STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVING REVENUE GENERATION FOR DEVELOPMENT IN NKANU EAST LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ENUGU STATE

ABSTRACT
 The primary objective of this study is to ascertain the strategies of increasing and improving revenue generation for development in the Nkanu East local government area of Enugu state. The theories upon which the study is anchored are the Structural Functionalism Theory, the Efficiency Theory and the Functional Theory. The population of this study comprised of the staff of Nkanu East local government, which is a total of one hundred and nine (109) persons. A sample size of eighty six (86) was drawn using the Taro-Yamane (1967) statistical formula. Data for the study was collected using self-administered questionnaires. The method of data analysis utilized in the study was the frequency tables and percentages. Findings from the analysis revealed that the strategies adopted in generating revenue in Nkanu East are not sufficient; the primary challenges facing the efficiency of revenue generation for development in Nkanu East Local Government Area of Enugu state include corrupt practices among revenue collectors, and lack of education and enlightenment by the local government to the citizens on the need for them to pay their annual rates and fees to the local government; and the level of revenue generation has made no significant impact on the development of Nkanu East Local Government Area of Enugu state. It is therefore the recommendations of this study that modern strategies should be adopted to enhance the internal revenue generation in the local government; that adequate measures should be adopted to curb the tide of financial corruption among revenue collectors in the local government; and, that the revenue generated should be made to impact positively on the development stride of the local government area, among others.

 CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background of the Study
Local government is recognized by the 1999 constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria as the third tier of government within the tripartite federal structure of governance in Nigeria, with the state and federal government as the super ordinate government. The government in Nigeria which exists at tripartite arrangement (federal, state and local government) plays complimentary roles to each other to meet the needs of the people which include infrastructural facilities (Okpata 2004).
Furthermore, local government is seen as a public sector organization, the third tier government with assigned functions and responsibilities, administrative structure and financial management both for maintaining itself and rendering it’s statutory assigned functions to it’s citizens (Uguru 2011). Local government authorities as a third tier of government in Nigeria are very important in the execution of both central and component government policies and programmes. It is the nearest government that deals with the problems of the masses of the country, especially the grassroots.
One area which has remained neglected over time by the local governments in Nigeria is revenue generation. The usual practice in this country (Nigeria) is that political parties and individual candidates often make promises to the electorate during electioneering campaigns without being explicit on how they intend to finance such programmes. In line with this practice, candidates seeking political offices often promise vote-catching programmes with scarcely any attention to the question of funding (Fajobi, 2010). The result is that ordinary citizens may witness very little government activities and the impact of the government will be felt in almost all sphere. This may lead to disappointment. It is quite obvious that very little thought, if any, is given to how funds were to be generated to implement the various programmes promised to the electorates.
Local governments across the country are particularly guilty in this respect. Chairmen complain of their inability to meet their wage bills with the current level of the local government finances. Chief executive often tries without success to slash the wages of their workers while others may resort to staff retrenchment in order to save money to implement programmes.
Fajobi (2010) argued that the acute dearth of fund currently facing the local government could be squarely attributed to lack of creativity on the part of the local government in seeking alternative sources to complement the allocation from the Federation Account. Most local governments are suffering from hang-over of overdependence on the centre for assistance, a norm during the military governance. They are yet to break away from the practice of relying almost entirely on extension from the Federal Government. The federal government, in turn also depends entirely on revenue from oil and its apportionment of the lion’s share of the Federation Account to itself. Local government will continue to be one of the prime institutional movers of development in Nigeria and their importance and impact on the daily life of citizens cannot be over-emphasized. People are intimately affected by the activities of local government on a day to-day basis and Nigeria, in particular, local governments, have historically provided services of importance to citizens, literally from cradle to grave. The standard of living of Nigerians either in rural or urban areas are inevitably affected by local government activities through the provision or non provision of basic services such as water supply, roads, health and educational services etc. Local governments also remain the focal point of promotion of development and cultural revival through community development projects and mobilization of human and material resources for developments. It is on the basis on the foregoing that this study will be focused on the strategies of increasing and improving revenue generation for development in the Nkanu East local government area of Enugu state.

