There is high demand for electrical energy because electrical energy is very important in both industrial and domestic activities and that has call for the introduction of different energy meters by various electricity companies. In Ghana families living in large and compound houses wish to have separate energy meters from other occupants. This is because individual’s cannot monitor and control the energy consumption of each individual and that brings misunderstanding in energy bill sharing which also brings about a household having about ten energy meters causing overcrowding of energy meters on the wall of a building which makes the wall loses its beauty and there is likelihood of fire outbreak in the house because the wires are not well arranged. Moreover, energy companies need huge sum of money and labour to produce more energy meters and this can cause financial loss to the energy companies. This has therefore call for the introduction of smart distribution switch which will enhance the monitoring and adequate sharing of energy purchased by the household base on the amount paid by each of the users of the meter. The amount paid will be entered into the system that will be stored on EPROM of a microcontroller that will reduce each consumer’s energy base on the rate of consumption. The smart distribution switch may have different switches allocated to each user which monitor the consumption rate of each user. It will then isolate the user connected to a line out when he /she completely consumes his share.

1.1       Introduction
Electrical Power is one of the most important demands of our daily life. Without it most of our activities will not be successful. Therefore it should be managed very well to enhance the judicious usage of it. Our homes and residential areas use power for a whole lot of activities. Because most of the Ghanaian communities live in large family houses, there is the need for each family or individual to have a separate energy meter that will measure and monitor the usage of power. Because each individual cannot monitor the consumption of other family, there is the need for each person or family to have separate meters, which in turn bring about a single house or home using multiples of energy meters. The energy companies need to provide these individuals with meters that constitute a huge sum of money and labour in their production.

This and other factors that will be elaborated on later have call for the introduction of Smart Electrical Distribution Switch (SEDS) that will call for only one meter but may have multiple phases of connection to the occupants of a house. The amount paid will be entered into the system that will be stored on EPROM of a microcontroller that will reduce each user’s energy base on consumption rate. The smart distribution switch may have different switches allocated to each user.

It will then isolate the user connected to a line out when he/she completely consumes his share. Smart distribution switches are devices acting as an interface between the utility-controlled smart meters and the home area network. These devices control and take care of the data exchange between smart meters, utility or service providers and energy-consumption in-house objects. They also manage the information for several homes, a multi utility controller, also known as gateway of energy, manage and control the exchange of data for a particular home. The smart distribution switch is operating as a Data concentrated unit (DCU) that manages the data input from the occupant in the house. Each network connected to an apartment will be managed and monitored by the DCU through a console based application written on the microcontroller. It coordinates the activities between the users and the meter.

1.2 Background to study
The technological advancement of this era of human life has made way for any automationto be implemented in our everyday life. With the help of information technology and electronic theories, a lot has been achieved in the electrical engineering field to supplement human activities. A lot of situations have arisen since the introduction of electrical energy generation and distribution towards its purchase and usage. The utility company is always concerned with efficiency, reliability and security. The primary difficulty to efficient power management are losses but can sometimes be minimized in a way. Losses are supposed to be any used energy that goes unbilled or unmetered. In the electrical field, non-technical losses are introduced by pilferage and theft.

Non-technical losses are energy pilferages and stealing of power, meters that are defective which create or generate wrong figures or errors in meter readings, wrongful estimation of meter readings, un-metered or consumers who don’t use energy meters but they are rated (flat rate), customers who adjust or tamper with their meters, free power usage (for legally connected consumers), illegal connections, etc. These Non-technical losses (NTL) account for over 70% of the total losses representing several hundreds of kilo Volts Amperes. Critical consideration of all the non-technical losses sum up to metering losses. The reason is that suppliers of power cannot effectively monitor what is happening at the consumer end and therefore take the most efficient and necessary action. As a result of this, the electricity company of Ghana (ECG) has come out with a number of technologies in energy meter to address this problem. These included: electromechanical induction meters or standard meters, prepayment card electric meters, solid state electric meters or electronic meters and presently, pole prepaid card meters. This piece of work concentrates on the ability to monitor and control consumer end users. Electricity distribution is a sector of electricity where technological evolution is gradual at least in the network assets. However, there is a rapid advancement in telecommunication area in the last few years. The present goal is towards remote metering reading, and electricity or energy consumption monitoring consumption which is also known as advanced metering infrastructure. Drastic reduction in prices of metering and telecommunication equipment makes their usage and adoption feasible economically.

ECG is switching from postpaid (that is Electromechanical energy meter) to prepaid. Because the postpaid energy meter is not totally eliminated, the Smart Electrical Distribution Switch measures individual’s consumption and the energy in Kwh is shown on the screen. The energy or power consumed is calculated according to ratios.

With the prepaid the total power bought is calculated according to the individual’s contributions in ratios, and this will also be shown on the screen.

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Item Type: Ghanaian Postgraduate Material  |  Attribute: 73 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: GH50  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.


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