NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION OF COMMONLY USED AND ESHA FORMULATED COMPLEMENTARY FOODS FROM AVAILABLE FOODSTUFFS IN KADUNA NORTH LGA

ABSTRACT
Complementary foods (CF) are needed to fill the gap between total nutritional needs of the child and the amounts provided by the breast milk from six months of age. This study assessed the nutrient composition of commonly used complementary foods (CCCF) in Kaduna North local government area of Kaduna state and then formulates a composite blends of complementary foods (CBCF) using Elizabeth Stuart Hands and Associate (ESHA) nutrient analyser software. Nutrients composition of the CCCF, ESHA formulated complementary food (EFCF) and Commercial Complementary Foods (CMCF) were analysed using standard methods. The results revealed that about 67% of respondents introduced water from birth and complementary foods were introduced by majority of the caregivers (52%) between 3- 6 months. Commonly used complementary foods are sorghum pap (67%), sorghum-soybean-groundnut blend (14%), commercial formulas (12%), millet pap (5%) and maize pap (2%). The proximate composition (g/100g dry weight basis) shows that moisture content (10.63±0.11) of sorghum pap (SP) was significantly higher (P<0 .05="" 0.38="" 432.29kcal="" a="" acids="" alanine="" all="" amino="" analyser="" and="" ap="" as="" ash="" b1="" by="" calories="" carbohydrates="" cccf.="" cf="" cmcf="" compared="" complementary="" composition="" crude="" cysteine="" developed="" efcf="" energy="" esha="" essential="" except="" fat="" fibre="" food.="" foods.="" had="" higher="" histidine="" in="" ip="" iron="" is="" leucine="" maize="" methionine="" millet="" moisture="" name="page7" non-essential="" nutrient="" of="" other="" pap="" phenylalanine="" protein="" revealed="" sgsp="" significant="" significantly="" sorghum-groundnut-soyabeans="" than="" that="" the="" vitamins="" were="" when="" with="">
EFCF. Oleic acid and bicycle (5,3,0) decapentaene were of higher proportion found as the essential and non-essential fatty acids. The results suggest that with proper selection of local ingredients, it is possible to formulate complementary foods of high nutrients composition than the commonly consumed complementary foods.

CHAPTER ONE
1.0       Introduction
In Nigeria, under-nutrition remains a public health problem. According to the 2013 National Demographic and Health Survey, in Nigeria, 37 percent of children under age 5 are stunted, 18 percent are wasted, and 29 percent are underweight (NDHS, 2013). The development of children‘s full human potential depends on adequate nutrition during infancy and early childhood. Exclusive breastfeeding is adequate for the first six months of life but timely introduction of nutritionally-adequate, safe, age-appropriate complementary feeding at sixth month of age is recommended for better health and development of infants (WHO, 2003). The World Health Organization recommends that breastfeeding should continue with appropriate complementary feeding from 6 months to 2 years and beyond (Zere and McIntyre. 2003). According to the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (2008) only 30 percent of infants aged 6-23 months and living are fed in accordance with the recommendation for infant and young children feeding practices (NDHS, 2008). Problems associated with complementary feeding in particular include poorly timed introduction of complementary foods (too early or too late), bottle-feeding, infrequent feeding, unsupervised feeding, poor feeding methods, poor hygiene, and child care practices (Shordt and Cairncross, 2004)

Malnutrition is responsible for more than 41% of the deaths that occur annually in children from 6 to 24 months of age in developing countries which total approximately 2.3 million. Moreover, one third of deaths among children less than five years of age are attributable to nutrition and well above two thirds of these deaths, often associated with inappropriate feeding practices, occur during the first year of life (Sandoval- Priego et al., 2003). Inadequate feeding of girls affects nutrient stores, leading to poor obstetrics outcome when they are having children later in life. Other consequences include growth failure and stunting, delayed sexual development, reduced muscle mass and strength, impaired intellectual development, weakened immune system, poor cognitive performance and learning achievement and increased lifetime risk of osteoporosis (WHO, 2003).

Every year, more than 200 million children under five years old fail to reach their full cognitive and social potential. Most of these children live in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa (Sandoval- Priego et al., 2003). Among preventive measures that would reduce the excess mortality for children under the age of five years, exclusive breast feeding and good quality complementary feeding have been listed as first and third, respectively, with a calculated 600,000 deaths per year preventable by good complementary feeding (i.e. 6% of deaths) (Jones et al., 2003). Growth faltering occurs mainly in the first two years of life because of high nutritional needs for growth and development between 6-24 months (IOM, 2006). In fact, the percentage of children who are underweight almost doubles from 14% among children less than 6 months of age to 26% among children age 12-17 because complementary foods are introduced to children in the latter group, thus increasing exposure to infections and susceptibility to illness (NDHS, 2008).

In Nigeria, and indeed most developing countries, the underlying problems have been identified to include poverty, inadequate nutrient intake particularly during pregnancy, period of rapid growth and complementary feeding in infants, ignorance about nutrient values of foodstuff and parasitic infections (NPAN, 2002). Result of the 2001- 2003 Food Consumption and Nutrition Survey showed a steep increase in the incidence of child wasting between 6 and 12 months, which is the period of complementary feeding for most children (IITA, 2004).

