YANAYIN `TIR-MADALLA` DA SIGARSA: TSOKACI DAGA FINA-FINAN HAUSA NA NIJERIYA

ABSTRACT
Until recently, the concept of dramatic genre is not at home with the blossiming Hausa films, to some others also, the concepts of tragedy, comedy and tragi-comedy does not seem to exist in films nomenclature. However researches into Hausa films has begun to yield new ways of looking at this phenomenon (cf. Umma, (2008) and Aminu, (2012) as a case in point.
It is in line with this development that this reseach attempts to explore the nature and forms of tragi-comedy as can be discern from Hausa films. The thesis therefore in chapter one discusses the problems of the study and its significance, a review of the releted literature partaining to tragedy, comedy, the type, forms and features of tragi-comedy can be seen in chapter two. While chapter three discusses the methodology of data collection and analysis. An indepth analysis of thirty Hausa films was made in chapter four, applying the theory of tragi-comedy so as to see the nature and forms of tragi-comedy identified by scholars.
The reseach unearth the applicability of dramatic genres as well as the existance of most dramatic concepts in films and Hausa films in particular. The reseach further established the existance of different types of tragi-comedy in Hausa films vide tragedy with happy ending, comedy with unhappy ending, comedy with tragic-sequel, tragedy with a comic substructure etc, it also captures the understanding that social vices can be corrected through films that depicts tragi-comedy. Consequently, the research concludes that dramatic genres, like tragi-comedy can be handy in the critical analyses of films.

TSAKURE
Nazarin fina-finan Hausa a mizanin wasan kwaikwayo abu ne da bai dade da bayyana ba. Wasu masana ma suna ganin nau`o`in wasan kwaikwayo irin su ban tausayi da na raha da tir-madalla ba su da matsuguni a fina-finan Hausa. Kodayake binciken kwana-kwanan nan musamman na Umma, (2008), da na Aminu, (2012) sun kore wannan shakkar. Ganin haka ne ya sa aka yi kokarin tantance yanayin tir-madalla da sigoginsa a fina-finan Hausa na Nijeriya a cikin wannan kundin. Shimfida da sharar fage ta babi na farko na wannan kundin ta bayyana manufa da dalilin aiwatarwa ne tare da nuna muhimmancin wannan bincike ga hukumomi da sauran al`umma baki daya. A babi na biyu kuwa an waiwayi ayyukan magabata ne a kan wasan ban tausayi da raha da na tir-madalla, hakanan kuma an waiwayi siffofi da sigogi da yanayi na tir-madalla duk a cikin wannan babin. A babi na uku kuwa an bayyana hanyoyi da dabarun da aka yi amfani da su ne wajen tattaro fina-finai da kuma kwankwance bayanai akan su. Shi kuwa babi na hudu tarken fina-finan Hausa guda talatin da aka nazarta ya yi ta hanyar dora su akan mizanin da masana suka tantance na tir-madalla.
A karshe binciken ya tabbatar da yiwuwar nazarin fina-finai ta hanyar amfani da mizanin nazarin wasan kwaikwayo. Haka kuma binciken ya gano sigogin tir-madalla guda shida: wasan ban tausayi mai karewa da farin ciki da wasan raha mai karewa da ban tausayi da wasan raha mai ratsin ban tausayi da wasan ban tausayi mai ratsin raha, sauran sun hada da wasan da ke da hadakar `yan wasa da wanda yake da sakamakon harshen-damo a finafinan Hausa tamkar yadda masana wannan fage suka zayyana. Bugu da kari kuma binciken ya gano cewa irin wadannan fina-finai suna da matukar tasiri akan abubuwan da suka shafi tarbiyar al`umma.

BABI NA DAYA 
SHIMFIDA

1.1 Gabatarwa

Wasan kwaikwayo reshe ne na adabi kuma fasaha ce mai bayyana yanayi da tsarin rayuwar al‟umma. Ta hanyar wasan kwaikwayo za a iya ganin hoton rayuwar wata al‟ummar da ta shude, haka kuma za a iya fahimtar tsarin rayuwar wannan al‟umma da dabi‟u da siyasa da tattalin arziki da zamantakewarta. Za a iya ganin hoton abin da ke faruwa a cikin al‟umma, har ma wani lokaci a iya kirdaden abin da zai iya faruwa a cikin al‟umma. Wasan kwaikwayo hanya ce ta bayyana ko dai tunanin mai shirya wasan, ko marubuci, ko kuma irin falsafarsa game da rayuwa. (Abrams, 1953 da Malumfashi, 2002).

