DIETARY RISK ASSESSMENT OF BISPHENOL A MIGRATION IN SOFT DRINKS

ABSTRACT
In Ghana, there has been a steady increase in plastic products used in the food industry for packaging. This research investigated the effects of storage temperature, pH and storage time on migration of BPA from five brands of soft drinks packaged in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles in Ghana. BPA extraction and clean-up was done on a total of 60 samples of soft drinks using a modified QuEChERS method. Palisade @Risk software was used to determine the hazard quotient (HQ), of consumption of the soft drinks to characterize the risk. BPA was detected in all the samples at all three temperature conditions. BPA concentrations ranged from 0.23 to 0.39 ng/mL, 0.23 to 1.3 ng/mL and 0.23 to 5.17 ng/mL for samples stored at refrigerated, room and elevated temperature respectively. pH remained relatively constant in the acidic range of 2.72 to 3.58 over the four-week period. Hazard quotients (HQ < 1) of BPA at refrigerated and room temperature meant the study population were at no significant health risk. At elevated temperature, the 95th percentile value of 1.11 implied that more than 5% of the study population were at a significant health risk (HQ > 1), and therefore should not be neglected.


CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background
Protecting food from tampering or contamination from physical, chemical and biological sources is the main goal of food packaging (Prasad and Kochhar, 2014). Glass, metal, paper and paperboard, and plastics are the traditional materials used by this industry (Tang et al., 2012). Due to its functional properties, convenience, resistance, low weight and costs, plastic emerged as the main material used in primary food packaging in the past decades (Accorsi et al., 2014; Shah et al., 2008).

There are different types of plastics, each with unique properties and application in the food industry, for example polycarbonate, high and low density polyethylene, styrene and polypropylene. These plastics are manufactured from various polymers and additives are used to improve elasticity, flexibility, color, resistance and durability.

According to Wagner and Oehlmann (2009), both plastic and additives can migrate from the packaging to the food or beverage over time as a result of an increase in temperature or mechanical stress. The presence of plastic components or additives in food, if not properly controlled, can affect the organoleptic properties of food and produce an endocrine disrupting effect if the levels exceed the legislated or toxicological values.

Many plasticizers and additives are considered as endocrine disruptors (EDs). Endocrine disruptors act by interfering with the biosynthesis, secretion, action, or metabolism of naturally occurring hormones (Diamanti-Kandarakis et al., 2009; Kavlock et al., 1996). Given the importance of hormones in human physiology, there is concern in the scientific community over the potential for endocrine disruptors to adversely affect children‟s health, particularly in reproduction, early and adolescent development and behaviour (Diamanti-Kandarakis et al., 2009). Some of these endocrine disruptors are phthalate esters (PAEs), alkylphenols (APs), 2, 2-bis (4-hydroxyphenyl) propane or Bisphenol A and di (2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) (Vom Saal and Hughes, 2005).

Bisphenol A (BPA) is an organic compound, first synthesized by a Russian scientist named A.P. Dianin in 1891 (Rubin, 2011). Among many other uses, BPA is utilized to produce polycarbonate (PC) plastics, epoxy resin for cans, toys, microwave containers and water pipes. Heat and contact with either acidic or basic foods, as the process of sterilization in cans or polycarbonate plastic, increase the hydrolysis of the ester bond linking BPA molecules in the polycarbonate and epoxy resins and BPA monomers are released into foods (Vom Saal and Hughes, 2005).

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Item Type: Ghanaian Postgraduate Material  |  Attribute: 62 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: GH50  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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