights of minorities and marginalized communities; promote social and economic development and the provision of proximate, easily accessible services throughout Kenya; ensure equitable sharing of national and local resources throughout Kenya; facilitate the decentralization of State organs, their functions and services from the capital of Kenya; and enhance checks and balances and the separation of powers. 

National and county governments are expected to work in consultation, exchange information and respect for respective organs, institutions and structures (Burugu, 2010). This co-operation policy will enhance national unity; harmonize policy formulation, coordination of socio-economic policies, and implementation of legislation, administration of resources and enhancing capacity building and facilitation of county and senate government operations. Each level of government should exercise integrity and respect constitutional functional status and government institutions of every level as the constitution provides for enhanced and closer working relationship. Joint working committees may be formed for negotiation, mediation and arbitration during disputes (Kipkorir, 2009). 

The transitional authority will provide a legal and institutional framework for a coordinated transition to the devolved system of government while ensuring continued service delivery to citizens, smooth transfer of power and functions from national to county governments; provide mechanisms to ensure that the commission for the implementation of the constitution performs its role in monitoring and overseeing the effective implementation of the devolved system of government. 

The Transition to Devolved Government Act (2012) was established to provide policy and operational mechanisms during the transition period for audit, verification and transfer from the national to the county government assets and liabilities, human resources, pensions and other benefits of employees of government and local authorities and other related matters including provision of mechanisms for capacity building. 

The fourth schedule of the Constitution (2010) devolved the functions of the following ministries to the county governments; Ministry of Health, Ministry of Water, Ministry of 

Agriculture and Ministry of Public works and roads among others. The civil servants working in these ministries were devolved to the county governments. 

Job satisfaction is an indicator of how well a person is doing his or her job. Job satisfaction is obviously an important factor for all organizations. Companies must continuously improve employee satisfaction in order to stay profitable. Job satisfaction can be defined as an individual’s general attitude towards his or her job (Robbins, 2003). Price (1997) defined job satisfaction as the degree to which employees have a positive affective orientation towards employment by the organization. 

Campbell et al., (1970) (as cited in Tasnim, 2006) divide the present-day theories of job satisfaction into two groups; content theories which give an account of the factors that influence job satisfaction and process theories that try to give an account of the process by which variables such as expectations, needs, and values relate to the characteristics of the job to produce job satisfaction. Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy Theory (1943) and its development by Herzberg into the Two Factor Theory (1959) of job satisfaction are examples of content theories. The Valence Instrumental Expectancy theory (1964) and Equity theory (1965) are examples of process theories. 

Usually, performance depends on ability and motivation of an employee and the effects of motivation on performance are dependent on the level of ability of the workers. The relationship of ability to perform is dependent on the motivation of the workers (Vroom, 1964). 

With the rise of New Public Management, the public sector is confronted with growing demand to show its efficiency and cost effectiveness, resulting in an increased interest in the quality of public performance (Vermeeren et al., 2005). Although the direct impact of job satisfaction on performance or productivity has received relatively mixed views, its effect on turnover, absenteeism, citizenship behavior, and other organizational attitudes and behaviors is well established (Harrison, 2006). A number of studies have found that public sector professionals are less satisfied with their extrinsic rewards and task environment than those of their private counterparts (Cherniss & Kane, 1987; as cited in McCue & Gianakis, 1997). 

Norris, (2004) studied work values, experience, and job satisfaction among government workers. He endeavored to find out whether public and private sector employees in various countries differ in their motivational values, employment experiences and job satisfaction. He found out that private and public sector employees are differently motivated by sense of accomplishment. Public sector employees have a stronger sense of fulfilling a useful role that contributes to society. 

