Nutritional anaemia is a decrease in the amount of red blood cell volume below 11.0g/dl in children under the age of five years due to a poor diet which is deficient in iron, folic acid and vitamin B12. A descriptive cross-sectional study design was used to assess the prevalence and determinants of nutritional anaemia among under five years children in SabonGari local government area of Kaduna state. Stratified random sampling technique was used for the selection of respondents. 311 structured questionnaires were distributed to caregivers of children under the age of five yearshowever 284 questionnaires were retrieved which were used for the study. Socioeconomic and demographic characteristics ofthe respondents (caregivers of childrenunder five years) were studied and also biochemical analysis was done among the under five children to determine their serum iron concentration level, serum folic acid levels and serum vitamin B12 levels. The data obtained from the study were analyzed using SPSS version 20 and revealed that of the 284 respondents, 154(54.2%) falls under low socioeconomic background which lead to poverty and food insecurity in most of their households. The study demonstrated that poor feeding practices do adversely affected the health and nutritional anaemic status of the children. Exclusive breastfeeding was not practiced by majority of the mothers (67%).A total of 191(67.3%) practiced the combination of both breastfeeding and bottlefeeding. 81.4% of the household consume carbohydrate food like rice, maize, yam and noodles. The socioeconomic status of the care givers is significantly correlated at p-value < 0.05 with nutritional anaemia. The prevalence of serum iron deficiency in the study was 53.9% and that of folic acid was 36.3% while that of vitamin B12 was 49.6%. In conclusion this study revealed high rate of nutritional anaemia among under five children in Sabongari local government area of Kaduna State Nigeria. There is need for iron supplementation and nutritional education inSabonGari LGA.

1.1 Background of Study
Anaemia is defined as a decrease in the amount of red blood cell (RBC) volume or haemoglobin concentration below the range of values occurring in healthy persons. In children under five anaemia is present when haemoglobin is below 11.0g/dl (Nelson, 2000).

The most common types of anaemia are: iron deficiency anaemia, thalassaemia, aplastic anaemia, haemolytic anaemia, sickle cell anaemia, pernicious anaemia, fanconi anaemia, megaloblastic anaemia, and hypochromic anaemia (Stoltzfus and Dryfuss, 2011).

Nutritional anaemia refers to a reduced red blood cell count due to a poor diet which is deficient in iron, folic acid, and /or vitamin B12 (WHO, 2005). Nutritional anaemia is common among infants and children, from 0-59 months of age. Effects of anaemia in many field of studies done in many countries like Indian, Somalia and Ethiopia has been associated with delayed psychomotor development and impaired cognitive performance in school children which leads to poor performance in language skills, motor skills, and coordination corresponding with a low intelligent Quotient (IQ) score in this group of children (WHO, 2014).

The presence of nutritional anaemia in children is a serious health problem because it negatively impacts mental development and future social performance in children. Children suffering from iron deficiency anaemia during their first 2 years of life have slow cognitive development and poor school performance in later years (WHO, 2008).Iron deficiency anaemia has also been associated with a diminished ability to fight infections by impairing cell-mediated immunity resulting in greater rates of morbidity due to acute infections and linear growth (UNICEF, 2004).

The causes of nutritional anaemia are multi-factorial and are interrelated in a complex way the relative importance of each factor for example, folic acid deficiency or vitamin B12 deficiency varies in different communities it is higher in rural communities than urban communities (Stoltzfus, 2001).Anaemia may be chronic example secondary to iron deficiency, or it may be acute, owing to a sickle cell crisis or infection. The situation is complicated further because anaemia in childhood can result not only from events in childhood but also from maternal iron deficiency and anaemia, which are associated with impaired foetal development, iron deficient and anaemic babies (Stoltzfus, 2001). Socioeconomic status may also affect the risk of anaemia by affecting nutritional status, family size, and interval as well as intensifying problems of affordability and accessibility of preventive and curative measures (Park, 2005).

1.2 Statement of the Problem
Anaemia remains a major public health problem in the world especially in developing countries (WHO, 2014). Societies are often ignorant of anaemia's capacity to cause permanent cognitive defects, denying children their right to full mental and emotional development, before they ever reach a classroom (WHO, 2014).Studies in Nigeria showed the prevalence of nutritional anaemia among children to be 10% - 60% depending on geopolitical zones (UNICEF, 2004). Studies in northern Nigeria revealed the prevalence to be higher than those in the southern region, but the prevalence was higher in rural areas than urban areas in both geopolitical zones (UNICEF, 2004). Studies done in some communities by UNICEF in Kaduna revealed that the Prevalence of nutritional anaemia among Under Five Children in the Communities (ZangonAya, KwananFarakwai, Yalwa, BirninYaro and Jaji) to be 16%-67.6% (UNICEF, 2004).

1.3 Justification for the Study
To the best of our knowledge no such study on nutritional anaemia was ever done in the proposed study community. It is very relevant to the health and development of the area, the state, and the nation in general.

A study of this kind in the study area would be useful in showing the relevant authorities with certainty of the nutritional needs of these children and so aid in reducing morbidity and mortality rate by delivering of necessary nutritional interventions.

1.4 Null Hypothesis
There are no nutritional anaemia in Sabongari local government area and hence no determinants of nutritional anaemia in Sabongari local government area of Kaduna State Nigeria.

1.5 Aim and Objectives

1.5.1 Aim
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of nutritional anaemia and its determinants among under five children inSabongari local government area Kaduna State.

1.5.2    Specific Objectives
I.            To determine the socio-demographic characteristics of the care givers of the children under five years of age in Sabongari local Government area of Kaduna State.

II.            To determine the prevalence of nutritional anaemia among under five children in the

study area using haemoglobin estimation, serum iron concentration, folic acid and vitamin B12 levels in blood.

III.           To assess the predisposing factors of the determinants of nutritional anaemia (iron, folic acid, and vitamin B12) in the study area.

IV.      To assess the food consumption pattern of the children and their care givers using food frequency questionnaire.

V.       To determine any relationship between the annual income of caregivers and their children nutritional anaemia.

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