DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A MICROCONTROLLER-BASED MAINS SWITCH CONTROL SYSTEM

ABSTRACT
Many people tend to enjoy use of facilities without control even when there are bills to settle to guarantee continuity. This project was born out of the desire to prevent damages and time wastage on control of industrial equipment. It is designed to control all the facilities (for example electrical appliances) not only in the hospitality industry but also in organizations such as schools, for security, safety and elimination of problems associated with manual switching. The system is a microcontroller-based mains switch control project which automatically controls AC loads connected to it through a serial port interface. The switch control system can range from simply controlling of light without leaving a seat, to being able to switch on and off industrial electrical devices through a computer interface, so the system produced will enable the switches to be controlled from one source (computer system) by simply issuing a command through the interface on the computer screen to save the time of going from one switch to another to put on or off the industrial equipments since the switches can be controlled from a remote system.


CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND
Man has been in a continuous quest to improve his well being through reactions to problems and challenges posed by his environment. For the past decades, computer and computer communication had gained so much attention and grown tremendously, that portable and affordable computers have become ubiquitous. Statistics have shown that most people spend most of their time on computers, connected together by a network (locally or globally). Since much time is spent on computer systems, it becomes necessary to design a device for controlling switches from computer. Switches are so essential that one cannot avoid using them on a daily basis for putting on or turning off electrical devices, and as a result of these, many devices have been designed by man to help him conquer these problems and challenges posed by physical contact with electricity [1]. The switch control system can range from simply controlling of light without leaving a seat, to being able to switch on industrial electrical devices through a computer. There has to be an interface between industrial electrical devices and a controller, the personal computer (PC) in this case. Interface is required so that the PC can communicate with other devices. The interface used in this work is the computer port interface [2]. The microcontroller-based mains switch control system is made up of several devices connected together; keypads that transmit commands to the device, the controller that is programmed to put on or off the appliances automatically via a computer system [9].
It has been observed that the manual switching of the industrial equipment in the industrial sector has many problems associated with it, which includes:

Life of the switch operator might be at risk. Damage of the industrial equipment.

Dissatisfaction of customers due to damaged equipment. Time wastage.

As a result of the outlined problems associated with manual switching, the design of a device that will be able to control switches via a computer system is intended. The system is aimed at solving the associated problems.

1.2       OBJECTIVES
This research work is aimed at constructing effective software and hardware for microcontroller-based mains switch control system. Specifically the objectives are to produce a device that:
v       Saves the time of going from one switch to another to put on or off the industrial equipments since the switches can be controlled from a remote place (computer system).

v       Has program control switch, which will help to reduce the use of manual switches, if not eliminating it completely.

v       To create a system that ensure integrity of the complete microcontroller system during all forms of environmental stress (shock, transient noise) etc.

v       Removes friction with the use of the program control switch.

1.3 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PROJECT
The significance of this research work is that the system is designed to show that it can be useful in the industrial sector, large or small organization such as schools, hotels and business centers and governments. The system produced will enable the switches to be controlled from one source (computer system) by simply issuing a command through the interface on the computer screen. This work can also create job opportunities.
§      Time: This work will be able to save the time it takes to manually go from one device point to another to ensure that proper measures are taken.

§      Safety: This will prevent human physical contact with the manual switches, which we know has taken many lives due to power instability.

§       Cost: The system reduces the cost of buying switches, which will easily wear out due to frequent use.

§       Home device: This system can equally reduce stress at home especially when everybody at home is off to work. So it can be used when the system in which it is installed is on line by making it a web- based.

§       This work can be used for academic purpose.

§    Generation of fund: When an organization makes greater profit, they tend to pay larger tax to the government.

1.4 THE SCOPE OF THE PROJECT
This project is limited to the control of electrical devices from a standalone computer system. This prototype is achieved through the serial port and expected to control up to three devices, which will be demonstrated with three bulbs via three relays. This is achieved through an interface with a microcontroller, an integrated circuit that contains the entire central processing unit of a computer on a single chip. It can interpret and execute program instructions as well as handle arithmetic operations [1]. Their development in the late 1970s enabled computer engineers to develop microcomputers. Microprocessors led to "intelligent" terminals, such as bank ATMs and point-of-sale devices, and to automatic control of much industrial instrumentation and hospital equipment, programmable microwave ovens, and electronic games. Many automobiles use microprocessor-controlled ignition and fuel systems. In essence, the microprocessor contains the core elements of a computer system, its computation and control engine.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 83 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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