ASSESSMENT OF EFFECTS OF ACTIVITY- BASED AND BRAINSTORMING INSTRUCTIONS ON STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN ISLAMIC STUDIES IN JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT
The study titled Assessments of effects of activity-based and brainstorming instructions on students’ performance in Islamic Studies in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna state, Nigeria. The study was conducted with five objectives which include: determine the effects of activity-based instruction on students’ performance in Islamic studies as compared to the Conventional method in junior secondary schools in Kaduna state;examine the effects of brainstorming instruction on students’ performance in Islamic studies as compared to the Conventional method in junior secondary schools in Kaduna state; and determine the effects of activity-based and brainstorming instruction on students’ performance in Islamic studies as compared to the Conventional method in junior secondary schools in Kaduna state. Quasi-experimental research design was used in the study. The total population was 40,490 out of which six (6) intact classes of Zaria and Soba local governments of two hundred and forty two (242) students were used as sample size. A researcher-made test called “Islamic Studies Achievement Test” (ISAT) was used for data collection. The instrument was pilot tested with the reliability index at 0.88. Mean and standard deviation were used to analyses the research questions. Hypotheses 1 and 2 were tested using t-test, while hypotheses 3, 4 and 5 were analyzed using ANOVA at 0.05 alpha level of significance. Findings revealed that Students taught Islamic Studies using activity-based instruction performed significantly better than those taught with conventional method in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State. Performance of students taught Islamic Studies using brainstorming instruction was far better than those taught using conventional method in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State. In the light of the findings from this study, it was recommended that;Islamic Studies Teachers should promote activity-based instruction as it will encourage and motivate students to participate actively in classroom. Brainstorming instruction should be adopted by Islamic Studies teachers since it improved faculty of reasoning and thinking during teaching and learning, workshops, seminars, conferences and enlightenment should be organized from time to time for Islamic studies teachers in junior secondary schools in Kaduna stated so as to keep abreast of modern or innovative teaching instruction such as activity-based and brainstorming instruction.


CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1       Background to the Study
Instructions of teaching have attracted the attention of many researchers over the years. Activity-based and brainstorming instruction in Islamic studies teaching has been the concern of many educationists. Islamic studies, as a practical and theoretical subject should engage student in teaching and learning but what operates largely in junior secondary schools (JSS) in Kaduna state presently is more of reading, memorization and hearing without engaging students in active teaching and learning.

The way a teacher presents a subject matter will make students like or dislike the subject, make them to understand the lesson or otherwise (Yusuf, 2012:161). Instruction is what the professional teacher utilizes to maximize students learning. It includes ways in which teachers do things that cause permanent changes in the students‟ behaviour. There are instructions that encourage the development of ability, creativity or instruction of teaching and learning Islamic studies by school quality assurance despite the suggested instruction of the use of guided activity instruction of teaching and learning by doing according to Nigeria Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC, 2007) and as such, what writer observed in the past teaching of Islamic studies at the junior secondary school level was based on Conventional method of teaching which is mainly talk and chalk, and note taking. This could be the cause of the poor performance in both teacher made and standard examination.

Usman and Shuiab (2001) pointed out that 75% of Islamic studies teachers use Conventional method and copying of notes by students. This; according to them does not allow active student‟s participation in Islamic studies lessons rather; memorization of fact and concepts without the basic understanding of what it is. Rillero (1994) said “A child best learns to swim by getting into water likewise a child best learns by doing or participation, “people only learn what they experience” (Dada, 2015) Another name of Activity based and brainstorming instructions is experience based instruction (Yusuf, 2012).

Islamic Religious Studies (I.R.S); is one of the subjects taught at Junior Secondary Schools across the country. It is aimed at inculcating moral and spiritual virtues into the minds of the learners in order to grow up and abide by provision and teaching of their religion with the fear of God. According to Fafunwa (2004), religious training and moral institutions should educate and be regarded as fundamental to the development of sound education and should be accorded complete equality with secular subjects. Based on the aforementioned significance of religious studies to the development of sound education; the choice of effective teaching instructions that will assist in the transmission of religious values and virtues is necessary and vital. As most of its teaching are accustomed to using conventional method (class teaching) that focus on contents transmission with little or no chance for learners participation.Dauda (2014), stated that globally, conventional method of teaching is considered obsolete; a big burden with little impact on the learning development of the children.

Different instructional methods develop different skills in the learners, a variety of teaching methods make the teachers job more stimulating and enjoyable. The modern day educational instruction emphasizes strongly on those teaching methods that will ignorant and a mere recipient of knowledge. It is believed that involving child–learner in the teaching and learning via activity-based and brainstorming instruction will make teaching and learning more interesting, make the classroom environment lively, arouse the interest of the learners and sustained their interest and attention throughout the teaching and learning period.

