ADABI DA TARIHANCI: NAZARIN WASU WASANNI NA RUDOLF PRIETZE

ABSTRACT
Historicism is a literary theory that focuses on historical events in works of art. It thus depict how historical issues are embedded in literature. The research entitled “Adabi da Tarihanci: Nazarin Wasu Wasanni Na Rudolf Prietze”(Literature and Historicism: An Analysis of Some Plays by Rudolf Prietze) looks at how historical phenomena were encapsulated in Turbar Qudus (1898), Turbar Tarabulus (1902) and Tarihin Rabeh (1902). In its attempt to analyse the plays based on historicism, the work has reviewed and ascertained the history of Rabeh (Fadl Allah), Jerusalem (Qudus) and Trans-Saharan trade and so many related issues for the purpose of reference. And the research analyses the literary appreciation in the plays, notably the plot, the theme, the characters, and the language style (figure of speech).
In conclusion, the research has highlighted how Prietze‟s plays reflect the historical phenomena in Jerusalem and in Hausa societies in different aspects of life around 1898 and 1902, The research discovers that the playwright uses true life story to build literature. In Turbar Qudus, the history of Christianity which comprises the holy place where Prophet Isah (Yesu) was born is examined, and the categories of people live in Jerusalem that largely originated from Germany, Moscow and France were noted. The thesis observed the applicability of supremacy of power in Turbar Qudus by the emir of Istanbul over other emirs. Similarly, in the play Turbar Tarabulus the historical life of commercial or Trans-Saharan trade between Hausaland and Maghreb states (North Africa) have been studied. The life in the desert and its dwellers notably the Shamba Arabs were noted.While in Tarihin Rabeh, the history of Rabeh and how he conquered Borno empire and its neighbors have been discovered.

TSAKURE
Tarihanci ra‟in nazari ne da yake mayar da hankali a kan al‟amuran da suka jivanci tarihi a adabi, kuma yana yin dubi ne zuwa ga yadda abubuwa na tarihi suke qunshe a cikin wannan adabin. Donhaka ne, wannan nazari mai suna “Adabi da Tarihanci: Nazarin Wasu Wasanni na Rudolf Prietze” ya dubi yadda al‟amura na tarihi suke qunshe a zavavvun wasannin Prietze (Turbar Qudus (1898) da Turbar Tarabulus (1902) da kuma Tarihin Rabeh (1902). Binciken ya yi waiwaye zuwa ga taskar tarihi a kan tarihin hulxar kasuwanci a tsakanin Hausawa da Larabawa da tarihin Masallacin Qudus da kuma tarihin rayuwar Rabeh (Fadl Allah). An yi hakan ne domin kafa hujja da kore shakka don tabbatar da waxannan wasanni ta mahangar ra‟in tarihanci. Haka kuma an nazarci muhimman tubalan nazarin adabi waxanda suka haxa da zubi da jigo da „yan wasa da kuma harshe musamman adon harshe duk a cikin wasannin, domin qara tabbatar da wasannin a matsayin adabi ba tarihi tsantsa ba.
A qarshe, binciken ya ba da haske a kan yadda wasannin Prietze suke xauke da al‟amura na tarihi a Qudus da kuma qasar Hausa ta fuskoki da da dama. Hakan ya sanya nazarin ya gano cewa, marubucin waxannan wasannin ya xauki labari na haqiqa ne ya tsara shi a sigar adabi. A wasan Turbar Qudus, an ga tarihin addinin Kiristanci ta fuskar cocin da aka haifi Annabi Isah, da kuma nau‟o‟in mutanen da ke zaune a Qudus kamar Jamusawa da „yan Masko da Faransawa. Binciken ya ga irin qarfin mulkin da Sarkin Santambul yake da shi a Qudus. Haka kuma, a wasan Turbar Tarabulus, an ga tarihin hulxar kasuwanci a tsakanin Hausawa da Larabawa musamman irin wahalhalun sahara da „yan fashi (Larabawan Shamba). Kamar yadda kuma, a wasan Tarihin Rabeh, aka ga tarihin rayuwar Rabeh da yadda ya ci daular Borno da wasu dauloli da yaqi.

