EFFECT OF LEADERSHIP STYLE ON TEACHERS’ JOB SATISFACTION: A CASE OF PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN NAKURU TOWN, KENYA

ABSTRACT
Studies have found that effective leadership and employee job satisfaction are two factors that have been regarded as fundamental for organizational success. Therefore, an organisation without effective leadership is not able to transform input resources into competitive advantage. Education is an important instrument in ensuring achievement of national development. Success in achievement of educational goals in schools is dependent on effective leadership. The purpose of this study therefore was to analyze the effects of leadership styles on teachers‘ job satisfaction in primary schools in Nakuru town. The specific objectives are to determine the effect of leadership styles (autocratic, participative and transformational) on teachers‘ job satisfaction. The population of the study consisted of all the teachers in the 96 registered primary schools in Nakuru town, the sample size consisted of 28 primary schools with a total sample size of 348 teachers. Data was collected by use of structured questionnaires administered to the teachers. The data collected was analyzed using statistical packages of social sciences (SPSS). Descriptive statistics were analyzed in the form of frequencies, means, standard deviation and Percentages which were presented in tables and charts. Inferential statistics were used in hypotheses testing namely, Independent samples t-tests, Pearsons Correlations analysis, simple and multiple regression analysis. The study found that different styles of leadership had significant correlation to teachers‘ job satisfaction. The results showed that teacher job satisfaction declined when principals used autocratic leadership style. Participative leadership was positively correlated to job satisfaction. Job satisfaction was positively correlated with the dimensions of transformational leadership style. The regression analysis showed that autocratic leadership was a negative predictor of job satisfaction while transformational leadership (Inspirational motivation and Individualized consideration) were significant positive predictors of job satisfaction. There is need therefore for regular leadership and management training by head teachers to improve job satisfaction among teacher employees. Head teachers should mainly use participatory style in achieving proper job satisfaction among teachers in primary schools in Nakuru town. The research will be useful to the ministry of education as it will help them to improve the performance of public primary schools. The research findings can also be used by other researchers and scholars who may want to do further studies on the subject. The findings can also be used by government agencies in formulating the various policies. Research findings can be used by education officers when formulating their strategic plans.

CHAPTER ONE 
INTRODUCTION 
Background of the Study 
An organisation without effective leadership is not able to transform input resources into competitive advantage. This means that a capable leader provides direction for the organization and lead followers towards achieving desired goals (Rizi, Azadi, Farsani & Aroufzad, 2013). Lack of effective leadership means that an organization will be unable to achieve competitive advantage. Therefore, it is clear that the leadership style of a manager has a close relation to the development of organization. 

Leadership styles 
Leadership is a process of interaction between leaders and followers where the leader attempts to influence followers to achieve a common goal (Northouse, 2010; Yukl, 2005). It involves guiding and directing peoples activities in a certain direction to realise organization objectives(Adeyemi 2004). Miller et al. (2002) view leadership style as the pattern of interactions between leaders and subordinates. It includes controlling, directing, indeed all techniques and methods used by leaders to motivate subordinates to follow their instructions. Leadership styles can be classified according to the leaders‘ power and behaviour as autocratic, democratic or participative and transformational, where styles are distinguished by the influence leaders have on subordinates Robbins (2007). Transformational leadership refers to a leadership that transforms people and organizations in their values, standards, goals, needs and ethics. Transformational leaders emphasise followers‘ intrinsic motivation and personal development, they seek to align followers‘ aspirations and needs with desired organisational outcomes. They are able to foster followers‘ commitment to the organisation and inspire them to exceed expected performance (Sivanathan and Fekken, 2002). 

Transactional leadership style comprises motivation and directing to achieve followers‘ self- interest through rewards and punishment for the exchange. Autocratic or authoritarian leadership style describes leaders who have full organizational power and authority for decision making without sharing it with their subordinates (Kavanaugh and Ninemeier, 2001). The leader determines policy and assigns task to members without consulting them. The basic human needs in this style are ignored (Adeyemi, 2006). Participative leadership in school means that the leader him/herself is leading the school in accordance with democratic ideas and understanding that school democracy is for all who are working in the school. This style involves the leader including one or more employees in the decision making process. However, the leader maintains the final decision making authority (Wood, 2005). 

Wilmore (2002) states that head teachers play diverse roles: they are responsible for effecting education policy, keeping track of all activities within the school and ensuring that their schools run smoothly. According to Hargreaves and Fink (2003:693-700), the head teachers‘ tasks are divided into two major types: instructional and the leadership roles. The instructional role focuses on the training and education of children by creating, motivating and challenging activities that aid children develop into productive citizens. Head teachers are supposed to mobilize and coordinate all school stakeholders and resources towards the school goal (Chitavi,2002).The head teacher should involve parents in the management of the school (Oyetunjis,2006).Head teachers who greatly involve parents,teachers and pupils contribute to good performance of their schools which increases teachers job satisfaction(Nasongo,2009).Head teachers who effectively monitor teachers contribute to improved mean score of the school in national examinations, without proper leadership style, good performance cannot be realized(Maicibi,2005). 

