Changes to original design occur during construction to most projects, such changes leads to increased cost, and delays as it affects time of completions, these changes are due to design errors, omission and discrepancies that are found in construction documents. Such errors, omission and discrepancies sometimes occurred as a result of inconsistent dimensions, improper setting-out, poor coordination and communication lacuna amongst the numerous parties involved in the design process.

Reoccurrence of this errors, omission and discrepancies is on the increase and therefore deserve timely intervention. The objective of the study is to highlight cases of change order and its implication in projects, hence the specific role of consultant’s builders ‘in minimizing change order in construction projects. The objective with which to achieve the aim is to sensitize and create awareness of the dangers of change orders in construction projects and also to create awareness that the engagement of consultant builders is imperative in minimizing change order in projects .This research discovered that change order resulting from errors , omissions and discrepancies in the design , poor coordination, communication lacuna among parties can be minimized or eliminated by the use of new design software , the 3D parametric building software amongst others and this would guarantee flexible and effective design . Minimizing the factors that causes errors , omission and discrepancies should start from inception of the project through the design and construction stage to the end of the project .All parties to the contract : Architects, Civil /structural Engineers ,Mechanical/Electrical Engineers, Quantity surveyors and the Builders as a case study in this project must be involved to alleviate the incessant cases of change orders to ensure that the client gets the best value for his money .



Kerezner (2003) change order is a process whereby changes in the scope of work agreed to by the owner, contractor and Architect are implemented.

A change order is work that is added to or deleted from the original scope of work of a contract, which alters the original contract amount or completion period or date.

Change orders are common to most projects and very common with large project (public projects). After the original scope for the contract has been defined with the contract sum and completion period agreed by both parties, the client may decide that the original concept do not best represent his definition for the finished project. Accordingly, the client will suggest an alternate approach.
Common causes for change orders to be created are:-1 Sudden change in client taste 2 Wrong initial estimate

3         Discrepancies in contract documents

4         Faulty design i.e. correction of design errors

5         The project teams are inefficient or incapable of completing their required deliverable within budget and additional money, time or resources must be added to the project.

6         Addition or omission from the original scope.

7         During the course of the project, additional features or options are perceived and requested by both parties to the contract.

A project manager as the case may be, will generates a change order that

describes the new work to be done (or not done in some cases), and the price to be paid for this new work.

Once this change order is submitted and approved, after a thorough cost analysis by a cost expert in the construction industry to ensure that whatever differential in terms of cost can be paid for by the client, it generally serves to alter the original contract scope and sum such that the change order now becomes part of the contract.

Bamisile (2004) a Builder is to study the production information from production point of view and suggest ways by which the design could be more production friendly for the direct benefit of client/developer. The consultants/professional input of a builder is to complement the effort of the design team with the singular objective of giving clients the best value for their money and enhancement of the usage of the construction industry.

Thus reducing or immunizing change order which must have followed without the professional advice of the consultant builder on buildability and maintainability analysis.

Banisile (2004) the consultant Builder’s role in building development process starts from the planning/design stage. In project construction, a builder performs the following roles.

1        Carry out buildability and maintainability analysis.

2        Prepare production management documents.

3        Manage the production process on site

In discharging these functions; he would be able to capture and offer advice on design changes during construction, to ensure that the project meets builder’s requirements as highlighted above.

The aim of this study is to apprise the roles consultant builders play in minimizing change order in construction project – public building. Also to established or investigate cause of change order in project construction.

The objectives with which to achieve the aim are as follows

1    To sensitize and create awareness of the dangers of change orders construction projects.

2         Create awareness that the engagement of consultant builder will minimize change order in projects

The study focuses on design related change orders, especially those resulting from errors, omission and discrepancies between contract drawings. The scope will be restricted to Abuja and Kano state of Nigeria. The study was limited to analysis the questionnaires using descriptive, explanatory research and samplings techniques.

The significant of this study is to create an awareness that would reduce, alleviate or minimize or totally eliminate factors that might result in errors, omission and discrepancies in design that intimately lead to change order in construction project in Nigeria.

This study is important to professionals, students in the building/ construction industry, the government and society in general so as to assist in solving the change order problem associated with increased cost, loss of productivity, and delays in the completion of projects in the constructions industry, which in turn may generate claims and even costly litigations.

This research project is unique as it attempts to provide answers to the following questions which were formulated by the research in order to address the study.

1    What are the factors responsible for error, omission, additions and discrepancies in construction projects?

2        What are the implications of errors, omission, additions and discrepancies in project execution?

3        Is constructability analysis widely implemented in building construction industry?
4        What  are  the  roles  played  by  different  professional  bodies  in  the
construction industry particularly, the consultant builder.

The following hypothesis shall be subjected to empirical evidence based on data collected.
H1:      There is no significant effect of design on change order in the building
construction industry.

Ho1:    There is significant effect of design on change order in the building
construction industry.

H2:      There is no significant effect of poor coordination and communication on 
errors, omission, addition and discrepancies.

Ho2:    There is significant effect of poor coordination and communication on
errors, omission, addition and discrepancies

H3:      The concept of 3D parametric build model is widely implemented in
the building construction industry.

Ho3:     The concept of 3D parametric build model is not widely implemented in the building construction industry.

It is pertinent to note, that the concept of 3D parametric build model is clearly detailed in page 21, 22, 36 and37of this project work.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Size: 73 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.


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