Duk da yake wasu na ganin wannan reshe na adabin Hausa bai sami tagomashin da ya dace da shi ba (Malumfashi, 1990), amma kuma manazarta da dama sun yi rubuce-rubuce wadanda suke dauke da fuskoki mabambanta. Wadansu rubuce-rubucen sun shafi wasan kwaikwayo na gargajiya ne, wadansu na zamani, wadansu kuwa na rediyo da talbijin.

Baya ga wadannan akwai kuma wadansu da ke rubuce-rubuce wadanda suka tabbatar da samuwar wasan raha a rubutattun wasannin kwaikwayon Hausa. Wasannin raha wasanni ne da suke kwaikwaya da bayyana hoton rayuwa ta jin dadi da annashuwa da raha da nishadi masu karewa da farin ciki don dai a yi dariya Cuddon (1999). Malumfashi (1985) da Zubairu (1992) sun gwada cewa wasannin da ke cikin wasan Six Hausa Plays da Tabarmar Kunya duk wasannin raha ne. Binciken Shehu (2005) da Umar (2011) sun nuna akwai raha a wasannin kwaikwayon rediyo. Idan an duba kundin Sulaiman (2007)

da Aliyu (2008) da Aminu (2012) duk sun nuna akwai raha wadda ta mamaye wasannin talbijin da na fina-finai.

Idan kuwa ana maganar wasan ban tausayi, Aristotle (1996) ya gwada cewa wasa ne mai nuna hadarurruka da bacin rai da bakin ciki wanda kan cusa tausayi ga zukatan jama‟a. Binciken Malumfashi (1985) da Sulaiman (1992) da Aminu (1995) sun gwada cewa akwai wasan ban tausayi ko siffofin wasan ban tausayi a wasu daga cikin rubutattun wasannin kwaikwayon Hausa. Wadannan siffofin ba ga wasan kwaikwayon Hausa kawai suka tsaya ba, har ma da wasu sassa na adabi, inda Aminu (2005) ya tabbatar da cewa ana samun wadannan siffofi a adabin baka na Hausawa.

Sai dai ba a sami bincike masu yawa ba wadanda suka yi kokarin tabbatar da samuwar wasan tir-madalla in ban da Malumfashi (1985) da Fulani (1997). Masana irin su Boulton (1977) da Crow (1983) da Baldick (2004) yarda suka yi da cewa wasan kwaikwayon tir-madalla wasan kwaikwayo ne wanda yake da gamin gambizar siffofin wasan kwaikwayon ban tausayi da na raha. Ko dai wasan da yake na ban tausayi ne wanda a karshe ya kare da farin ciki, ko kuma wasan da aka cakuda siffofin wadannan wasannin biyu.

Kalmar „tir-madalla‟ ita ce aka yi amfani da ita wajen fassara kalmar nan ta Ingilishi wato tragi-comedy kuma an samo wannan fassarar ce daga cikin Fassarar Kebbabbun Kalmomin Adabi wanda aka buga a 1978. „Tir‟ a nan na nuni da abubuwan kyama wadanda suke aukuwa ga gwarzon wasa sanadin wani kuskure da ya aikata ko kuma ajizancin na dan Adam, wadannan abubuwa su ke cusa tausayi ga masu kallo. Sa`an nan kuma „madalla‟ a nan na nuni da abubuwa wadanda suke sa ban dariya da farin ciki. Binciken Malumfashi (1985) ya ambaci akwai wasu rubutattun wasannin kwaikwayon Hausa wadanda suke na tir-madalla ne. Shi kuwa Fulani (1997) ya yi nazarin tir-madalla

a rubutaccen wasan kwaikwayon Hausa a matakin neman digirin farko. Kamfar aiki kan wasan tir-madalla a wasan kwaikwayo, musamman ma a fina-finan Hausa ya kara jaddada manufar wannan bincike.

