ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT ON THE PROPOSED EARTH DAM IN NIGERIAN DEFENSE ACADEMY (NDA), MANDO, KADUNA

ABSTRACT
In present study, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of NDA mando Reservoir Project, in India has been done using Rapid Impact Assessment matrix method (RIAM). The results of the study revealed that 53.125% of the impacts are positive and 46.875% are negative. Most of the negative impacts of water reservoir are on BioEcological components. Benefits of construction of the Dam outnumber the negative impacts meaning thereby that construction of the Dam would be beneficial in most respects except the negative impacts on flora and fauna of the region.

CHAPTER ONE 
INTRODUCTION 
1. Background of the study 
The construction of dam and reservoir projects plays important roles in the development of Nigeria’s hydropower and the regulation of water resources. However it also makes a profound effect on regionecological environment. It has become the key issue of dam and reservoir projects how to coordinate the relationship between construction and environmental protection, and to realize their harmony development [1]. Owing to dam and reservoir projects have long construction period, big investment, broad social impact and complex social issues etc., the actual effects of the completed project prone to deviate from the predicted results of EIA. After dam and reservoir projects are completed, the actual environmental impact can be investigated by EIPA, and can be compared to the results of EIA. The differences of environmental impact between actual and predicted results can be used to testify the predicted results of EIA and reasonability of environment-protection design and evaluate the availability of environmental protection measures of the completed projects. Additionally, the environmental quality needs to be repeatedly assessed after completing the projects, and thus some remedial measures should be proposed [2,3]. 

The environmental considerations in the civil and developing projects were not taken in to account by most of the countries until recent years. The environmental consequences of some projects raised notices that environmental factors played an important role in the direction and speed of development in the last decades of 20th century. Nevertheless, development is not in contradiction to environment; but, exceeding extraction of natural resources leads to disturbance and contamination of environment. Development is stable and persistent when it is appropriate from environmental point of view in addition to technical, social and economic justification [1]. 

At the same time, it is known that the consequences and impacts during construction and operation period in term of intensity, importance and extent are different. In advance of any environmental impact assessment of the project, all other effects should be evaluated. It should be noted that environmental impact assessment depends on many factors e.g. existing records, collected data interpretation, statistics, sampling, and finally analysis of these subjects. Also, the impacts of different environmental factors of dam construction is presented in following. 

1.2 Statement of the problem 
Dam construction can led to health effects ranging from respiratory problems to mental disorders. Studies in Tanzania revealed that symptoms of heavy metal poisoning such as sensory disturbance, tremor, gingivitis, metallic taste, neurasthenia and night blindness are common (6). In the last five years, studies on environmental impact of dam construction and processing in Sagamu (Sagamu – Ogun State, Nigeria) have revealed a declining kola nut output from the plantations within a few kilometres radius of the cement factory (5). Exploitation and processing of minerals in a particular area creates cultural impacts, which involves the changes to norms, values and beliefs of individuals that guide and rationalize the cognition of themselves and their society (6). 

1.3 Significance of the study 
The aim of this project is to determine the environmental impact assessment of dam construction in NDA, Mando of Kaduna state, interpret findings, analyze implications, and convey high level results and implications to national decision-makers for sustainable and better environment of all areas in Nigeria. 

1.4 Objectives of the study 
This study was undertaken majorly to examine the environmental impact assessment of Dam construction in areas. 

Specific objectives of the study are: 
1. To ascertain whether there is a significant environmental impact of Dam construction in areas. 
2. To know whether the environmental impact assessment of Dam construction in areas is accessible. 

1.5 Research questions 
In the course of the study, the researcher seeks to provide suitable answers to the problem following the questions below: 

1. Is there a significant environmental impact of Dam construction in areas 
2. Can the environmental impact assessment of Dam construction in areas be accessed? 

1.7 Limitations of the study 
The study was carried out to investigate the environmental impact assessment of dam construction in NDA, mando. The study is limited to Mando in Kaduna State. This is because of the representative nature of Dam construction in areas in Nigeria, proximity to the researcher, time and financial constraints. 

1.8 Scope of the study 
This research work is on the environmental impact assessment of dam construction in Mando with particular emphasis on how it impacts on quality standards of the soil and water in Mando of Kaduna State. 

1.9 Definition of terms. 
Dam construction: This is a place where large blocks of naturally occurring sedimentary calcite or aragonite rock are drill,cut from the earth, mainly for the purpose of gold insearch. 

Area: This is an area where gold is found. 

Environmental Impact Assessment: This is a process of evaluating the likely environmental impacts of a proposed project or development, taking into account inter-related socio-economic, cultural and human-health impacts, both beneficial and adverse

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 26 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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