1.2 Statement of the Problem
Obviously, the internally generated revenue in Nigeria Local Government is far below expectation. It has become imperative to diversify areas of revenue generation especially with the dwindling federation allocation which has been the major sources of revenue to the local government. Since inadequate revenue remains one of the devastating challenges hindering effective local government administration in the country, it then necessitated the general outcry by the administrators (chairmen) of local government for a change in Revenue Allocation Formula or strategies for improving revenue generation in the development of their respective local government areas.
Again, the problem of seeing local governments as a mere appendage to the state and federal government financially has beclouded the patriotic and entrepreneurship psyches of local government administrators, hence most local government tilted financially to the federal government for monthly statutory allocation from the federation account. This problem of economic and financial overdependence of the local government in Nigeria is devastating, uncalled for and against the motives for the creation of local government as the third tier. Furthermore, the inability of the local administrators to use in-sourcing techniques for funds to finance the council through internally generated revenue is a thorn in the flesh of meeting up their constitutional responsibilities such as the provision and maintenance of social services (education and health care) payment of the worker’s salary and so have given rise to whether to scrap or restructure local government systems in Nigeria. It is in line with the above problematic scenario that this research is motivated to carry out an empirical analysis of the strategies for improving revenue generation for development in Nkanu East Local Government Area of Enugu State.

1.3 Objectives of the Study
The broad objective of this study is to ascertain strategies for improving revenue generation for development in Nkanu East Local Government Area of Enugu state. Hence; the following specific objectives will be actualized:
i.       To identify strategies for improving revenue generation for development in  Nkanu East L.G.A of Enugu East.
ii.     To ascertain the various challenges surrounding the efficiency of revenue generation for development in Nkanu East Local Government Area of Enugu state.
iii.  To evaluate the impact of the level of revenue generation on the development of Nkanu East Local Government Area of Enugu state.

1.4 Research Questions
In line with the objectives of the study, the following research questions will pilot the study:
1.     What strategies can be identified for improving revenue generation for development in Nkanu East L.G.A of Enugu East?
2.     What are the existing challenges surrounding the efficiency of revenue generation for development in Nkanu East Local Government Area of Enugu state?
3.     What impact does the level of revenue generation in the Local government have on the development of Nkanu East Local Government Area of Enugu state?

1.5 Significance of the Study
The primary importance of this study is that it will empirically identify the pragmatic strategies for improving revenue generation for development in Nkanu East L.G.A of Enugu East. This will in essence be of great significance to local government administrators, students of public administration and other related departments, other researchers, the state and federal government as strategy can be replicated.

1.6 Scope of the Study
The focus of this study is to ascertain strategies for improving revenue generation for development in Nkanu East Local Government Area of Enugu state.

1.7 Limitations of the Study
This research admits its short-comings or limitations. It is a mark of intellectual honesty to admit that limitations did exist in a research undertaking and to give an account of the way they have been manifested and taken care of. This will enable future investigators to have an idea of what militating factors to look out for and possibly to take care of them. The basic limitations of the study are: financial inadequacies, time factor, the uncooperative attitude of some respondents and scanty resource materials on the subject under investigation.
Finance: Limitation of financial resources, coupled with other pressing personal demands militated against the researcher's efforts to cover a wider geographical area. The researcher had to spend so much to download materials from the internet. This was however ameliorated through parental assistance and the adoption of cost saving techniques during the course of the study.

Time Factor: Time lag was also a major constraint because the research was carried out within a given time-frame. This work was carried out in an environment where the researcher had to battle with lectures, assignments, class work and sourcing for materials for the study. However, the researcher made tremendous efforts to cover adequate issues in order to give value to the findings of the study.
Uncooperative Attitude of Some Respondents: In the course of carrying out this study, some respondents were reluctant to accept and fill their questionnaire. However, the researcher discovered that their main purpose for being reluctant was because of fear of private information disclosure. The researcher however convinced them that every information will be treated with the highest level of privacy.
Scanty Resources Materials: One of the major hindrances of the study was scanty materials on the strategies of increasing and improving revenue generation for development. Very few journals, government and newspapers publications exist. Hence, the researcher resorted to the available publications and content analysis in order to beef up the content of the work.

1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
Local Government: This is defined as Government at the local level exercised through representative council established by law to exercise specific powers within defined areas.
Revenue: In the context of this study, revenue is defined as the fund required by the government to finance its activities.

Strategy: In this study, this is defined as a systematic proposed way to achieve a particular aim or objective.

Development: This is defined as the multidimensional expansion in the economic, political and behavioral attitudes of a particular community, state or country.

Internally Generated Revenue: This refers to the revenue or money collected by the local government from its internal sources (within the Local Government Area). The internal sources of revenue comprise many major and miscellaneous items aggregated to provide the required fund for financing the enormous functions ascribed to local government as third tier of government.

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Item Type: Project Material  |  Attribute: 65 pages  |  Chapters: 1-5
Format: MS Word  |  Price: N3,000  |  Delivery: Within 30Mins.
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