The water supply infrastructure in Kaduna North Water Works (KNWW) has faced alot of problems, partly due to a neglect of the components over a long period and with tariffs at a low level, which was far from reflecting the real cost of the service. Economic efficiency still remains below the regional average, resulting in the lack of financial resources to maintain and extend the infrastructure. This dissertation assessed the challenges facing water supply in the Kaduna North Municipality using a developed performance indicator called Service Standard Performance Metrics (SPEM) and Strength, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis. An evaluation using some aspects of technical, financial, human resources and institutional performance indicators was carried out. The results shows that, a prime cause for the water scheme failures to provide the required level of service delivery is poor operation and maintenance practice as well as poor management. In order to establish the basis for developing strategies for the performance improvement plan, a detailed SWOT analysis of the present situation was carried out to identify the Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Threats of KNWWs. A structured questionnaire along with personal interviews was used to collect primary data from KNWWs staff and households served by the KNWW which was divided into eight baseline communities. The study showed that water supply was being rationed in the Municipality and the major complaint on the quality of water was with the colour. Complaints were mostly made in person (69 %) and the attitude of KNWWs staff to complaints was poor. However, meter readers were generally found not customer friendly by 72.5 % of the respondents. Customers perception of the price of water was average (49.75 %) and an increase in the water tariff without significant improvement in quality would create problems. Finally, some of the reasons for the inefficiency in water delivery from the need assessment carried out were obsolete machines, frequent pipe bursts and power outages among others. The study concluded that water shortages affected both domestic and commercial activities and was a cause of truancy in school children and also accounted for the use of untreated and contaminated water leading to water borne diseases in the municipality. The water quality results obtained are higher in the raining season than the dry season due to the  accumulation of sediments.

1.1       Preamble
The basic functions of water utilities are to construct, operate and maintain water supply systems (Ajibike, 2013). The steps to evaluate the performance of these utilities have been well spelt out by some international organizations such as American Water Works Association in Kayaga, et al., (2004) and Ajibike (2013).

In Kaduna State, acute water shortage has manifested in certain areas of the metropolis particularly Badarawa, Kurmin Mashi, Unguwan Mu‟azu, Afaka, Barnawa, Rigasa, Unguwan Sanusi and Nassarawa (Ajibike, 2013).

In the developing countries like United States, where the development of water is mostly government-driven, failure to develop efficient water supply systems has been established as a product of the interplay of several factors (Sulemanova, 2002). Among them, securing finances to build, maintain and expand the systems is perhaps the most important (UNEP, 2002; Hall, 2006). The availability of finance, especially for day-to-day operations and maintenance, is statistical in view of the low level of public finances for urban development, including water supply (WHO, 2000; UNICEF, 2000). In general, water supply in these countries is undertaken by government parastatals that have the dual objectives of providing a social service while generating revenue to offset cost. Ironically, most of these parastatals do not recover their operating expenses from their own revenues, and remain dependent on state governments for subsidies (Hall, 2006). Studies have also confirmed that about half the water in drinking water supply systems in the developing world is lost due to leakage, illegal hook-ups and vandalism (UN, 2002; Hall, 2006). In addition, lack of clear institutional objectives, low wages and poor equipment and supplies

have been widely cited as the typical institutional characteristics of water supply agencies in the developing countries (World Bank, 1994; Franceys, 1993).

The Water Utility Partnership, an organization that deals with capacity building of water supply and sanitation utilities in Africa, has noted that: “public water services in many African countries have been assigned to a single water authority and the abilities of governments to deliver water adequately have been negatively affected by a number of factors like accessible to clean water, disease, etc. Thus urban water systems are characterized by heavy losses both financially and of water itself. Africa is also noted as urbanizing more than any other region in the world. Between 1995 and 2005, the urban population was expected to grow from 300 to 700 million, and by 2020 it is expected that over 50% of the population in African countries will reside in urban areas. Water Utility Partnership (WUP), 2003.

Water utility customers want adequate and a reasonable quality of water service delivery with environmental protection and public health protection at the lowest reasonable cost (AWWARF, 1998). The quality of water delivered and used for households is an important aspect of domestic water supplies, which influences hygiene and therefore public health (WHO, 2003).

The successes of any water utility to satisfy its customers hinge around the efficient operation and proper maintenance of such systems quantitatively and qualitatively with the highest level of consumers‟ satisfaction (Bernard and Eugene, 2006). The key elements which contribute towards the efficiency of the water utilities of any country are shared vision, values and mission, strategic planning, human resources development, programme development management system, organizational culture, governance, legal/fiscal, compliance, monitoring and evaluation accountability (Islam-UI Haq and Shalid, 2007).

Currently the supply of water is not more than 50 % and 30 % of its effective demand for the urban and rural areas respectively in Kaduna metropolis (Ajibike, 2013).

