KWATANCIN WASUN BAYANAU A NAHAWUN HAUSA DA BADANCI

ABSTRACT
The research entitled “A Comparative Study of Hausa and Bade Non-adverbial Items” is an attempt to investigate into the fact that languages that belong to the same family normally exhibit some sort of similarities. Also they would have to differ in some areas especially due to the fact that they are different languages. The comparison was done with respect to the structure, distribution and functions of non-adverbial items within the NP of the two languages, and may function as either head, pre-head or post-head qualifiers of the NP. A part from library work, active participation technique, observation technique and nativity of the researcher were the methods employed in the conduct of the research. In addition, scholars in the field of linguistics were contacted in order to validate the data generated. The research adopts Nida‟s (1974) Eclectic Analytical Theory and uses the descriptive framework of Galadanci (1976). The work reveals some structural, distributional and functional similarities and dissimilarities within the NP of the two languages.


TSAKURE
Wannan kundi mai taken “Kwatancin Wasun Bayanau a Nahawun Hausa da Badanci” ya ginu ne a kan tunanin nan na ilimin harsuna da ke nuni da cewa duk wasu harsuna iyalan gida xaya akan same su da kamanni, amma kuma tun da harsuna ne mabambanta, dole ne a same su da bambanci ta wasu fuskokin. An bi hanyar nazari a xakunan karatu mabambanta da kuma tattaunawa da ‟yan asalin harsunan guda biyu da masana ilimin harsuna yayin gudanar da binciken domin su tabbatar da ingancin bayanan da aka tattaro. Bayan da aka tattatara bayanai kuma aka yi nazarinsu, an fahimci cewa akwai kamanci mai yawa tsakanin harsunan guda biyu musamman dangane da kalmomin da suke zuwa a matsayin kai (K2) kamar suna da wakilin suna har ma da doguwar mallaka da kuma warau. Haka nan kuma, binciken ya bayyana cewa akwai bambanci tsakanin harsunan guda biyu musamman ta fuskar abubuwan da suke zuwa a gurbin siffatan goshi (Sft1) da kuma waxanda suke zuwa a matsayin siffatan qeya (Sft3). Alal misali, haxaxxiyar sifa a Hausa ka iya zuwa ko dai a sifftan goshi ko na qeya, amma a Badanci haxaxxiyar sifar tana zuwa ne a matsayin siffatan qeya kawai.

BABI NA DAYA
SHIMFIDA

1.0       Gabatarwa

Dukkan harsuna na duniya suna da wata babbar hanya kevavviya, wadda illahirin masu harshen suke bi yayin da suke magana. Ma‟ana, kowane harshe yana da wasu qa‟idoji a kan yadda yake tsara dukkan maganganunsa, waxanda aka furta da waxanda ma ba a tava furtawa ba (Chomsky 1957, a cikin Zarruq 1998:9). Haka nan kuma, yadda harsuna suke tsara jumlolinsu ya danganta ne da yadda suke zuba kalmomin rukunan nahawu bisa wani tsari amintacce. Dangane da jumlar da ta qunshi kalmar aikatau, wato kalma mai nuna aikatawa ko aukuwa ko wakana, masana ilimin nahawu suna kasa ta zuwa sassa-sassa. A mafi yawancin harsuna, sassan suna kasancewa ne na suna da kuma na aikatau ko bayani. Abin da wannan aiki ya duba shi ne, nazarin kwatanci na wasun bayanau a nahawun Hausa da Badanci.

Kamar yadda Greenberg (1963), ya nuna cewar harshen Hausa da na Badanci „yan uwan juna ne ta fuskar kimiyyar harshe da zamantakewar al‟umma. Haka nan, masana irin su Greenberg (1970), da Newman (1977, 1990), da Schuh (1982, 2003), da sauransu, duk sun nuna alaqar harsunan Hausa da na Badanci a kimiyance da cewa, harsuna ne iyalan Cadi ta yamma a qarqashin wani babban gidan harsuna na Afrika da Asiya. Sai dai Newman (1977), ya qara karkasa harsuna iyalan Cadin zuwa rukuni huxu, waxanda suka qunshi Harsunan Yamma da Biu-Mandara da Gabas da kuma Harsunan Masa. Har ila yau, a qarqashin harsuna iyalan Cadi na yamma xin, ya sake raba su zuwa rukunin “A” da “B”. Hausa ta faxo a rukunin “A” na farko; harshen Badanci kuwa ya faxo a rukunin “B” shi ma na farko.