1.1.2 Teacher Job Satisfaction 
Head teachers who set the pace by leading and motivating pupils and teachers lead to improved school performance (Stephen et al,2005).Teacher satisfaction refers to a teacher‘s effective relation to his or her role and is a function of the perceived relationship between what one wants from teaching and what one perceives is offering to a teacher (Lawler, 1994). Teachers were found to be motivated by a desire to work with and for people, and to make a difference by assisting children and young people to reach their potential, experience success, and grow into responsible adults. On the other hand, an overemphasis on standards, a lack of participation in decision-making, and a failure to provide essential instructional resources, a lack of administrative support, and a lack of trust in the professional expertise of teachers seem to increase the degree of teacher dissatisfaction. 

Research shows that safe environments, strong administrative leadership, collegial cooperation, high parental involvement, and sufficient learning resources can improve teacher effectiveness, enhance their commitment to school, and promote their job satisfaction (Darling-Hammond 2003).The characteristics of a school's student body are also important in increasing teacher satisfaction and keeping them in the profession. Students who go to school ready to learn, obey school rules, show respect for their teachers, and exhibit good learning behaviors not only contribute to a positive school climate, but also can increase teacher enthusiasm, effectiveness, and commitment (Stockard and Lehman 2004). 

Positive social relationships with colleagues are important sources of teachers‘ emotional health because colleagues are seen as a source of friendship and a source of social and emotional support; when these relationships don‘t exist, teachers share deep feelings of dissatisfaction (Cockburn, 2000).It is generally accepted that demographic factors may play a role in the level of job satisfaction perceived by teachers (Bogler, 2002). In particular, literature suggests four variables that may have significant interactions with teacher job satisfaction, namely; gender, age, tenure and position. Ramse (2000) also identifies experience level as a key determinant of teacher satisfaction such that there was a positive correlation between teacher satisfaction and level of experience. 

More importantly, De Nobile and McCormick (2006) present three categories of determinants of teacher satisfaction. They include, Community factors: teachers are more satisfied in communities with greater economic and social resources, and in communities that are less remote; school environment: Teachers are more satisfied in schools with better economic resources, in larger schools, in schools where there are more opportunities for professional advancement, and in schools where there is an organizational climate that supports teacher collaboration; Teacher background: Young teachers, male teachers and teachers with greater human capital are less satisfied, while teachers who are more socially similar to the local community are more satisfied. 

Several researchers have examined variables such as: teacher salaries, status, increases in class size, and changes in the educational system and absenteeism and turnover rates as indicators of teacher job satisfaction .These studies show that job satisfaction is an important facet of having a productive educational system. Directly related to a teacher‘s job satisfaction is the effectiveness of the head teachers leadership style. Job satisfaction has been associated with relationships with coworkers, workload, professional growth opportunities, autonomy, role clarity, and work hazards. All these factors affect an employee‘s job satisfaction in an organization (Yousef, 2000).Head teachers who are democratic contribute to higher performance in students results than autocratic leaders (Achieng, 2007). 

The main purpose of primary education is to prepare students to participate in the social, political and economic well being of the country, and prepare them to be global citizens ("Education Info Center," 2006). The primary education ends with an exam for Kenya Certificate of primary education (KCPE). Education in Kenya empowers people with knowledge and skills to actively participate in the development of the country (Republic of Kenya,2001).The world is changing very fast, this means that potential leaders should respond to the changing society by adopting the style of leadership that will lead the institution to achieve its goals(Muli,2005).The success of pupils in Kenyan primary schools is determined by their results in Kenya Certificate of Primary Education (KCPE).The performance of pupils determines their admission in national, county or other types of schools, hence schools compete for good results. Good leadership contributes to effective performance of an organization (Okumbe, 2001). Head teachers are directly involved in influencing activities of the school to achieve its set goals (Bell and Bush, 2003). 

Education in Kenya 
The 8-4-4 system has been the subject of national debate since its inception. It has been criticized for being broad, expensive and burdensome to pupils and parents. The new education policy has also been implicated in the worst strikes that engulfed a number of schools in Kenya since the year 2001 and the general poor quality of education (Amutabi, 2003). 

In January 6, 2003 the Minister for Education, Science and Technology (MoEST) launched the Free Primary Education (FPE). As a result of the high influx of new pupils, classrooms are congested. Teachers complain of increased pupil teacher ratios. Many primary schools are understaffed as a result of the free primary education programme. This does not augur well for the quality of education being delivered. Many school management committees are of the opinion that as a result on the ban of levies, they are unable to recruit extra teachers through the PTAs and this has also seriously affected the pre-school units.

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Item Type: Kenyan Postgraduate Material  |  Attribute: 66 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: KSh900  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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