In spite of the abundant natural water resources, proliferation of water works in the country coupled with a robust policy that spells out strategies and attainable targets, the water situation in Nigeria could best be described as precarious. Over the years, improvement in domestic water supply has not been impressive. For example, in 1990, 47 % of Nigerians have access to improved water. This percentage increased slightly to 53 % in 1991 due to increase in percentage of water coverage. Displaying similar growth rate, only 58 % access was recorded in 2008 (WHO/UNICEF JMP, 2010). The absurdity in water supply situation in Nigeria is further revealed by the fact that urban domestic water supply has been on decline since 1990. For example in 1990, 79 % of the urban dwellers had access. This decreased to 47 % and 45 % in 2000 and 2008 respectively (WHO/UNICEF JMP, 2010). It is pathetic to observe that access to piped water among Nigerians has decreased extensively from 14 % in 1990 to 6 % in 2008 (WHO/UNICEF JMP, 2010).

Water supply shortages and quality deterioration are among the problems which require greater attention and action (Ayoade, 1981). Various strategies are always being developed to make water accessible to all inhabitants. However due to insufficient structures coupled with rapid population growth and urbanization, the gap between demand and supply of water continues to widen (Bernard and Eugene, 2006).

1.2       Statement of Research Problem
The water supply sector in Kaduna State faces a lot of problems, partly due to poor service delivery and operational system. Economic efficiency still remains below the regional average of 62 %, resulting in a lack of financial resources to maintain and extend the
infrastructure. Since the creation of Kaduna North water works under the State Ministry of Water Resources, the sector has been gradually modernized through the creation of an autonomous regulatory agency and introduction of private sector participation, where user participation is encouraged. Hence, there is need for sustainable operation and maintenance. In Kaduna State of Nigeria, where this study of Kaduna North water works is based, the drive towards private sector participation in service delivery and commercializing urban water supply under the National Urban Water Supply Reform Programme is currently progressing most speedily. Although not yet fully implemented, a policy blueprint similar to the one in Lagos state is being outlined towards embarking on full commercial operations by the water board with or without privatization. Signals towards this have for some time been sent out by the Kaduna State Government (although an enabling legislation is yet to be passed). It has been shown that the implementations of reform programmes are not critically done in conjunction or with the knowledge of the consumers. Hence they refused to buy into it. This can be seen in some of its recent policies on water supply tariff and management as well as the various initiatives the Kaduna North Water Works has been involved recently on fully commercializing urban water supply This study assesses the problems and perceptions of consumers on the water services delivery rendered by the Kaduna North Water Works and also complaints about poor water delivery and quality.

In Kaduna, about 75 % of the total populations source their water from the hand dug well (Yari, 2000). If this trend continues, the MDGs on water supply may not be achieved in the Kaduna by the year 2020 in line with MDGs goal. This research seeks to assess the performance of Kaduna state water board with particular reference to Kaduna north water works.

1.3       Aim and Objectives
The aim of this research is the assessment of the performance of water supply service in
Kaduna North Water Works, and the objectives achieved for this study are:

i. Identify the major causes of the frequent water shortages (in terms of availability and regularity) in the Kaduna North Municipality.

ii. Carry out the need assessment of Kaduna North water works operations (operation and process)

iii. Determine the Key factors that have impact on the performance of the water service delivery (technical, Operational Maintenance, financial and customer satisfaction).

iv. To assess the general perception (Customers) on the water quality standard delivered to the study area.

1.4       Justification of the Study
This study is expected to identify/contribute, specifically by providing new knowledge, information on Kaduna North urban water supply system. The study will further serve as benchmark data for any further investigation and also as a useful material for academic purposes. It will enable the researcher to assess the expectations of the water quality service delivery and make inputs into the success and sustainability of the projects for Kaduna North Water Woks (KNWW). It will provide useful ideas to better enhance municipal water provision in developing countries. Again the outcomes and the associated outputs of this research would enable KNWW to equip its plant, other sector players, citizens and communities to engage with sector providers and policy makers in providing quality and affordable water locally. This would enable KNWW and partners to contribute to creating

demand and supply side accountability in sector governance. Finally, this study would stimulate research in new and under researched areas that is likely to provide useful data to inform policy making, planning decisions and advocacy efforts at local and other levels.

1.5       Scope of Study and Limitations
Firstly, it is very difficult in Nigeria to elicit official information from individuals and households and even from government departments and agencies Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). As a common thing associated with all household surveys in Nigeria some people feel uncomfortable to divulge the correct and absolute information to researchers for fear of being taxed or arrested by the police. No matter how open a researcher is, some respondents prefer to either hide their identity or not to give out the real information. This might be linked to the literacy level of the population as many people of low education are not well informed and exposed to the full relevance of research. The officials of the Kaduna North Water Works and the Public Utilities Regulatory Commission (PURC) always have heavy schedules. Due to their extra responsibilities as well as travelling and attending conferences, it was difficult to get them to fill their questionnaires. This necessitated the use of emails and telephone calls in some cases to complete the data collection. The study was carried out in the Kaduna North Municipal area which forms the regional capital of the Kaduna State Capital and also forms the central business centre, commercial and industrial part of the Region. The research focuses on the assessment of the residents (i.e. consumers connected to KNWW water system), perception on the quality of water services delivery rendered by KNWW and will also focused on the existing tariff of the Operator (KNWW). The study will be limited to urban areas in Kaduna State with special emphasis on the Kaduna North Municipal area.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Size: 172 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
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