DETERMINANTS OF VISITORS’ PATRONAGE TO TOURIST ATTRACTIONS IN LAGOS

ABSTRACT
Travel and tourism industry is one of the world's largest industry in which other developed nations have benefitted from it by generation, socio-cultural integration among many of its several benefit. Although, the case is not Africa most especially Nigeria where vast majority of tourist attractions and potentials have not been properly harnessed while others are lying dormant without being patronised. The survival of this industry is largely dependent on patronage to the various attractions available in the country. This research examined the pattern and determinants of patronage of tourist attractions in Lagos being one of the tourism industry hub in Nigeria. This would guide appropriate recommendations to factors affecting the level of patronage to attractions.The research methodology made use of interview, questionnaire survey and visual survey for data collection. The management of each of the selected attractions are interviewed while the questionnaires are administered to visitors who participated in the survey voluntarily. A guided tour was made round the tourist attraction with a representative of the staff to ascertain the available facilities and take photographs where necessary. The key findings made includes that the basic determinants of patronage as the challenges that tend to affect the patronage of tourist attractions include poor accessibility ranking 1st, while inadequate facilities, Poor management and maintenance of facilities, lack of funding, cost of accommodation, lack of awareness and publicity and poor infrastructure ranks 2nd to 7th respectively. In conclusion it was discovered that patronage of tourist attraction in Lagos State is relatively low. As a means of recommendation it is paramount that both public and private sector should give detailed attention to the tourism industry in other to harness the unused potentials that have been lying dormant in the state and Nigeria at large. Also, there should be more accessible publicity on the numerous existing attractions and their evolving trends.


CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Studies
In today‘s tourism industry, increased competition for tourists has spurned many tourists destination to specialise in developments that will givean edge over several competitors. One way of achieving this is to develop strategies to market or promote the destination as being unique and distinctive place.

Lagos State government has identified tourism industry as one of its priority industries. The State is very rich in human capital, ecology and cultural attractions. It has a wide variety of man-made and natural features such as Slave relics and jetty, First Storey Building in Nigeria, National Arts Theatre, Lekki Conservation Centre, Tafawa Balewa Square, the City Mall, and vast beachfronts among others.

Ikporukpo (1993) noted that the multiplicity of cultures in the country provides a good setting for the evolution of various cultural heritage-based tourist facilities. Despite these vast potentials, indicators suggest that tourism development in Lagos has been very poorly developed and this has received inadequate attention over the years, Ikporukpo (1993). This has relegated the State to the background when the issues of tourism patronage are being discussed globally thereby losing out in the benefits which is accrued to regions where tourism has been given priority and developed.

Measuring patronage is importantfor the survival, development andsuccess of the tourism business(Sirakay, 2003). When measuring tourist patronage, the basic premise is that tourist reflect on their experiences.Tourist patronage is one of the most frequently examined topics in the hospitality and tourism industry because it plays an important role in the continued and sustained operation of any tourism business (Gursoy, D., McCleary, K.W., Lepsito, L.R.,2003, 2007).

A high level of tourist satisfaction is likely to generate positive feedback from the tourist including patronage of the tourist area, increased purchase of products, and recommending these to others (Kozak and Rimmington, 2000; Gursoyet al. 2003; Andaleeb and Conway, 2006). The input of the tourists towards development and enhancement of a tourist destination is therefore essential in maintaining its competitive advantage. For this reason, it is important for players in the industry to regularly assess the tourists‘ impressions of the visited sites, as a feedback to help improve and diversify the products and services offered. Several advantages for undertaking this study include, but are not limited to, ensuring that the tourists‘ needs and expectations are met, maximizing tourist flow and income generation.

1.2 Statement of Research Problem
Despite the intensive development of research on tourism, recreation and leisure, only a handful of studies have dealt with the issue of patronage of activities in intending destinations. Most of these studies explained antecedents and consequences of tourism patronage from a single perspective, with no comprehensive model of tourist patronage yet developed. Although researchers have identified major driving factors of tourist patronage such as tourist expectations, perceived quality, perceived value, and destination image, most of these constructs were investigated separately with respect to their relationships with tourist satisfaction such as Worthen (1998), Virden and Walker (1999).

It is observed thatrelatively low patronage is enjoyed by some of the indigenous tourists attractions and they are yet to receive due attention. In addition, a number of tourist patronage studies have focused on western cultures, with few studies in third world countries and almost none in Nigeria. Whether or not these findings apply in Africa is still an open point that is yet to be fully examined. This is why this study is assessing the determinants of patronage of tourist attractions in Lagos. The result of this research is expected to identify the factors affecting the level of patronage to tourist attractions in Lagos towards making appropriate recommendations which will be benefit to researchers.

1.3 Research Questions
1.      What is the pattern of patronage to tourist attractions in Lagos?

2.      What are the determinants of tourist attraction in Lagos?

3.      What are the factors affecting the level of patronage to tourist attractions in Lagos?

1.4 Aim and Objectives
The aim of this study is to establish the determinants of patronage and factors affectingthe performance tourist attractions in Lagos towards making appropriate recommendations.

Objectives:

1.      To identify the pattern of patronage of the attractions.

2.      To examine the determinants of patronage to tourists attractionsin Lagos.

3.      To identify the factors affecting the level of patronage to tourist attractions in Lagos.

4.      To make appropriate recommendations to for improving the level of patronage in tourist attractions of Lagos.

1.4 Scope of the Study
Lagos state has a lot of tourist attraction across its many areas, but this study is focused on the tourist sites in Lagos city. There are other perspectives to the study that requires attention but this research is limited to tourist satisfaction and patronage within this area due to inability to reach them.

1.5 Significance of the Study
The importance of this study is its focus on the patronage of visitors thereby identifying their problems and having an insight into the operation of the destinations. It will also provide policy makers with useful information on how to improve services in order to achieve their goal and satisfy visitors. In addition to this, this study could be used as bases for further investigation to enrich research findings in this area of study.

1.6 Historical Background
Lagos initially emerged as a port city which originated on a collection of islands, which are contained in the present day Local Government Areas (LGAs) of Lagos Island, Eti-Osa, Ibeju-Lekki, Amuwo-Odofin and Apapa. The islands are separated by creeks, fringing the southwest mouth of Lagos Lagoon, while protected from the Atlantic Ocean by barrier islands and long sand spits such as Bar Beach, which stretch up to 100 km east and west of the mouth. Due to rapid urbanization, the city expanded to the west of the lagoon to include areas in the present day Lagos Mainland, Ajeromi-Ifelodun and Surulere. This led to the classification of Lagos into two main areas - the Island, which was the initial city of Lagos, before it expanded into the area known as the Mainland. This city area was governed directly by the Federal Government through the Lagos City Council, until the creation of Lagos State in 1967, which led to the splitting of Lagos city into Local Government Areas (LGAs).

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 82 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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