BABI NA DAYA

SHIMFIXA

1.1   Gabatarwa

Kasancewar adabi muhimmin fage ne, hakan ya sanya masana da manazarta da dama suke aiwatar da nazarce-nazarce a cikinsa, tun daga ma‟anar ita kanta kalmar ta adabin har ya zuwa ga wanzar da wani nazari a xaya daga cikin sassansa guda uku (waqa ko habarce ko wasan kwaikwayo).Wannan bincike mai xauke da batun “Adabi da Tarihanci: Nazarin Wasu Wasanni na Rudolf Prietze” ya yi qoqarin duba yadda aka taskace wani vangare na tarihin al‟umma ne a cikin wasannin kwaikwayon Rudolf Prieze, waxanda suka jivanci tarihi. Waxannan wasanni su neTurbar Qudus (1898) da Turbar Tarabulus (1902) da kuma Tarihin Rabeh (1902), domin Yahaya (1978) da Ogunbiyi (1981) da Baldick (2004) suna ganin cewa wasan kwaikwayo shi ne qashin bayan adabi. Ashe in nazarin ya gudana a wasan kwaikwayo ba a yi laifi ba, tun da tarihanci ake son qwaqulowa a adabi.


Nazarin adabi ta mahangar tarihanci, shi ne bibiyar al‟amura na tarihi a cikin adabi ta hanyar la‟akari da rubutaccen tarihi da kuma tarihancin zance a cikin adabin, tare da duba muhimman al‟adun al‟ummar da aka yi adabin a kanta daga tarihi. Ta la‟akari da yadda nazarin adabi yake a tarihance, wannan nazari ya dubi muhimman al‟amuran da suka bayyana a cikin wasan Turbar Qudus da Turbar Tarabulus da kuma Tarihin Rabeh waxanda suka tabbata a tarihi na haqiqa, sannan kuma suka bayyana a cikin wasannin. A qoqarin qwaqulo misalai na tarihanci daga cikin waxannan wasanni, an waiwayi taskar tarihi domin qoqarin kafa hujja a tarihance.


Haka kuma, baya ga tarihanci da aka zaqulo a cikin wasannin, an xora wasannin a mizanin nazarin wasan kwaikwayo ta hanyar nazartar jigo da zubi da „yan wasa da kuma harshe, musamman yadda aka yi amfani da adon harshe a cikin wasannin; kuma hakan ya qara bambanta tarihi na haqiqa da kuma tarihanci a adabi. Domin adon harshe muhimmin sinadari ne a cikin adabi kamar yadda Abdu (2013) ya bayyana.


Rudolf Prietze ya rubuta waxannan wasannin ne a sakamakon labarin da wani Bakano mai suna Haji Ahmadu Kano ya ba shi a birnin Tunis a shekara ta 1902 kamar yadda Ahmed (2013) ya tabbatar, kuma labaran duk sun auku a rayuwa ta zahiri, sai dai Prietze ya yi amfani da salon rubutun wasan kwaikwayo ne don ya kasance adabi, ta hanyar rage wani abu da qara wani abu a cikin labaran. Wannan ya sanya aka yi qoqarin tabbatar da hakan ta hanyar danganta wasannin zuwa ga tarihi na asali.


A taqaice, wannan bincike ya dubi yadda tarihanci ya bayyana a cikin wasan Turbar Qudus, musamma a kan ziyarar da Sarkin Jamus William ii ya kai Qudus a shekarar 1898, kamar yadda tarihi ya tabbatar. Sannan aka nazarci yadda al‟ummar Hausawa da wani yankin na Larabawan Afirka suka gudanar da harkokin kasuwanci ta hanyar bin tafarkin sahara (safara) a cikin wasan Turbar Tarabulus. Daga qarshe, nazarin ya bibiyi tarihin rayuwar Rabih (Fadl Allah) a cikin wasan Tarihin Rabeh, tare da danganta wasan zuwa ga tarihin rayuwar Rabih da yaqe-yaqen da ya gudanar zamaninsa.