A common feature of plant foods is their high content of water, fibre, low energy and micronutrient densities (Solomon, 2000). This characteristic becomes particularly worrisome during the complementary feeding period in infants and children. Hence, traditional complementary foods from plant staples often fail to meet the nutritional needs of the infants, due to stiff consistency and high volume which combine to offer a low-cost filling meal that often lacks adequate nutrients (Fernandez et al, 2002). They are therefore known to poorly support growth and development.

Complementary feeding practices must be improved. Too often, complementary foods are introduced too soon or too late. The frequency and amounts of food that is offered may be less than required for normal child growth, or their consistency or energy density may by inappropriate in relation to the child's needs. Conversely, too much of a poor complementary food could displace the more nutritive breast milk in the child's diet. Other factors, such as the pattern of feeding (e.g., whether to breastfeed and follow it with complementary foods, or vice versa) may effect breast milk intake. In addition, the nutrient content of these foods may be inadequate or the absorption could be impaired by other components in these foods. Storage safety is important as well(NNN, 2000; NACMD, 2003).

Also very importantly, responsive feeding, maternal encouragement to eat and other psychosocial aspects of care during feeding likely to be important for ensuring adequate food and nutrient intake of the child. The complete understanding of what must be done to improve complementary feeding is somewhat limited due to the complexity of the behaviour. The necessary behaviours and foods change rapidly with the child's age and breast milk intake. Based on these recommendations, a joint FAO/WHO (1998) consultative forum in 1998, established the scientific basis for the development and evaluation of Food- Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG) for various regions of the world.

Sequel to this, the Federal Ministry of Health (FMOH) in Nigeria published the Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FMOH, 1999). The guidelines recommended some sustainable food-based approaches that encourage dietary diversification through the production and consumption by all population groups, of both macro- and micro-nutrient-rich foods, including traditional foods found in different parts of the country. The report recommended the use of staple starchy roots, tubers and cereals in combination with legumes, vegetables, fruits and if possible animal sourced foods in preparing complementary foods for infants and children. Based on these recommendations, different variables affecting micronutrient intake and ways to combat deficiency have been considered in several nutrition fora (NNN, 2000; NACMD, 2003). Besides, the reports by many researchers on the nutritive potentials of cereals, legumes, vegetables and fruits in the formulation of complementary foods have been promising (Badamosi et al, 1995; Owolabi et al., 1996; FAO, 1997; Okoh, 1998; Ladeji et al, 2000;). It is imperative that blends of such foodstuffs found in various communities be formulated and biochemical studies be carried out on their composites for possible use as complementary foods. This study, which is part of an exploratory effort on the improvement of the nutritional quality of traditional complementary foods, was designed to use staple foodstuffs indigenous to Kaduna State to formulate composite blends that can be nutritious, readily available and affordable to both rural and poor urban mothers. Findings from the study would offer answers to the questions (a) whether such local blends can meet the various dietary recommendations for infants and children and (b) whether they can substitute the more expensive proprietary formulas sold in the markets.

1.1       Statement of Research Problem
In Nigeria, thirty-seven (37%) percent of children under the age five years are stunted, eighteen (18%) percent are wasted, and twenty nine (29%) percent are underweight. Infants and under-5 mortality rates in the past five years are 69 and 128 deaths per 1,000 live births, respectively. At these mortality levels, one in every 15 Nigerian children die before reaching age one year and one in every eight do not survive to their fifth birthday (NDHS, 2013).

Most families depend on locally formulated diets to feed infant and young children. The locally formulated foods (pap and porridges) are low in protein and high in anti-nutritional factors that reduce the bioavailability of some micronutrients. Poor processing and cooking methods also contribute substantially to loss of micronutrients, leading to micronutrient deficiency disorders in infants fed these foods (Saskia and Martin, 2009).

Complementary feeding practices must be improved. Too, often are introduced too soon or too late. The frequency and amounts of food that is offered may be less than required for normal child growth.

1.2       Justification
Complementary foods are needed to fill the gap between the total nutritional needs of the child and the amounts provided by breast milk. There is an alarming high rate of malnutrition in North Western region of Nigeria with Kaduna State second to Kebbi State (NDHS, 2013). Complementary foods are not introduced in a timely fashion for all children. Overall, only 10 percent of children ages 6-23 months are fed appropriately based on recommended infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices (NDHS, 2013).

The period from conception to age 2 is especially important for optimal physical, mental, and cognitive growth, health, and development. However, this period is often marked by protein-energy and micronutrient deficiencies that interfere with optimal growth hence the need for safe, nutritious and affordable complementary foods (NDHS, 2013).

Proprietary formulas are usually considered nutritious, acceptable and safe to the infant but their high cost has put them beyond the reach of most families, especially those in the low income ―bracket.

1.4       Aim and Objectives of the Study
1.4.1    Aim
The aim of the study is to survey commonly used complementary foods and use the available ingredients to formulate composite blends of ready to use complementary foods and assess the nutrient density.

1.4.2    Specific Objectives
1. To identify the commonly used complementary foods in Kaduna North LGA, Kaduna State.

2. To assess the nutrient composition (macro and micronutrients) of the commonly used complementary foods.

3. To develop complementary food (CF) blend from locally available foodstuffs using Elizabeth Stuart Hands and Associates (ESHA) Food Processor and Nutrient Analyser software.

4. To determine the nutrient composition (macronutrients, vitamins and minerals) of the developed CF and compare with that of the commonly consumed CF and a popular commercial formula.

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Item Type: Postgraduate Material  |  Attribute: 108 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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