Jessen, (2010) investigated the sources of job satisfaction among practitioners and managers employed in the Norwegian public social services and the professionals´ perception of social rewards in particular. Being valued, receiving praise and positive feedback are considered to be important aspects of job satisfaction. Nevertheless the expertise and competence of social workers is not always acknowledged. A central question raised is whether the workers´ job satisfaction is influenced by their opportunities for support and recognition, compared to other (intrinsic and organizational) rewarding aspects available to social service workers. The empirical data came from a 2004 quantitative survey among social workers in local welfare agencies. Despite conflicting demands and lack of resources in the frontline services, findings indicate that managers and practitioners perceive their work as overall equally satisfying. Still, the managers find their job more interesting and challenging due to their position, reporting higher feelings of accomplishment and control over work. Receiving public approval and co-worker support are positively associated with job satisfaction within both work positions, while superior support and client recognition were found to be significantly rewarding aspects to the practitioners only. 

In the year 2013, Kenya Health Workers went on strike to protest against their services being devolved to the County Government instead of being retained at the National Government. The strike was an evidence of their job dissatisfaction with the County government. 

1.1.2 Devolution of Government Functions 
Devolution is a kind of decentralization that changes communication in the system. It means the effect of system performance by transferring responsibility and authority to a selected subject (Lodenstein & Dao, 2011). Concept of devolution: transferring authorities and responsibilities to local departments or governmental organization with independent income and authority and preservation of management control. It is defined as reassignment of personnel responsibilities to linear managers (Renwick, 2000). Devolution acts as an effective tool aimed at increasing efficiency of the public sector. However, there may be consequences like striking a balance among the two levels of government and endangering macroeconomic stability. Thus, among the reasons mentioned for justification of decentralization is the ever growing trend that these policies could help in obtaining goals like increase in welfare, efficacy, reduction of costs, motivation of staff, training of future managers, control and economic growth (Budhwar & Sparrow, 1997). 

Devolution is the main solution for organizational participation and involvement, responsibility and in case of knowledge, it leads to value addition. Research shows that more than 70 percent of activities managers do can be delegated to subordinates. Some scholars believe that managers should delegate some of the affairs to subordinates for them to gain knowledge and question the conditions. In devolution, individuals should have required authorities and be responsible for their acts (Niliahmadabadi, 2009). There is a significant difference between devolution theoretical concept and what happens in reality. In scholars opinion linear managers do not have the final authority in decision- making (Cascon-Pereira et al., 2006). The power to make decisions comes by delegation from supervisors. The results show that authority submission increases organizational performance (Azmi, 2010). Devolution therefore is the transfer of governance and responsibility of specified functions to sub-national levels, either publicly or privately owned, that are largely outside the direct control of the central government (Ferguson & Chandrasekharan, 2004). 

According to Gregersen et al., (2004), devolution is one form of administrative decentralization which transfers specific decision-making powers from one level of government to another which could be from a lower level to a higher level of government, in the case of federations, or government transfers decision-making powers to entities of the civil society. Regional or provincial governments, for example, become semi- autonomous and administer resources according to their own priorities and within clear geographical boundaries under their control. Most political decentralizations are associated with devolution. 

Devolution describes the transfer of authority from a senior level of government to a junior level, and can be viewed as both a theoretical concept and as an administrative process (Dacks, 1990). Viewed theoretically, devolution can be seen as an instance of decentralization which can be usefully related to literature on political development. Decentralization (devolution) has a spatial aspect in that authority and responsibility are moved to organizations and jurisdictions in different physical locations from the center to the local level. And it has an institutional aspect in that these transfers involve reallocating roles and functions both within government, from one central government agency to lower-level jurisdictions and agencies; and between government and civil society, through service coproduction and partnerships as well as joint policy-making and feedback mechanisms (Brinkerhof et al., 2007). 

Arguments favoring the devolution of powers and resources to local levels of governance emphasize that the enhanced decision-making power, authority and control over resources play a pivotal role in economic and social development (Cheema & Rondinelli, 2007). They contend that devolution will result in increased citizen participation in local political processes where local governments are perceived to have the capacity to make political and financial decisions affecting their economic and social welfare. The improved allocation of resources is the most common theoretical argument for decentralization (Azfa et al., 2004). By bringing government closer to the local people, it is asserted that the government will be better informed to local needs and preferences, resulting in increased accountability and enhanced responsiveness of officials and government at the empowered local or regional level (Brinkerhoff et al., 2007).

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Item Type: Kenyan Material  |  Attribute: 75 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
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