There might be other causes for poor performance such as unqualified teachers, an auxiliary one, over population of students in the classes, inadequate of instructional materials and so on. This study intends to investigate the assessment of effect of Activity based and brainstorming instructions over Conventional method of teaching in students‟ performance in Islamic studies at JSS level. Activity-based instruction which is student-centered in nature, invites students to participate actively in his/her own learning experiences (discussion, debate, role-play, manipulation of materials and so on).Brainstorming is a group creativity forum for general ideas, it involves oral and pre-writing exercises for helping the learner for expressing ideas by the teacher. Islamic Studies is a process of self-discipline, which ensures spiritual and intellectual growth of the individual. Performance is generally referred to how well a student is accomplishing the tasks and studies, active classrooms are basic requirements for construction education. In activity based and brainstorming instructions of teaching all students/pupils regardless of ages must be active, either mentally, physically or both during the entire lesson. During activity based and brainstorming teaching, classroom environment is active because it is based on activities planned with the child‟s/learner‟s interest in mind. Teachers respect children by upholding students‟ right to their feeling, ideas and opinion and guide them where necessary. In activity based and brainstorming classroom students are in a position of active not just receivers. Activity based and brainstorming instruction help learners to construct mental models that allow for higher order performance (Churchill, 2003).

Conventional method of teaching which is teacher – centered dominated most of schools, which causes neglect in students‟ participation on teaching and learning, poor performance, exam malpractice, un-connection between past ideas and present one; the source of these problems are instructions of teaching, these have motivated or necessitated the writer to study in this area. It is against this background that the study seeks to establish if activity–based and brainstorming instructions are appropriate to enhance students‟ performance in Islamic Studies in JSS in Kaduna State.

1.2       Statement of the Problem
The teaching and learning of Islamic studies face a lot of problems most of the teachers use conventional teaching instruction which comprises of memorization and note taking. Yangin and Dinder (2007) have an idea that if the teacher has less resources then he/she has to choose the Conventional way of teaching that is lecture instruction. Fafunwa (2004) confirmed that the negative attitude of students towards Islamic studies is partly due to poor instruction of teaching. If poor teachings and learning occurred, result should be negative in nature. Islamic studies teachers are brought and trained under Conventional method (class teaching) which is the most abused and least effective instruction in many respects and circumstances. The students are in this respects passive participants who do not contribute in the lecture going on.

Over the last three decades, the framework for understanding that the basis of teaching and learning shifted from teacher centered to student-centered teaching and learning where the responsibility is rested on learners for their own learning but most teachers prefer to use conventional method and this might have caused the failure in performance, examination malpractice, teachers cannot transfer their knowledge to the students. Hull (1999) noted rightly that, “the majority of students in schools are unable to make connection between what they are learning and how the knowledge will be used”, simply because students do not contextualize teaching and learning process.

Conventional method of teaching has often been criticized for ignored or inadequate consideration to the needs, interest and experiences of the student there by limiting performance of students. One of the leading causes of students‟ poor performance in Nigeria as reported by various studies conducted by researchers such as Tanko (2014) and Dauda (2014) has to do with instruction used by teachers. Which are inadequate to bring about desired level of performance in classroom participation in both male and female students. Researcher is of the view that there is need to use innovative teaching instruction to see if there will be improvement in students‟ performance in Islamic studies. The above statement prompted the researcher to carry out this study titled “ Assessments Effect of Activity-Based and Brainstorming on the Performance of Islamic studies Students in Junior Secondary School in Kaduna State, Nigeria”.

1.3       Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study was to assess the effect of Activity-Based and Brainstorming instructions on students‟ performance in Islamic studies in JSS in Kaduna state, Nigeria. The specific objectives of the research are as follows;

1.      determine the effect of activity-based instruction on students‟ performance in Islamic studies as compared to the Conventional method in junior secondary schools in Kaduna state;

2.      examine the effect of brainstorming instruction on students‟ performance in Islamic studies as compared to the Conventional method in junior secondary schools in Kaduna state;

3.      determine the effect of activity-based and brainstorming instructions on students‟ performance in Islamic studies as compared to the Conventional method in junior secondary schools in Kaduna state;

4.      investigate the effect of activity-based and brainstorming instructions on male and female students‟ performance in Islamic studies as compared to the Conventional method in junior secondary schools in Kaduna state; and

5.      ascertain the effect of activity-based and brainstorming instructions on rural and urban students‟ performance in Islamic studies as compared to the Conventional method in junior secondary schools in Kaduna state.