Bayanan masanan sun nuna alaqar waxannan harsuna guda biyu (Hausa da Badanci) a kimiyance da cewa iyalan gida xaya ne waxanda suke da kyakkyawar alaqa da juna. Haka nan ba ta fuskar asali kaxai ba, ko ta tsarin nahawun harshen Badancin idan aka duba za a samu irin wannan daidaito tsakaninsa da harshen Hausa. Da farko, idan aka dubi yadda harshen Hausa yake da tarin kare-karen harshe, haka harshen na Badanci yake da irin wannan kare-kare wanda daga ciki aka samu manyan rukunai guda uku da aka kira su Karin Harshen Yamma da na Kudu da kuma Karin Harshen Gashua, kamar yadda Wakili (2009), ya nuna. Haka nan Schuh (2002), ya ambato cewa, kamar mafi yawan harsunan Afirka, haxe da Hausa, waxanda karin sauti yake da matuqar tasiri wajen canza ma‟anar kalma, shi ma harshen Badanci bai fita daga wannan mamaya ba. Domin cikin irin karin sautin da yake da shi guda uku, sama (´) da qasa (`) da kuma faxau (ˆ), su suke da tasiri wajen canza ma‟anar kalma. Alal misali, kùnù (daji) – kùnú (ciki), kàká (kaka) - káká (Allah), mìyá (baki) – míyâ (xari) da dai sauran kalmomi irin waxannan. Haka kuma, ko ta fuskar tsarin jinsi idan aka duba, za a ga harshen na Badanci yana da wani tsayayyen tsari na nahawu da yake nuna cewa, kusan kowane suna da ya qare da baqi ko auren wasali jinsin namiji ne. Haka nan, mafi yawan sunaye da suka qare da gwauron wasali suna komawa jinsin mace ko kuma su bambanta ta fuskar jinsi daga bakin wani mutum zuwa wani. Har ila yau, idan aka duba yadda kowane harshe yake da tsarin jituwar kalmomi wajen ginin jumlarsa, harshen Badanci ma yana da irin wannan tsari. Alal misali, irin jinsin da kalmar suna take xauke da shi a jumla, shi ne yake bayar da damar irin jinsin da wakilin suna ko mafayyaci da kuma jumla irin ta nasaba. Amma sai dai a harshen Badanci ba a samun jituwar jinsi a sifa.


Su kuwa wannan al‟umma ta Badawa da suke amfani da wannan harshen na Badanci, mutane ne da suke zaune a arewancin jahar Yobe wadda take arewa maso gabashin Nijeriya. Kamar yadda tarihi ya nuna, Grema (1998), ya ambata cewar su al‟ummar Badawa mutane ne da suka yiwo qaura daga yankin gabas ta tsakiya. Da farko, sun zauna a yankin Ngazarmu da yake jahar Borno a halin yanzu. Daga bisani kuma suka qaura zuwa wani qauye da ake kira Dadigar wanda yake da nisan kilomita 13 daga garin Gashua, hedikwatar mulki ta qaramar hukumar Bade a jihar Yobe. Bayan wani lokaci, bisa wasu dalilai na mulki da bunqasar al‟umma, wannan al‟umma ta Badawa ta yi qaura zuwa wani gari da ake kira Gogaram. Daga nan kuma, a 1946 masarautar wannan al‟umma ta Bade ta yi qaura zuwa garin Gashua inda har a halin yanzu wannan al‟umma take da zama.