1.2 Dalilan Bincike

Hausawa na cewa “ruwa ba ya tsami banza.” haka kuma, “banza ba ta kai zomo kasuwa.” Wannan zance haka yake, domin kuwa duk da cewa an sami nazarce-nazarce da yawa a kan ayyukan Rudolf Prietze, kamar na Ahmed (1987) da (2013) da Hassan (2006) da Ibrahim (2007) da Abdullahi (2009) da (2009) da Musa (2011) da Xanmaigoro (2012) da kuma Jajere

(2014), sai dai ba a sami wani wanda ya aiwatar da nazarinsa ta hanyar amfani da ra‟in tarihanci ba, domin duba wani vangare na tarihin al‟umma a cikin wasannin, hakan ya haifar da sha‟awar aiwatar da wannan nazarin, domin rashin samun wani nazari da aka yi irinsa, shi ne dalili na farko da ya haifar da binciken.

Wani dalili na gaba kuma shi ne, kamar yadda Ahmed (2000) yake ganin cewa, a qasashe irin su Masar da wasu qasashe a yankin Asiya, ci gaban wasan kwaikwayo ya kai inda ba a zato, domin kuwa ana nazarin wasan kwaikwayo ta fuskar kimiyya da fasahar zamani da tarihi da siyasa da zamantakewa da tattalin arziki da dai sauransu. Wannan batu na Ahmed (2000) yana xaya daga cikin dalilan da suka haifar da sha‟awar aiwatar da wannan binciken, domin nazarin ya shiga cikin sabon yunquri na nazarin wasan kwaikwayon Hausa ta hanyar nazartar muhimman al‟amura na tarihin rayuwar al‟umma, kamar yadda qasashen Masar da Asiya suka saba nazartar wasan kwaikwayonsu.

Dalili na gaba da ya qara qarfafa wannan nazari shi ne, kasancewar adabi fasahar al‟umma ce da ake aiwatarwa a magance ko a rubuce, kamar yadda masana irin su Hassan (2013) suka tabbatar. Kuma Mayhead (1965) ya nuna cewa, ana buqatar adabi ya kasance yana xauke da harshe da nishanatarwa, sannan kuma ya kasance ya shafi duniya ta zahiri. Wannan ya sa za a duba yadda Rudolf ya yi amfani da fasaharsa ta hanyar amfani da harshe da nufin ilmantarwa da nishaxantarwa, inda ya xauki labarai na zahiri ya tsara su a tsarin wasan kwaikwayo, ta hanyar dubi zuwa ga tabbatacen tarihi a rubuce kamar yadda masana tarihanci suka nuna haka.

Har ila yau, yana daga cikin manyan dalilan da suka jawo hankali wajen wanzar da wannan bincike, wato duba irin yadda adabi ke bayyana tarihin al‟umma a fakaice ko a sarari, domin burin nazari ta mahangar ra‟in tarihanci ya ga cewa duk wani adabi ya wakilci ko ya kasance ya shafi muhallinsa, kamar yadda Rivkin da Ryan (2004) ke da‟awa.

Bugu da qari, yana daga cikin dalilan da suka qarfafa wa mai wannan bincike gwiwa, domin binciken ya shiga cikin sabon salon nazarin adabin Hausa mai amfani da ra‟in nazarin adabi na duniya, ta hanyar nazartar wasu al‟amura na rayuwar al‟umma, waxanda suka shafi tarihi, kamar tarihin ziyarar da Sarkin Jamus ya kai Qudus a shekarar 1898, da kuma duba yadda al‟amuran kasuwanci a tafarkin sahara suka gudana a tarihi, tare da nazartar tarihin yaqe-yaqen da Rabeh ya gudanar a zamaninsa.

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Item Type: Postgraduate Material  |  Attribute: 205 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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