1.4       Research Questions
The research was guided by the following questions:

1.      What is the effect of activity-based instruction on students‟ performance in Islamic studies as compared to the Conventional method in junior secondary schools in Kaduna state?

2.      What is the effect of brainstorming instruction on students‟ performance in Islamic studies as compared to the Conventional method in junior secondary schools in Kaduna state?

3.      What effects does activity-based and brainstorming instructions have on students‟ performance in Islamic studies as compared toConventional method in junior secondary schools in Kaduna state?

4.      What are the effects of activity-based and brainstorming instructions on male and female students‟ performance in Islamic studies as compared to the Conventional method in junior secondary schools in Kaduna state?

5.      What are the effects of activity-based and brainstorming instructions on rural and urban students‟ performance in Islamic studies as compared to the Conventional method in junior secondary schools in Kaduna state?

1.5       Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were formulated for the course of the study:

H01: There is no significant difference in the effect of activity-based instruction on students‟ performance in Islamic studies when compared with Conventional method in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State.

H02: There is no significant difference in the effect of brainstorming instruction on students‟ performance in Islamic studies when compared with Conventional method in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State.

H03: There is no significant difference in the effects of activity-based and brainstorming instructions on students‟ performance in Islamic studies when compared with Conventional method in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State.

H04: There is no significant difference in the effects of activity-based and brainstorming instructions on male and female students‟ performance in Islamic studies when compared with Conventional method in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State.

H05: There is no significant difference in the effects of activity-based and brainstorming instructions on rural and urban students‟ performance in Islamic studies when compared with Conventional method in Junior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State.

1.6       Basic Assumptions
The study is based on the following assumptions:

1.      The activity based and brainstorming instructions could enhance and motivate students‟ performance in Islamic studies in JSS inKaduna state

2.      Both activity-based, brainstorming instructions and Conventional method of teaching are appropriate for teaching the topics listed in the scheme of work in JSS in Kaduna state.

3.      The selected topics are appropriate for the level of students in the schools selected for the study in JSS in Kaduna state.

4.      The schools used for the study are representatives of junior secondary school in Kaduna state

1.7       Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will help in the following ways:

The findings from the study are expected to provide bases for curriculum planners and developers to recommend activity based and brainstorming instructions among other instructions in schools to improve teaching and learning Islamic studies situation currently existing (Conventional method) in junior secondary schools.

Furthermore the findings will be of great significant to the students when consider the desired of qualitative and quantitative solid foundation of education in the sense that the findings of this study will increase students‟ motivation in teaching and learning and bring about personal satisfaction and facilitate students‟ active in classrooms to generate ideas, facts from the lesson.

The work will serve as a wake-up call to teacher training institution nationwide, like Colleges of Education, National Teachers Institutes, faculties of education and so on. Findings will encourage curriculum trainers to develop workshops, seminars, monitoring programmed and need to put more emphasis on activity-based and brainstorming instructions during training programmed, in order to improve students‟ academic performance.

The findings of this study will be great importance to the teachers who are the key to the teaching and learning as well as students‟ performance by provided empirical information and application procedures of activity-based and brainstorming used by teachers that are relevant to the teaching and learning Islamic studies in junior secondary schools.

Furthermore, it is hoped that the result from this research would be of great benefits to further researchers, who may embark on similar or related area of study. The result will enable them to know the extent of the study that have been carried out in this field and also this serves as sources of materials and reference to them.

Finally the findings will be great significant to the ministry of education as well as ministry of science and technology, as they are principal determinants of secondary school education in Nigeria. The findings of the study will enable them to understand the situation and position of activity-based and brainstorming toward students‟ performance as it will offer students chance to be active in teaching and learning according to individual students‟ need and enable the ministry to get feedback on student‟s performance and store it for further reference.

1.8 Scope of the Study
This study investigated Assessment the effect of activity-based and brainstorming Instructions on students‟ performance in Islamic Studies, the studywas carried out in JSS in Kaduna State. Specifically, the study was limited to Zaria Education zone. The six public junior secondary schools (JJSIII) of Zaria and Soba local governments were used for the sampled in the study. The reason for selecting Zaria education zone is due to fact that Zaria zone is one of the zones with the highest student‟s population offering Islamic Studies in Kaduna state; which consists of four experimental groups, and two control groups. The experimental groups were taught using brainstorming and activity-based while control groupswere exposed to Conventional  Method.  Other  variables   studied  include  Islamic   Studies,   Performance,   and resources for Islamic studies curriculum implementation among the others.

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Item Type: Postgraduate Material  |  Attribute: 115 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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