Dangane da tarihin cuxanya tsakanin wannan al‟umma ta Badawa da Hausawa kuwa, Gusau (1993), ya nuna cewar, Hausawa da Badawa suna da daxaxxiyar hulxa ta mu‟amala wadda ta samo asali tun kafin zuwan Turawan Mulkin mallaka qasashensu. Bugu da qari, wannan hulxa ta qarfafa ne a shekarar 1946, a daidai lokacin da masarautar Bade ta yi qaura zuwa garin Gashua daga Gogaram kamar yadda bayani ya gabata. A wannan lokacin ne, wani ayari na Sakkwatawa mahajjata suka yada zango a nan garin Gashua, yayin da wasunsu da dama ba su samu wucewa ba. A taqaice, har zuwa wannan lokaci akwai unguwa ta musamman da ake kira „Takari‟ da take da vurvishin waxannan Hausawa mazauna wannan gari, waxanda kuma suke ci gaba da cuxanya da al‟ummar wannan harshe na Bade.

Wannan daxxiyar hulxa da kuma alaqa ta qut da qut tsakaqnin waxannan harsuna, kamar yadda masana suka tabbatar, ta sanya samuwar ‟yan kamance-kamance wajen sarrafa kalmomi har zuwa gina jimlolinsu wanda wannan bincike ya qudiri aniyar dubawa.



Sanannen abu ne cewa shi harshen na Badanci bai samu wata kulawa sosai ta masana da manazarta ta fuskar rubuce-rubuce ba, musamman ma idan aka kwatanta shi da harshen Hausa. Amma duk da haka, an samu wasu nazarce-nazarce na masana da manazarta a kan harshen Badancin. Haka shi ma wannan bincike ya zame tamkar tuntuve daxin gushi a kan waxancan yunquri na masana, domin tserar da harshen daga barazanar vacewa da yake fuskanta. Sai dai shi wannan bincike mai suna „Kwatancin Wasun Bayanau a Nahawun Hausa Da Badanci‟, ba kamar sauran ba, ya yi amfani da rukunan nahawu dangin suna na Hausa a matsayin ma‟auni, domin kwatanta su da na harshen Badanci don gano inda suka yi kama da inda suka bambanta. Haka nan, ganin yadda manazarcin yake xan asalin harshen Badanci, ana sa ran hakan ya zame wata madogara ta samun sahihancin binciken domin ganin yadda masu iya magana sukan ce da xan gari akan ci gari.

Ta fuskar wasun bayanau kuwa, yunquri na farko na karkasa kalmomin harshe zuwa aji-aji an yi shi a wasu sassa na duniya mabambanta. A tsohuwar qasar Girka, Plato ya yi, a gefe guda kuma a can Indiya Panini shi ma ya yi a tsohon harshen Sankiriti. Panini ya kasa kalmomi zuwa aji huxu, inda ya nuna akwai masu kumbura, wato suna da aikatau da kuma waxanda ba sa kumbura, wato jarru da virvishi. Daga nan, an yi ta qoqarin karkasa kalmomi zuwa azuzuwa daban-daban a lokuta mabambanta. Tun daga kan Aristotle da Plato zuwa ga masana nahawun Stoic har zuwa ga wani masani Dionysius Thrax, wanda tun qarni na biyu kafin haihuwar Annabi Isa, ya fito da wani aikinsa mai suna Techne Grammatike a kan harshen Girka (Yunananci). Thrax ya fito da rukunai ko azuzuwa guda takwas wato, suna da aikatau da sifa (ya kira ta da particle) da virvishi da wakilin suna da jarru da bayanau da mahaxi. Wannan shi ne ya haifar da kason da masana nahawun Latin suka yi wanda kuma shi ne har yanzu Ingilishi take amfani da shi (Reuland, 2005).


A taqaice, wasun bayanau rukunai ne na nahawu waxanda sukan fito a yankin suna na jumla. Manufa, kalmomi ne da ba su shafi kalmomin bayanau ba a cikin jumla kamar yadda Galadanci (1976), ya ambace su, alal misali suna da harxaxxen suna da wakilin suna da ma‟auni da jakin siffantau da sarqaqqiyar sifa da amsa-kama da sauransu.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 157 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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