Amma rubuce-rubucen da aka yi a fina-finan Hausa sun fi mayar da hankali kan tasirin bakin al‟adu a wadannan fina-finai. Wasu kuwa sun duba matsayin waka a cikin fina-finan, a yayin da wasu suka duba matsayin waka, wasu kuwa matsayin mata a fina-finan Hausa suka duba. Kadan ne daga cikinsu suka tabo tsarin labarin wasannin ko ginuwar `yan wasa ko zubin wasannin, a nan ma abubuwan da aka tabo ba su wadatar ba. Tabbataccen al‟amari ne cewa fina-finai suna samar da wani yanayi na bunkasa adabi, kuma muhimman abubuwa ne su kansu, kuma hanya ce mai bayyana yanayi da tsarin al‟adu (Turner, 1993).

Wannan bincike mai taken Yanayin Tir-madalla da Sigarsa: Tsokaci daga Fina-finan Hausa na Nijeriya ya nazarci yanayi da nau‟in tir-madalla a fina-finan Hausa, baya ga duba ma‟ana da ire-iren wannan nau‟in, an duba a ga ko akwai shi a adabin Hausawa musamman a fina-finan Hausa, idan akwai shi, to yaya yanayi da siffofinsa suke? An mayar da hankali ne ta nazartar bayanan da masana suka yi na siga da yanayin wannan nau‟i, kana aka nazarci wasu daga cikin fina-finan Hausa wadanda ake sa ran sun hau gadon fidar tir-madalla da masana suka bayyana.

1.2 Manufar Bincike

Wannan binciken kamar sauran da suka gabace shi yana da manufofi wadanda ake fatar cim ma wa yayin da aka kammala wannan aiki kamar haka:

·        Tabbatar da cewa akwai „tir-madalla‟ a cikin nau‟o‟in wasan kwaikwayon Hausa, musamman a fina-finai.

·        Tantance yanayin „tir-madalla‟ da sigarsa ta hanyar misaltawa daga fina-finan Hausa.

·        Bayyana ire-iren tubalan da ake amfani da su wajen gina tir-madalla a fina-finan Hausa.

·        Tabbatar da cewa fina-finan tir-madalla na Hausa sun yi daidai da abin da aka sani a duniyar nazarin tir-madalla ko akwai akasin haka.

·        Tabbatar da cewa fina-finan tir-madalla na Hausa suna nuna hoton rayuwar al‟umma ne ko kuwa sun ratse daga sanannen tsarin zamantakewar Bahaushe.

1.3 Dalilin Bincike

Abu ne sananne cewa adabi fasaha ce ta al‟umma ta baka ko rubutacciya ko ma aikatacciya. Masana na ganin adabi shi ne ilmin nau‟o‟in azanci da fasaha na sarrafa harshe da ya kunshi fasahohin magana cikin tsarin wakoki da labarai da tatsunniyoyi da tarihihi da hikimomin iya sarrafa harshe irin su karin magana da kacici-kacici da gatse da barkwanci da karangiya da dai sauransu (Dangambo, 2009). Wadannan hikimomi da fasahohi suna bayyana hoton rayuwar al‟umma ne.

Wasan kwaikwayon Hausa nau‟in adabi ne da aka yi bincike da yawa a kansa, sai dai har ya zuwa wannan lokacin da ake gudanar da wannan bincike, babu wani aiki da wannan bincike ya kai gare shi da aka yi kan wasan ban tausayi ko na tir-madalla a fina-finan Hausa. Mafi yawa daga cikin ayyukan da aka yi kan fina-finan Hausa sun fi mayar da hankali kan tasirin bakin al‟adu. Wannan shi ne dalili na farko da ya haifar da wannan binciken.

Kasancewar babu wani bincike mai kwari kan nazarin tir-madalla a wasannin kwaikwayon Hausa in ban da na Fulani (1997), wanda shi ma a rubutaccen wasan kwaikwayo ya tsaya,
bai tabo wasu sassa na adabin Bahaushe ba musamman fina-finan Hausa. Haka kuma ya tabo yanayi guda cikin shida na wannan nau‟in wasa, ashe akwai bukatar a sami bincike mai zurfi wanda zai tabo sauran da bincikensa bai iya tabowa ba.

Wannan ne ya sa aka kudiri aniyar gano ko akwai wannan nau‟in wasa a fina-finan Hausa?

In akwai wannan nau‟in, yaya yanayinsa da sigarsa suke?

Wani dalili na gudanar da wannan bincike shi ne kokarin tantance fasahar da take tattare da fina-finan Hausa musamman wadda ta shafi tir-madalla.

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Item Type: Ph.D Material  |  Attribute: 214 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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